Effectiveness of air quality measures in Stockholm

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1 Effectiveness of air quality measures in Stockholm Christer Johansson Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry Stockholm university & Environment and Health Administration Stockholm

2 Climate combat District heating Clean cars Congestion tax Public transport Clean water Waste treatment Recycling Clean air Green areas Noise reduction

3 Sweden first to be condemned by European Commision court due to exceedances of PM10 together with Slovenia in 2010

4 Very high daily mean PM10 on Hornsgatan (the 36th highest mean should not exceed 50 ug/m3)

5 Source contributions PM10 non-exhaust road traffic Ultrafine PM, NOx, BC diesel vehicle exhaust + some residential wood burning LDV exhaust All road traff. Power plants HDV exhaust Sea traffic Residential

6 AQ measures evaluated in Stockholm Low emission zone (diesel exhaust) Extended low emission zone (to be evaluated) Congestion tax (exhaust+non-exhaust) Extended and raised congestion tax Non-exhaust (PM10) measures Dust binding Studded tyre ban Vehicle speed regulations Alternative pavements

7 Low emission zones in Sweden since 1996 Environmental ZONES = Dense residential areas with many pedestrians, cyclists, & sensitive green areas MOTIVATION -Reduce emissions -Improve air quality (NO 2 ) -Reduce noise -Encourage use of cleaner vehicles County of Stockholm Environmental zone ~10 km 1.5 million inhabitants

8 Swedish rules (HDV+buses) Mix of age and Euro-standard First year of registration According to general rule Euro III (MK2000) Euro IV (MK2005) Euro V+EEV (MK2008) Euro VI or cleaner All fuels No sticker required Retrofitting possible Manual control Penalty 100 Euro

9 Impact on PM exhaust emissions for year % No zone 2000 Zone 2000 Full zone 2000

10 Reductions in concentrations of NO2 & PM-exhaust NO 2 PM-exhaust up to 1.5% up to 9% PM-exhaust only a small fraction of total PM10

11 With compared to without zone 2008 Younger truck fleet compared to vehicles registered in Stockholm County Calculated emissions reductions: NOx 3-4 % HC % PM-exhaust % Large uncertainties regarding emission estimates Real-world emissions much higher than HBEFA CRT s & SCR s not working properly in urban areas

12 Stricter future LEZ alternatives to be assessed In addition to current HDV restrictions: 1. LDV at least Euro 5 2. LDV at least Euro 6 3. LDV at least Euro 6c (Real Driving Emissions) 4. Zero emission zone in city center 5. Zero emission zone in city center + ban on studded tyres

13 Congestion tax in Stockholm regarded as a success story - Trial Referendum Permanent from Increased and extended tax from % 2006: Total: Pass. cars LCV Trucks Buses -15% -17% - 15% -8% +18% Queueing time was reduced by one third in the morning and by half during afternoons (trial)

14 Current tax: Automatic number plate recognition 1 to 3.5 Euro for every passage Max 11 Euro per day Also foreign vehicles pay >30 stations with APNR

15 more inhabitants but no increase in traffic

16 Nitrogen oxides & exhaust particles 2006 Year 2006 µg/m 3 Increased levels Decreased levels Urban background (roof level, city centre) ~6% decrease ~ 1-2% increase Street level (city centre) ~5-10% decrease Higher levels at Essingeleden bypass and the tunnel exits of Southern Link, ~1-2%

17 Health benefits of congestion tax in Stockholm using NOx as indicator Nafstad et al. 8 % increase in mortality per 10 µg/m3 NOx

18 Health benefits using NOx as indicator Reduction in population weighted exposure with congestion tax µg/m 3 25 to 30 fewer premature deaths per year (1.44 million people) 206 years of life per 10 years per inhab Effects on mortality tip of the iceberg (less illnesses, allergies, acute effekts etc.)

19 No tax Tax City stations: NOx -5-13% CO % PM % Exempted bypass: NOx +7% PM10 +-0% NOx CO PM10 Mean conc, weekdays 06-19, year

20 Effects of increased and extended tax Very small effects % of population: NOx Reduced 32.5% Unchanged 67% (<0.1 ug/m3) Increased 0.5% PM10 Reduced 9% Unchanged 91% Increased <0.1%

21 Thousand passages per day Personbilar i trafik Conclusions - Congestion tax Trial Reduced traffic Permanent jan-05 jul-05 jan-06 jul-06 jan-07 jul-07 jan-08 jul Etanol Fordonsgas El & elhybrid Bränslesnål diesel* Bränslesnål bensin* Reduced emissions År 1% 3% 6% 9% Improved air quality Improved health

22 Efficiency of measures to reduce Non-exhaust PM10 emissions Tyres (studded, non-studded) Dust binding Vehicle speed Street cleaning Traction sanding and salting Pavements (Traffic measures)

23 The NORTRIP model NOn-exhaust Road TRaffic Induced Particle emissions SMHI Aarhus University Department of Environmental Science Funded by Nordic Council of Ministers

24 Modelled compared to observed PM10 Hornsgatan Studded tyre ban introduced 2010 Norman et al Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction. Atmospheric Environment, 134,

25 PM10 depends strongly on road surface wetness! PM10 Hornsgatan 2009, Monthly average High PM10-levels only when streets are dry Dry streets Wet streets PM10 µg/m jan f eb mar apr maj jun jul aug sep okt nov dec

26 Dust loading Concentration PM 10 concentrations: uncoupled model without retention Modelled Observed R 2 = 0.04 Does not account for the cold wet period OK when dry and little suspension Underestimates spring concentrations No accumulation of dust

27 Dust loading Concentration PM 10 concentrations: observed moisture used for retention Modelled Observed R 2 = 0.83 Correlation with PM 10 indicates the quality of the surface condition calculations

28 Dust binding

29 Dust binding in central Stockholm performed nov- april every year 42 kilometers Calcium magnesium Acetate solution (CMA) Total cost of measure: ca 1.5 million Euro per year

30 Tests of dustbinding of a highway Vallsta 200 Example from highways test with CMA PM10 µg/m CMA treated Untreated :00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 Reduced PM10-concentrations during 24 h with ~35 % along a highway Reduced PM10-concentrations during 24 hours with 5-20 % i the city Reduction in PM10 during a few hours up to % Not enough to reach the Limit values in the City Causes friction loss Expensive

31 Conclusions Efficiency of the low emission zone have decreased since it was introduced Stricter regulations needed to improve efficiency in the future Real-world emissions need to be measured The congestion tax system Trial changed opinion from negative to positive Still ca 20% to 25% less traffic in city center Important reductions in air pollution related heath effects The ANPR efficient for enforcement control Dust binding most efficient for reducing road dust suspension In the long term share of studded tyres need to reduced

32 Thank you for listening

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