Erosion and Storm Water Management Unit Mail Stop John Ireland Blvd. St. Paul, MN 55155

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1 Minnesota Department of Transportation Office of Environmental Stewardship Erosion and Storm Water Management Unit Mail Stop John Ireland Blvd. St. Paul, MN Memo Office Tel: Fax: TO: District 7 FROM: Brett Troyer, P.E. Erosion Control Engineer DATE: April 14, 2014 SUBJECT: Turf Establishment Recommendations for District 7 Please distribute this memorandum to personnel designing projects in your district including consultants This letter is the turf establishment recommendations for projects in DISTRICT 7 and will remain in effect until superseded at which time a new letter with necessary modifications will be distributed. Erosion and Sediment control technical support for D7 should be directed to Brett Troyer ( ). Appropriate seed type and erosion control depend on the topography, soil type, climate and surrounding environment. As you compare these conditions across the state of Minnesota as well as between various types of construction projects within a district, the conditions vary. Therefore, this general seed and mulch recommendation is specific for DISTRICT 7 and the various types of construction. It is important to specify to the best of your ability the appropriate seed, fertilizer, mulch, blanket and other stabilization materials, as it is key to controlling erosion. Specifying the proper material will also result in cost savings during construction. Below is a general guide for design purposes. Extraordinary conditions such as long and steep slopes, ditch grades steeper than 4.5%, reinforced soil slopes, engineered soil slopes, and other difficult to stabilize areas may need a special seed mixture. Special seed mixtures will be formulated when requested. Topsoil It is important to retain all available topsoil on the project to the maximum extent practicable. It is ideal to place 6 inches of topsoil in areas to be seeded; however, this will have to be adjusted to the amount of available topsoil. If there is a shortage of available topsoil, plastic subsoils or organic and muck soils (up to 20% organic matter) can be mixed with granular subsoils at a ratio of 1 part plastic, organic or muck to 2 parts granular subsoils to create a topsoil-like material. Soil tests are always recommended to determine the appropriate fertilizer analysis and application rate. Soil samples for fertility should be collected according to the Geotechnical and Pavement Manual. For Mn/DOT laboratory purposes, the specification to reference the fertility test is B (Loam Topsoil Borrow). Specify the Type of fertilizer with a the N:P:K ratio in the Plan. If soil tests are not obtained, follow the general fertilizer provided in Attachment Topsoil borrow These are soils that are modifications, blends or processes that are required to solve specific slope, bioretention, biodetention and ditch stability problems. These may be specified for slopes with ROW limitations, special ditch grades, landscape function, and storm water processing. An Equal Opportunity Employer

2 a. Common Topsoil Borrow. General use topsoil when deficient to meet the minimum depth of 4 inches. b. Loam Topsoil Borrow. General landscape and planting beds if soils are deficient in rooting potential. c. Sandy Clay Loam Topsoil borrow: processed topsoil for placement on turf reinforcement mats, cellular confinements systems, and tied or untied concrete mats d. Sandy Loam Topsoil Borrow: well drained sandy loam soils for temporary staging over tree roots, and restoration of tree damaged areas e. Rooting Topsoil Borrow: general rooting soils, with excellent drainage characteristics composed of three material components of sand, compost and loam topsoil Borrow f. Boulevard Topsoil Borrow: high performance median landscape bed media that supplies proper level of compaction, water holding capacity and nutrient retention of equal parts of loam, sand, and compost g. Filter Topsoil Borrow: well drained water quality planting medium composed a sand and compost blend. This is the media that 5 percent iron would be added to remove soluble phosphorus. h. Organic Topsoil Borrow: excellent turf growing medium or supplementing existing poor topsoil, consisting of a blend of common topsoil borrow or the salvaged topsoil and compost. Soil Preparation (spec 2574) 1. Subsoiling Designate areas that are not to be used for staging, or driving (eg. infiltration treatments, wetland soil edges, certain utilities). Storage areas for equipment, stockpiles, and materials (i.e. Precast Median Barriers), temporary haul and access roads must be decompacted before final turf establishment. Areas with proposed turf establishment provide subsoiling, pay item by the acre 2. Soil Bed Preparation Provide this for all areas that will require turf establishment. Provide in the plans soil bed preparation, pay item on slopes flatter than 1:2 and Soil tracking, pay item on slopes 1:2 and steeper. 3. Lime (3879) Lime is helpful in establishing vegetation in acidic type soils. Lime recommendations are typically based on soil test ph results. If soil tests are not obtained, apply 2 tons/acre of agricultural lime on all projects. 4. Fertilizer The new specifications designate four types of fertilizers to be used. The four types are as follows; Type 1 is commercial, type 2 is phosphorus free, type 3 is slow release nitrogen, and type 4 is natural base. It is the designer s responsibility to include the analysis, and any other pertinent information, in the statement of estimated quantities or tabulation sheets, see the Fertilizer attachment. Generally the pay item will be Type 1, 2, 3, or 4 by the pound. The analysis and application rate will need to be taken care of in a note on the SEQ or in the tabulation sheet in the plans. One idea is shown below: STATEMENT OF ESTIMATED QUANTITIES TAB SHEE T NO. ITEM NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT TOTAL ESTIMATED QUANTITIES A Fertilizer type 3 (1 Poun 500 ) d A Fertilizer type 4 (2 Poun 250 ) d (1) Fertilizer analysis , application rate 350 lbs per acre for seed areas Fertilizer analysis , application rate 175 lbs/ acre for sod areas

3 (2) Fertilizer analysis , application rate 150 lbs /acre for seed areas If you have multiple analysis of the same type fertilizer it can further be broken down and shown in the tab sheets to break down the pound of each. Seeding The seed mixture will depend on location, functional outcome, climate, and soil type. See Attachment 1 for a general seed, fertilizer and mulch recommendation based on project type. Note that the seed mixes have changed in the new specifications. The new application rates are based on Pure Live Seed(PLS) and the seed mix number changes provide information about the use and content of the mix. This numbering system can be used to guide the user in choosing the right mix for a given project. The reason for this change is the migration to unified state seed mixes for all state agencies to use. This will include the yellow tag program for origin certified seed for the native upland and wetland mixes. See Current seeding manual for seed mix s for general guidance for seed mixture use and seed mix conversion tables from old MnDOT seed mixtures. 1. Temporary Seed Mixtures. All plans will have a temporary seed and mulch items. This is due to the NPDES permit changes requiring stabilization of all open surfaces. Temporary seed will be installed by the broadcast method. For rapid stabilization all seed will be installed by the hydroseed method with fertilizer and mulch by the hydromulch method. The plan must indicate areas for rapid stabilization,. Critical areas of special concern should be designated on the plan as Areas of Environmental Sensitivity(AES) and may be noted on plan sheet as Site Plan Requirement Area. 2. Permanent Seed Mixtures. Seed mixtures for the area may have native grasses and forbs custom designed for the site and context. Seed mixtures for roadways adjacent to Federal and State Forest lands may have certain prairie species, but should not be considered a prairie restoration. Steep slopes with a north aspect will need a custom mixture dominated by shade tolerant cool season grasses. All bridge abutments, engineered walls, and slope systems will use the turf mixes unless otherwise noted. All storm water pond edges and upland buffers will be seeded with native mixes.. All wetland mitigation systems will be seeded with native plant mixes, and may require a custom blend, based on regulatory issues. Regardless of the seed mix, quick vegetative cover is part of all seed mixtures that will provide adequate erosion control. 3. Seeding Method The seeding method specified depends on the soil type and existing plant materials. On occasion there may be need to indicate the seeding method for final or temporary stabilization. a. Drill seeding Specify drill interseeding for native or general seed mixtures when seeding into either an established temporary vegetative cover or areas where temporary straw mulch have been placed. b. Broadcast seeding i. Hydraulic application Specify in all plans for temporary seeding and seeding of difficult areas such as slopes steeper than 1:2, limited access, or saturated soils. ii. Hand

4 Specify for small areas, areas under maintenance restrictions, and erosion failures. This can be for either native or general seed mixtures. If hand raking of seeding is specified, indicate as incidental. Sod Sod should be used in areas where it can be maintained or necessary for instant erosion control. Areas where sod may be considered are residential lawns, in urban areas, and areas of concentrated flow where erosion is a concern. It is important to specify the correct type of sod (Lawn, Mineral, or Salt tolerant) for the area to be placed. Lawn sod is appropriate for residential use; Mineral sod is appropriate for granular, sandy soils ; Salt tolerant sod is appropriate for high traffic areas at boulevards, road edges, and medians where salt use is high. Stabilizing Covers Various types of stabilizing covers can accomplish the outcome desired with respect to establishing vegetation. As a designer, it is important to choose a cost effective approach that balances the degree of protection with the cost of the material. The majority of projects will have more than one type of stabilizing cover specified due to the varying conditions across a project. These conditions include the degree and length of slopes, ditch gradients, contributing watershed areas, soil types, and whether it is temporary or permanent. 1. Mulch (Spec 3882) Mulch with disk anchoring is generally used for slopes 1:3 or flatter. Mulch quantities should reflect permanent and temporary amounts with the amount of estimated temporary mulch noted. The estimated temporary mulch quantities will depend on the duration of exposed soil on the project. General guidance for the application of the various types of mulches: Type 1 mulch: use with the temporary and turf seed mixtures. On soils with cohesion, disc anchored mulch should prevail up to 1:3 slopes. Type 3 mulch: use with the native seed mixture, wetland mitigation sites, ponds, and areas where weed seed is undesirable including commercial and residential areas. Type 4: Areas where disk anchoring is not practicable.. Also, small areas where the disk is not practicable such as a bench between stepped retaining walls. Type 5 : Made from grounded up grubbed trees. Can be used in combination with silt fence in ditch bottoms to provide flow control and nutrient adsorption, traction on clay soils, tree root protection, slash mulch for slopes, and temporary access roads. Type 6: Around landscape plantings. Type 7: specified under rare circumstances, wetland or prairie mitigation areas, or to enhance an existing prairie. Type 8: specified under rare circumstances, to enhance an existing prairie, or to create a new one. Not to be relied on solely for seed. Type 9: Should be specified as filter aggregate as a toe guard for silt fence, filter berms around inlets, or diversion berms against curbs. Provide disc anchoring on type 1 and type 3 mulch. 2. Erosion Control Blanket (Spec 3885) For specified blanket areas where there is concentrated flow or slopes 1:2 and steeper, it is highly encouraged to note on the plan that maintenance is included with the blanket. Category 00: Short lived, rapid degrade. For all flatter areas with regular mowing where stitching and staples may be a problem. This includes area where turf grass seed is specified. Category 0: Short lived, rapid degrade. For all flatter areas with regular mowing where netting may be a problem. This includes area where turf grass seed is specified. Category 1: Netting will degrade in 6 weeks. To be used in mowed areas such as one blanket width next to the shoulder, residential lawns, and park areas. This blanket can also be used in flat areas. NOT FOR CONCENTRATED FLOW AREAS. Category 2: Not recommended for use in this district.

5 Category 3: Under permanent seeding conditions, generally used for slopes 1:3 to 1:2 and less than 50 feet long; ditch bottoms with gradients 3% or less and flow velocities 6.5 ft/s and less; and concentrated flow areas such as edge drains. Specify Wood fiber ditch bottoms and other areas of concentrated flow. Also, blanketed areas next to DNR protected waters and certain streams should specify a natural net. Wood fiber or natural netting when specified shall be noted in the SEQ or tabulation sheets. Category 4: Slopes 1:2 and steeper; ditch bottoms 4% and less with flow velocities less than 7 ft/s; and areas with higher volumes of concentrated flow such as bridge side or end slopes to take water from where the curb ends. Category 5: Typically used in stream bank restoration projects. Due to the density of the coconut, it is difficult to establish seed underneath. 3. Hydraulic Erosion Control Products (Spec 3884) Tackifier Type natural: Shoulder mulch tacking agent in accordance with G:. Use over the crimped mulch as shoulder stabilization of straw mulches. Hydraulic Matrix type Hydraulic mulch: Temporary mulch applications:. Areas such as stockpiles, and slopes that do not receive concentrated flow can be stabilized temporarily to meet NPDES permit requirements. Flat areas, such as lawns, can be mulched permanently. Every plan will have a quantity of hydraulic matrix type Hydraulic mulch. Use a multiplier of 3-5 times the permanent turf areas for each construction season. Type Fiber Reinforced; For longer term cover, for temporary over wintering conditions. This also can be used as an alternate to Blanket for permanent turf establishment in mow areas, and adjacent to traffic lanes, except in ditches. Matrix type bonded fiber: Inaccessible areas for permanent mulch cover. Also for soil burden on top of rock cuts. 4. Turf Reinforcement Mats (TRM) All TRM s are topsoil or compost/soil blend filled. The TRM should be designed based on bed shear, with the first 3 classes providing a range of bed shear stabilization between 2.1 and 10 lbs/ft2. Class 4 is for steep slope surface stabilization where high tensile strength is required. If an TRM is called for in the plan, it will always be blanketed with an appropriate class of erosion control blanket (typically Cat 4). Special installation details will be required in the plan that includes head and check trenching, overlap, and stapling, pin, rod or some other attachment details. Watering For areas where it is critical to obtain good turf cover water is a must. For watering of Turf Reinforcement Mats, steep slopes, RSS walls, slopes adjacent to infiltration areas, and ponds) Provide Temporary Irrigation by special provision Weed Control Noxious weeds as defined by Minnesota Department of Agriculture must be controlled. There are several species on the noxious weed list. Each County may have additional secondary listed weeds that must be controlled. Weed spraying and or mowing will be required prior to the seeding operation. This should be indicated in the construction & soils notes. Expect to specify in the plan areas of concern and quarantine soil zones. Noxious weed locations can be found through consultation with D7 maintenance. 1. Weed Spraying When noxious weeds are known to be on the project the designer should provide for weed spraying and weed spray mixture. Provide in the plans and tabulations the areas of weeds, weed type, herbicide, and either spot spray or broadcast spray. Contact OES Roadside Vegetation management Unit to obtain Herbicide recommendations. Provide the following note in the tabulations:

6 Weed spraying to be done throughout the project to prevent and control spread of weeds. Weed spraying will be measured by the area covered or area spot sprayed by herbicide and successfully applied as indicated by dead noxious weeds. Weed spray mixture will be measured by volume of ingredients furnished and used. 2. Mowing Provide mowing in plans, pay item by the acre. Include mowing in the provisions or plans according to the following schedule (to the extent possible within the timeframe of the project): Mowing to be done after the seeding and starting when the majority of vegetation is high Mow non-native seeding once or twice to control weeds. Mow native seeding approximately 3 times at 1-month intervals in the first growing season after planting, and 2 times at 1-month intervals in the second growing season. Prairie Passage Routes In 1993, the FHWA gave funding to departments of transportation in Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas to develop a prairie passage. Minnesota partnered with these states to form a route from the southern border of Texas to the northwestern border of Minnesota. The goal of the prairie passage is to protect native grasses and wildflowers along the roadside right-of-way; plant native grasses and wildflowers along the roadside right-of-way; and promote the awareness of prairie related natural and cultural resources. District 7 has two roads designed as part of the prairie passage: I-90 from the junction of I-35 west to the junction of US highway 75 and US highway 75 from the junction of I-90 north to the junction of TH 23. Projects constructed on these roads shall use native vegetation. Attachments: Turf Establishment Recommendations

7 ATTACHMENT 1: Turf Establishment Recommendations Grading/Reconstruction: Rural Section Design (See also Ponds) Non-Native Typical Native Typical Seed 59 lbs/ac. Seed: 36.5 lbs/ac Fertilizer: Type 3, lbs/acre Mulch: Rural Setting; Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring on all slopes less than 1:3. Blanket: Category 3 (slopes 1:3 to 1:2), Category 4 (slopes 1:2 and steeper). Specify Wood fiber on all ditch bottoms. Category 3 Natural Net, Wood fiber 1 blanket width on bottoms of super elevations and mow areas: Temporary Seed: Up to 1 year; , 1 to lbs/ac Temporary Fertilizer: Type 1, 200 lbs/acre Temporary Mulch: Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring; OR Type 4; OR Hydraulic matrix type Hydraulic Mulch *Fertilizer: Type 4, or Mulch: Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring on all slopes flatter than 1:3. Blanket: Category 3 (slopes 1:3 to 1:2), Category 4 (slopes 1:2 and steeper). Specify Wood fiber on all ditch bottoms. Temporary Seed: Up to 1 year; 110 lbs/acre 1 to 5 years; lbs/acre Temporary Fertilizer Type 1, lbs/acre Temporary Mulch: Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring; OR Type 4; OR Hydraulic matrix type Hydraulic Mulch Grading/Reconstruction: Urban Section Design (See also Ponds) Seed: 120 lbs/ac (adjacent to homeowners 220lb/ac adjacent to commercial businesses and city medians/boulevards Elsewhere, same as Rural Design` Fertilizer: Type 3, lbs/acre, Mulch: Category 3 wood fiber blanket, natural net, or Mulch Type 2 tons/acre + Disc anchoring Same as Rural Design Alternative: Lawn, Salt Tolerant Sod with fertilizer type 1, 200 lbs/ac Temporary Bypass Seed: 30.5 lbs/ac (44.8 kg/ha) Fertilizer: Type 1, lbs/acre, Mulch: Type 2 tons/acre + Disc anchoring, or Hydraulic matrix type Hydraulic Mulch Bridge Replacement Bridge End and Side Slopes Seed: 59 lbs/ac Fertilizer: Type 3, lbs/acre, or next to rivers, streams, and lakes Blanket: Category 3 wood fiber, or 4 depending on steepness and slope length (include maintenance requirement notation in SEQ) Alternative: salt tolerant sod with fertilizer type 1, lbs/ac Temporary Seed: (depending on length of time needed for embankment settlement) Up to 1 year; lbs/acre, Native Seed Mix Option: See Wet Ponds & Upland Buffer or Dry/Infiltration Ponds & Upland Buffer Temporary Seed: (depending on length of time needed for embankment settlement) Up to 1 year 110 lbs/acre,

8 Up to 2 years; 30.5 lbs/acre, Up to 5 years 40 lbs/acre Temporary Fertilizer: Type 1, lbs/acre Temporary Blanket: Category 3(wood fiber) or Category 4 depending on steepness and slope length Temporary Mulch: Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring; OR Type 4; OR Hydraulic matrix type hydraulic mulch Up to 2 years; 38 lbs/acre Temporary Fertilizer: Type 1, lbs/acre Temporary Blanket: Category 3(wood fiber) or Category 4 depending on steepness and slope length Temporary Mulch: Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring; OR Type 4; OR Hydraulic matrix type hydraulic mulch Mill and Overlay (Minimal Disturbance) Seed: 61 lbs/ac Fertilizer: Type 1, lbs/acre Mulch: Type 4, or Hydraulic Matrix Type Fiber Reinforced Shoulder Widening and turn lanes (With Inslope Regraded) Existing Non-Native Design Existing Native Seed: 59 lbs/ac Seed: 36.5 lbs/ac Fertilizer: Type 3, lbs/acre *Fertilizer: Type 4, or Mulch: Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring Category 3 Wood Fiber Blanket (natural Mulch: Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring net), Type 4 Mulch Category 3 Wood fiber Blanket (natural net), Type 4 Mulch Culvert Repair/Replacement Seed: lbs/acre (general soils) Fertilizer: Type 1, 400 lbs/acre, OR Type 3, lbs/acre next to rivers and streams Blanket: Category 3 wood fiber or Category 4 Alternative: Salt tolerant Sod with fertilizer type 1, lbs/acre Native Seed Mix Option: See Wet Ponds & Upland Buffer or Dry/Infiltration Ponds & Upland Buffer Wet Ponds & Upland Buffer Do NOT seed bottom of pond Seed 1: 35 lbs/ac to be planted 10 feet on either side of the normal water level *Fertilizer 1: Type 4, or lbs/acre Seed 2: 36.5 lbs/ac) to be planted from the to top of pond to transition in with seed mix specified for the rest of the project *Fertilizer 2: Type 4, or lbs/acre Mulch: Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring Blanket: One blanket width (6-8feet, natural nettings) at the normal water level; emergency spillway; and areas of concentrated in-flow Dry/infiltration Ponds & Upland Buffer Seed 1: 35 lbs/ac to be planted in the bottom and up 3 feet from the bottom *Fertilizer 1: Type 4, or lbs/acre Seed 2: 36.5 lbs/ac to be planted from the to top of pond to transition in with seed mix specified for the rest of the project *Fertilizer 2: Type 4, or lbs/acre Mulch: Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring

9 Blanket: Areas of concentrated flow, such as pond corners or areas where ditches carry water into the pond. Ditch Reconstruction A. Normally Dry Seed: 59 lbs/ac (General areas); Fertilizer: Type 3, lbs/acre, or Seed: 45lbs/ac (agriculture areas) Fertilizer: Type 3, lbs/acre Mulch: Blanket, Category to be determined by velocity. Specify natural nets. B. Normally Wet Seed: 35 lbs/ac to be planted 10 feet on either side of the normal water level *Fertilizer: Type 4, or lbs/acre Mulch: Blanket, Category to be determined by velocity Signalization Seed: 59 lbs/ac (78.3 kg/ha) Fertilizer: Type 3, lbs/acre, Blanket: Category 1; Category 3 natural nettings for mowing benefits at corners of concentrated flow PRAIRIE PASSAGE ROUTES I-90 from District 6 Boundary west to TH 75 TH75 from I-90 to TH23 (D7 boundary) Seed: 36.5 lbs/ac Fertilizer: Type 4, or Mulch: Type 2 tons/ac + Disc anchoring on all slopes less than 1:. Blanket: Category 3(slopes 1:3 to 1:2) or 4 on slopes 1:2 and steeper. Also ditch bottoms greater than 2%. * (NPK) is to be specified in loam and clay loam (NPK) is to be specified in sandy soils with low clay and organic matter. These turf establishment recommendations are for the general project area. It is likely that more than one seed mixture will be necessary to address the different conditions of a project. There will be other materials necessary for temporary and permanent erosion or sediment control. The majority of projects will need mulch, hydromulch, and blanket in order to control erosion for different parts of the project.

Erosion and Storm Water Management Unit Mail Stop 620 395 John Ireland Blvd. St. Paul, MN 55155

Erosion and Storm Water Management Unit Mail Stop 620 395 John Ireland Blvd. St. Paul, MN 55155 Minnesota Department of Transportation Office of Environmental Stewardship Erosion and Storm Water Management Unit Mail Stop 620 395 John Ireland Blvd. St. Paul, MN 55155 Memo Office Tel:651-366-3629 Fax:651-366-3603

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