Design of Offshore Wind Farms Prepared by Flemming Jakobsen & Andrass Ziska Davidsen LICENGINEERING A/S

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1 Design of Offshore Wind Farms Prepared by Flemming Jakobsen & Andrass Ziska Davidsen

2 Types of Foundations Overview of selected support structure and foundation types. From top left: 1. Monopile; 2. Tripod; 3. Jacket; 4. gravity based; and 5. SPAR platform Bucket:

3 Existing WTG Foundations Type Nos Water depth Concrete gravity ~ 247 Up to 27 m Steel monopiles ~ 900 Up to 30 m Steel tripods ~ 12 Up to 30 m Steel jackets ~ 30 Up to 45 m

4 Existing Monopile Foundations Project Year No Water Depth Maritime Condition Turbine (MW) Horns Rev m Offshore 2,0 North Hoyle m Offshore 2,0 Scroby Sands m Offshore 2,0 Kentish Flats m Offshore 3,0 Barrow m Offshore 3,0 Egmond m Offshore 3,0 Burbo Bank m Offshore 3,6 LID m Offshore 3,6 Princess Amalia (Q7) m Offshore 2,0 Rhyl Flats m Offshore 3,6 Robin Rigg m Offshore 3,0 Gunfleet Sands m Offshore 3,6 Baltic m Inland waters 2,3 Thanet m Offshore 3,0 Greater Gabbard m Offshore 3,6

5 Existing Gravity Based Farms Project Year No Water Depth Maritime Turbine Size Vindeby m Inland waters 0,45 Middelgrunden m Inland waters 2,0 Rødsand m Inland waters 2,3 Lillgrund m Inland waters 2,3 Thornton m Offshore waters 5,0 Rødsand m Inland waters 2,3 Middelgrunden ~1800 tons Thornton Bank ~3000 tons

6 Parameters to Consider Topic Site specific: WTG and tower: Design Fabrication of support structure and foundation Installation Maintenance Decommissioning Parameter Water depth Wind Tides, Waves and Current Ice conditions Soil conditions (soft mud, sand, boulders, rock a.m.) Sand waves and bed changes Frequency band Other requirements by WTG supplier Mass and inertia of WTG, RNA and tower Complexity of design Cables Proven technology Reliability of concept Numbers of welds Complexity of joints Mass of primary steel Transportation inland Transportation offshore (distance to land) Lifting Foundation Connections Cable installation Scour protection Corrosion protection Access Disconnecting Foundation removal Environmental impact of remains

7 Water Depth Evaluation results from the Project Upwind. The higher the qualitative score the more suited the solution is.

8 Northwind Offshore Wind Farm

9 General arrangement Interface at flange in +19 m LAT.

10 General arrangement Mass 1200 mt

11 Codes / Design Basis and Design Briefs / Certifier The design basis for the project consists of Parts A, B and C: The Design Basis Part A includes: Part A.1: General design requirements Part A.2: Hydrodynamic and morphological design basis Part A.3: Geophysical and geotechnical factual data reports Part A.4: Site specific wind data The Design Basis Part B consists of: Part B: Northwind OWF The Design Basis Part C consists of: Part C: Integrated data for detailed design INTERFACE REPORTS: to WTG SUPPLIER The Design Briefs are: 3-1 Design Brief - Geotechnical Data Interpretation 3-2 Design Brief - Extreme Operational Event 3-3 Design Brief - Fatigue Analysis 3-4 Design Brief - Natural Frequency 3-5 Design Brief - Grouted Connection 3-6 Design Brief - Ship Impact 3-7 Design Brief - Transportation 3-8 Design Brief - Installation 3-9 Design Brief - Dismantling 3-10 Design Brief - Design Primary Structures 3-11 Design Brief - Design Secondary Structures 3-12 Design Brief - Design Provisional Structures 3-13 Design Brief - Design Elastomeric Bearings 3-14 Design Brief - Corrosion and Cathodic Protection 3-15 Design Brief - Scour Protection 3-16 Design Brief - Fabrication 3-17 Design Brief - Operation & Maintenance 3-18 Design Brief - Quality Control (Fabrication and installation) 3-19 Design Brief - Hydrodynamic Coefficients 3-20 Design Brief - Driveability and Driving-Induced Fatigue Analysis 3-21 Design Brief - Damping Ratio

12 Wind (Interface)

13 Load Table!!! 3 pages with more table! In total 4014 load cases!

14 Northwind Offshore Wind Farm

15 Northwind Offshore Wind Farm

16 Northwind Offshore Wind Farm

17 Northwind Offshore Wind Farm

18 Northwind Offshore Wind Farm

19 Grout (elastomeric bearing)

20

21

22 Toe-Kick SLS ULS Total movement

23 Damping ratio big savings!

24 Cables Internal: Corrosion Vibration

25 Cables real life Internal: Vibration

26 A Ladder big science! December 2007: Offsho Sail away and store

27 Ship impact

28 Ladder real life!

29 Slamming LINK: Wave

30 Limits for Monopile Foundation The present limits for the monopiles are: 1. Wall thickness of 100 mm. It is difficult to weld the cans together for a wall thickness above 100 mm; 2. Diameter of 6000 mm. No hammer and anvil exist that can drive a monopile with a diameter of more than 6000 mm; 3. Weight of about 900 mt. It is not possible to handle monopiles weighing more than 900 mt with today s cranes; and 4. Length of about 100 m. Boulders may cause that some piles cannot be driven. Local buckling also put some limits on the combination of diameter and wall thickness. These limits are reached in about 35 m water depth with an about 4 MW turbine at this stage the monopile diameter is about 6000 mm and the wall thickness about 100 mm at the mudline and the total weight of the monopile up to about 900 mt. As the turbine is increased (and requested stiffness of support structure made more demanding) the limits will be reached at an even shallower water depth.

31 The near and not so near FUTURE

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