1 Recent development in Maritime transport and challenges ahead for ports Piraeus 18th September 2008 Vincent Valentine Transport Section Division on Technology and Logistics
2 Contents A. Recent Developments 1. World economy and seaborne trade 2. Freight rates 3. World fleet B. Challenges ahead for ports
3 A. Recent Developments 1. World Economy and Seaborne Trade
4 World economic growth a Region / Country b WORLD Developed countries of which: United States Japan EU (27) of which: Germany France Italy United Kingdom Developing countries of which: China India Brazil South Africa Economies in Transition of which: Russian Federation Source: UNCTAD secretariat calculations based on UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics online; United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN/DESA), LINK Global Economic Outlook 2008 (mid-2008 update, and national sources. a Calculations for country aggregates are based on real GDP in dollars at base year b Forecast.
5 Indices for world economic growth (GDP), OECD industrial production, and world seaborne trade (volume), (1994 = 100) World seaborne trade World GDP OECD industrial production Source: UNCTAD secretariat on the basis of OECD Main Economic Indicators, April 2008; UNCTAD Trade Development Report 2008 and UNCTAD Review of Maritime Transport, various issues.
6 Development of international seaborne trade, selected years (Millions of tonnes) 43% Year Oil Main bulks a Other Dry cargo Total (all cargoes) , , , ,037 3, , ,285 4, ,163 1,288 2,533 5, ,595 1,876 3,181 7, b 2,681 1,997 3,344 8,022 66% Source: a b Estimated by UNCTAD secretariat on the basis of annex II and data supplied by ports and specialized sources. Iron ore, grain, coal, bauxite/alumina and phosphate. Preliminary.
7 International container port traffic, (Million teus) % Transhipments 27% 27% % % 14% 18% 22% Full Empty Source: UNCTAD based on data provided by Drewry Shipping Consultants in the Drewry Annual Container Market Review and Forecast 2006/2007, Septemb
9 2. Freight rates
10 Tanker freight indices, (monthly figures) Lloyd's Shipping Economist Baltic Tanker > Clean D irty IndexC lean Index October November December Average January February March April May June July August September October November December Average January '914 1'083 February ' March ' April ' May '701 1'192 June '921 1'388 Average '559 1'070 Source: Executive Summary in Lloyd's Shipping Economist, several issues; Baltic Tanker indices reported for the first working day of the month. Ship sizes
11 Dry cargo freight indices, Dry cargo tramp timecharter (1972 = 100) Dry cargo tramp tripcharter (1985 = 100) Period January February March April May June July August September October November December Annual average Source: Compiled by Maritime Research and published by Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics in Shipping Statistics and Market Review, 1/2, Note: All indices have been rounded to the nearest whole number
12 Freight rates (market averages) per TEU on the three major liner trade routes ($ per TEU and percentage change) Trans-Pacific Europe Asia Transatlantic Asia USA USA Asia Europe Asia Asia Europe USA Europe Europe USA First quarter Change (%) Second quarter Change (%) Third quarter Change (%) Fourth quarter Change (%) First quarter Change (%) Second quarter Change (%) Third quarter Change (%) Fourth quarter Change (%) First quarter Change (%) Source: Containerisation International Online, YOY 14.3% YOY 32.9%
13 Various Indices Jan 07 Sept 08 Tankers TEU Bulk
14 3. World fleet
15 World fleet The world merchant fleet expanded by 7.2 per cent during 2007 to 1.12 billion deadweight tons (dwt) at the beginning of New deliveries achieved a record totalling 81.9 million dwt in 2007 (71.1 million dwt in 2006). During 2007, 2,782 cargo carrying commercial vessels of 100 GT and above were delivered, an increase of 16% over 2006.
16 The top 35 countries together control per cent of the world fleet Ownership of the world fleet by country Ships DWT Foreign flag as a % of total Total as a % of world total January 2008 Total as a % of world total January 2007 Change in percentage share 1 Greece Japan Germany China Norway United States Korea, Republic of Hong Kong, China Singapore Denmark
17 Oil tankers In 2007, 369 oil tankers (over 10,000 dwt) or 29.5m dwt were delivered Oil tankers continue to be the largest vessels ordered, but the average vessel size has decreased from 142,001 dwt in 2000 to 110,470 dwt in 2007.
18 Dry bulk In total, there were 315 dry bulk carriers delivered in 2007, with a combined tonnage of 24.7 million dwt. The average dwt per unit has deceased from 81,290 dwt in 2006, to 78,413 dwt, an opposite trend for oil tankers.
19 Orderbook Vessel orders are at their highest level ever, reaching 10,053 ships with a total tonnage of 495 million dwt, including 222 million dwt of dry bulk carriers (57% of the existing dry bulk fleet). Dry bulk tonnage on order is 12 times higher than it was in including 1,435 container ships, an historical high. Containerized tonnage on order is six times higher than 2002.
20 World Tonnage on order, a Thousand deadweight tonnes Dry bulk Oil Tankers Container General cargo Source: Compiled by the UNCTAD Secretariat on the basis of data supplied by Lloyd's Register - Fairplay. a Ships of 100 GT and above.
21 Order book - May 2008 The global containership newbuildings order book reached its highest-ever level, standing at 1,528 ships with a total container carrying capacity of 6.7 million TEU. Among those, there are 54 ships on order with a capacity of 13,000 TEU and above. COSCON ordered 8-13,350 TEU units China Shipping ordered 8-13,000 TEU units Various orders by MSC, Maersk, Hanjin and CGM- CMA.
22 Demolition of ships 2007 saw record lows in demolitions. In total, demolitions were equivalent to only 0.4 per cent of the existing world fleet. Tanker tonnage represented half of the tonnage demolished. Hardly any dry bulk carriers were demolished in 2007,
23 B. Challenges Ahead for Ports
24 Ranking of ports by TEUs Source: Cargo Systems August 2008
25 Expanding port opportunities Import / export port Dalian HK S pore Rotterdam Gioia Tauro logistics centre port transshipment port Source: UNESCAP (2005) Free Trade Zone and Port Hinterland Development, ST/ESCAP/2377.
26 Port efficiency has to improve because port customers are getting bigger. In 2006 the largest containership ever built, Emma Maersk, was launched with a reported capacity of 12,508 TEU capacity she requires a depth of 16 metres 156,907 DWT (carrying capacity)
27 Leading 20 service operators of containerships at the beginning of 2008 (Number of ships and total shipboard capacity deployed (TEUs)) Ranking Operator Country/territory No. of ships in 2008 TEU capacity in Maersk Line Denmark 446 1'638'898 2 MSC Switzerland 359 1'201'121 3 CMA-CGM Group France '223 4 Evergreen Taiwan Province of China '610 5 Hapag Lloyd Germany '954 6 COSCON China '814 7 CSCL China '818 8 APL Singapore '804 9 OOCL Hong Kong (China) ' NYK Japan '083 Subtotal 1'913 6'576' MOL Japan ' Hanjin Republic of Korea ' K Line Japan ' Yang Ming Taiwan Province of China ' Zim Israel ' Hamburg Sud Germany ' HMM Republic of Korea ' PIL Singapore ' Wan Hai Taiwan Province of China ' CSAV Chile '927 Total 1-20 World container cellular fleet at 1 January '665 8'801'657 8'762 12'657'725 YOY 15.5% Source: UNCTAD secretariat, Containerisation International Online, Fleet Statistics,
28 Concepts aimed at improving port efficiency - Indented berths Ceres Paragon Amsterdam Maximum discharge rate- 300 TEUs ph
29 Jebel Ali Port (United Arab 8,571 moves in 41 hours for the 9,000 TEU ship the MSC Rania. Emirates) Average moves per hour > 60 Twin FEU
30 DHT40 Challenges
33 Chiwan Container Terminal, Shenzhen, China
36 Port development Ports are a catalyst for trade development. Well developed ports attract shippers and spur local enterprises to export Consolidation services allow smaller exporters to group cargo National transport systems need to be linked together with international trade networks. Road and rail networks should extend into the hinterland National networks should extend to and across national borders to regional networks (e.g. AH, TAR) ICD should be situated at nodal points combining multimodal transport. Creating an enabling environment for services to develop within and around ports. Value added services (e.g. repackaging, engineering and design, knowledge processing, light manufacturing and processing, warehousing and logistics) can be performed with ports or adjoining FTZ. Enabling procedures such as customs inspection to be performed at an ICD may help improve transport efficiency and lower costs.
37 Prerequisites for attracting international terminal operators UNCTAD meeting on Globalization of Port Logistics: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries, December 2007, Geneva A clean and transparent bidding process Quality and Capacity landside connections (multi-modal) and port infrastructure No Government cap on profits Good safety and security requirements A training and retrenchment of labour plan A clear role for the port authority (e.g. landlord model) Smooth customs procedures Absence of corruption
38 Conclusions Ports need Physical side: Longer container berths Deeper alongside access Wider turning circles Specialised cargo handling equipment Multimodal connections Soft side: Sophisticated workflows supported by software programs. An enabling environment which is conducive to creating value added service within or adjoining to ports A key challenge is how to retain the necessary safeguards to protect revenue, security, the environment and employment while maintaining flexibility to cater for changing market forces.
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