Who is affected by HCL and what causes it?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Who is affected by HCL and what causes it?"

Transcription

1 Freephone helpline Hairy cell leukaemia Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a rare and very distinctive cancer of blood cells called B lymphocytes (B cells). These B cells are specialised white blood cells that are involved in the body s immune system. HCL was given its unusual name because the malignant cells were observed to have tiny hair-like projections on their surface when they were examined under the microscope. Although its name includes the word leukaemia (because these malignant white blood cells are found in the bone marrow and circulating in the bloodstream) HCL is officially classified by the World Health Organisation as a low-grade (slow-growing) non-hodgkin lymphoma. It has some similarities to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), which is a much more common non-hodgkin lymphoma. This article is aiming to answer the main questions that people with newly diagnosed HCL might ask: Who is affected by HCL and what causes it? How does HCL develop? What are the symptoms? How is HCL diagnosed? How is HCL treated? What happens next? Who is affected by HCL and what causes it? Fewer than 200 people are diagnosed with HCL each year in the UK. It usually occurs in people between the ages of 40 and 60 and it is about five times more common in men than it is in women. The cause of HCL is not known. It is not infectious and is not passed down through the family. How does HCL develop? Like all cancers, HCL begins as a single cell that goes wrong in a way that makes it divide and survive inappropriately past its normal lifespan one cell divides into two, two into four, four into eight, and so on. Eventually the body ends up with billions of these abnormal cells, though the cause of the changes that take place in the B cells to make them malignant is not known. In HCL the malignant B cells that have started to grow out of control mainly accumulate in the bone marrow (the spongy central part of some of our larger bones) and in the spleen, an organ which lies in the upper left-hand side of the abdomen. They are not usually found in lymph nodes (glands) or in the bloodstream in large numbers. 1/6

2 What are the symptoms of HCL? HCL is a lymphoma that develops slowly and some people will have no symptoms for quite a long time or will have non-specific symptoms that might have suggested other, more common illnesses. If the HCL cells accumulate in your bone marrow they can stop the marrow from working properly. Because the bone marrow is the factory that makes normal blood cells that circulate round the body in the bloodstream, you can develop shortages of healthy red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. HCL cells can also accumulate in the spleen and about two-thirds of people with HCL will be found to have an enlarged spleen when they are examined by the doctor. As more and more HCL cells accumulate, they sometimes release chemicals which cause tiredness, weight loss and sweating. The accumulating HCL cells can therefore lead to symptoms such as: tiredness and breathlessness due to anaemia, a shortage of red blood cells frequent infections because the numbers of infection-fighting white blood cells is low unexplained bruising or bleeding due to low numbers of platelets, which are normally involved in blood clotting abdominal discomfort or swelling due to enlargement of the spleen unexplained weight loss or sweating. How is HCL diagnosed? Apart from the clues provided by your symptoms and any signs of an enlarged spleen, doctors diagnose HCL by examining the blood and the bone marrow. The blood sample usually shows the HCL cells and it might also show low numbers of healthy blood cells. A bone marrow sample is usually needed to find HCL cells and confirm the diagnosis. This sample is taken from your hip bone after the skin has been numbed with a local anaesthetic. A needle is used to take some bone marrow cells through a syringe (a bone marrow aspirate) and then a larger sample of marrow with a tiny piece of bone is taken (a trephine biopsy). This larger sample is taken because the hairy cells can be difficult to find in the aspirate sample alone. Other tests: You will have a full examination and other tests to assess your general health. You might have an ultrasound or computed tomography (a CT scan) to assess your spleen and your other abdominal organs. Occasionally people with HCL will be found have enlarged lymph nodes in the abdomen. If these are detected by the tests, some of the lymph node tissue is often removed and examined because this can be a sign that the disease has turned into a faster-growing (or high-grade ) kind of lymphoma, which would need a different form of treatment from the teatments used for classic HCL. 2/6

3 How is HCL treated? A few people do not need treatment straightaway and if your medical team decides that this would be the best approach you will be regularly monitored in the clinic with blood tests. You would not be treated until your symptoms become troublesome or your blood counts fall. You might hear this active monitoring approach called watch and wait. This can be a difficult period to go through because you might feel that nothing is being done, but research has shown it to be the best approach in some people. Most people with HCL, however, will need to be treated once the diagnosis has been made. The treatments for HCL are very effective and for most people the disease will not shorten their life expectancy. The treatments for HCL are aiming to reduce the numbers of malignant cells in the bone marrow and blood and restore the levels of healthy blood cells. The mainstay of treatment is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy The main treatment for HCL is chemotherapy, which means treatment with anti-cancer drugs, and it is very effective. The most commonly used drug is cladribine, which can be given into a vein or as an injection just beneath the skin. It is given every day for 5 7 days. Almost 95% of patients respond to this drug, many people achieving a complete remission (where the disease cannot be detected in the bone marrow using the standard tests) and this can last for many years. Another drug that might be used is pentostatin, which is given into a vein every other week for 3 4 months. Pentostatin and cladribine are equally effective. The main side effect of both drugs is a temporary lowering of blood counts, which increases the risk of infection and bruising or bleeding. Pentostatin can also sensitise the skin to sunlight so it is important to stay out of the sun while receiving this drug. Your medical team will advise you of any other special precautions you should take while you are on these drugs or afterwards. One precaution that you will be given information on is the need for you to receive irradiated blood if you need blood transfusions in future. This is blood that has been treated with radiation in order to prevent a rare complication of transfusion called graft-versus-host disease or GVHD (cladribine and pentostatin make people more prone to develop GVHD). There is an NHS patient information leaflet available about irradiated blood ( You will usually have another bone marrow biopsy taken after your course of treatment is finished to check how well the HCL has responded. Splenectomy Splenectomy (an operation to remove the spleen) is rarely needed nowadays because chemotherapy is such an effective treatment for HCL, but a few people with a very enlarged spleen will have this operation to relieve abdominal discomfort or boost their blood counts. We have an information sheet on splenectomy. Please contact the helpline team if you would like a copy ( ) or you can read it on our website ( 3/6

4 A few people do not require further treatment at all for their HCL after a splenectomy, but most people will go on to need chemotherapy. The chemotherapy is not usually started until at least 6 months have passed since the operation. Interferon Interferon is a biological or targeted therapy that boosts the body s own immune system to destroy malignant cells. It was given more commonly in the past for HCL but it has largely been replaced nowadays by cladribine and pentostatin. It is sometimes given before you have these chemotherapy drugs if your blood counts are very low, especially if you have been having repeated infections. It is given by injection just beneath the skin, three times a week and its main side effect is flu-like symptoms. Later treatments for HCL HCL is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that is prone to come back and need further treatment. This is called a relapse and if this happens a further course of treatment can be given and, once again, this is often very successful. Cladribine or pentostatin are often used to treat relapsed HCL if these drugs were effective the first time. Which one you will have will depend on how quickly the relapse has happened after the initial treatment and on which drug you had initially. Rituximab Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody, which is another form of biological therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are specially manufactured to recognise and target a protein on the surface of cancer cells. This stimulates the body s own immune system to destroy the malignant cells. Rituximab is sometimes given if the HCL responds poorly to the initial chemotherapy treatments (this is described as being refractory to treatment) or if HCL relapses. It can be given on its own but it is usually given together with cladribine or pentostatin. Follow-up Although people with HCL are usually very successfully treated and have long periods of being disease-free, it can come back years later, as we have described above. You will therefore be seen for periodic check-ups in the outpatients clinic, where you will have blood tests and an opportunity to discuss any worries about your health. If you have any new symptoms between these appointments you can be seen at the clinic early. Because HCL is a disease that people often live with for many years you might find our booklet, Living with lymphoma helpful. It covers the more day-to-day aspects of living with a chronic malignant condition like HCL, such as how to cope with tiredness and other symptoms, your feelings and relationships, diet and exercise and other practical things like managing medical appointments, your finances, travel and vaccinations. 4/6

5 More information The Lymphoma Association produces a wide range of booklets and information sheets on all aspects of lymphoma, including information about tests and investigations, chemotherapy and coping with the side effects of chemotherapy. We also have information on how to cope with the difficulties of living with an illness that can extend over many years. Visit our website at or phone our freephone helpline on if you would like to receive any of this information or if you would like to talk to someone about your experiences or anxieties. Feedback We continually strive to improve our information resources for people affected by lymphoma and we would be interested in any feedback you might have on this article. Please visit or if you have any comments. Alternatively, please phone our freephone helpline on Acknowledgement The Lymphoma Association is grateful to Professor Andrew Pettitt, consultant haematologist at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital and Chairman of the UK CLL Forum, for his help with the writing of this article. Useful organisations CLL Support Association c/o Eagle Street London WC1R 4TH via website CancerHelp UK (Cancer Research UK) (Monday Friday, 9am 5pm) via website Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research Eagle Street London WC1R 4TH (Monday Friday, 9am 5pm) 5/6

6 References Clinical Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (British Society for Haematology). Revised guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hairy cell leukaemia and hairy cell leukaemia variant BCSH, London, UK. British Committee for Standards in Haematology (for NHS Blood and Transplant). Information for patients needing irradiated blood (leaflet) Available at: library/pdf/english_irradiated_blood.pdf Swerdlow SH, et al. (eds) WHO Classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon, France. Else M, et al. Long-term follow-up of 233 patients with hairy cell leukaemia, treated initially with pentostatin or cladribine, at a median of 16 years from diagnosis. British Journal of Haematology, : Goodman GR, et al. Extended follow-up of patients with hairy cell leukemia after treatment with cladribine. Journal of Clinical Oncology, : Goodman GR, et al. Hairy cell leukaemia: an update. Current Opinion in Hematology, : We make every effort to ensure that the information we provide is accurate but it should not be relied upon to reflect the current state of medical research, which is constantly changing. If you are concerned about your health, you should consult your doctor. The Lymphoma Association cannot accept liability for any loss or damage resulting from any inaccuracy in this information or third party information such as information on websites which we link to. Please see our website ( for more information about how we produce our information. Lymphoma Association PO Box 386, Aylesbury, Bucks, HP20 2GA Registered charity no Produced Next revision due /6

Leukaemia and lymphoma what s the difference?

Leukaemia and lymphoma what s the difference? Freephone helpline 0808 808 5555 information@lymphomas.org.uk www.lymphomas.org.uk Leukaemia and lymphoma what s the difference? This is a difficult question to answer simply but it is one that is often

More information

Low platelets (thrombocytopenia) a guide for people with lymphoma

Low platelets (thrombocytopenia) a guide for people with lymphoma Freephone helpline 0808 808 5555 information@lymphomas.org.uk www.lymphomas.org.uk a guide for people with lymphoma Platelets are part of your blood. They help to form a blood clot and stop you bleeding

More information

Lymphoma. Lymphoma edition

Lymphoma. Lymphoma edition Lymphoma Lymphoma 2014 edition I had never heard of lymphoma and was shocked when I was told it was a type of cancer. I turned to the internet for information, where I came across the Lymphoma Association.

More information

Symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma

Symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma Produced 28.02.2011 Revision due 28.02.2013 Symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma is a cancer of cells called lymphocytes. These cells are part of our immune system, which helps us to fight off infections.

More information

Treating Hodgkin s Lymphoma A Quick Guide

Treating Hodgkin s Lymphoma A Quick Guide Treating Hodgkin s Lymphoma A Quick Guide Contents This is a brief summary of the information on Treating Hodgkin s lymphoma from CancerHelp UK. You will find more detailed information on the website.

More information

Follicular lymphoma. What is follicular lymphoma? Freephone helpline 0808 808 5555 information@lymphomas.org.uk www.lymphomas.org.

Follicular lymphoma. What is follicular lymphoma? Freephone helpline 0808 808 5555 information@lymphomas.org.uk www.lymphomas.org. Freephone helpline 0808 808 5555 information@lymphomas.org.uk www.lymphomas.org.uk is a cancer of the lymphatic system, a type of non-hodgkin lymphoma. Even though more than 12,000 people are diagnosed

More information

CLL. Handheld record. Stockport NHS foundation trust

CLL. Handheld record. Stockport NHS foundation trust CLL 2015 Handheld record Contains- Patient information booklet, details of haematology clinic assessment and ongoing clinical assessment at GP surgery Stockport NHS foundation trust You have been diagnosed

More information

Leukemia Understanding your diagnosis

Leukemia Understanding your diagnosis Leukemia Understanding your diagnosis Let s Make Cancer History 1 888 939-3333 cancer.ca Leukemia Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You

More information

Leukemia. Understanding your diagnosis

Leukemia. Understanding your diagnosis Leukemia Understanding your diagnosis Leukemia Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount of information

More information

Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding your diagnosis

Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding your diagnosis Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding your diagnosis Let s Make Cancer History 1 888 939-3333 cancer.ca Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer you may feel alone

More information

Symptoms of non-hodgkin lymphoma

Symptoms of non-hodgkin lymphoma Produced 28.02.2011 Revision due 28.02.2013 Symptoms of non-hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma is a cancer of cells called lymphocytes. These cells are part of our immune system, which helps us to fight off infections.

More information

Coping with. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) Patient information

Coping with. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) Patient information Coping with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) Patient information What is CLL? Your doctor will have told you that you have a condition that affects your blood called CLL. CLL is short for Chronic Lymphocytic

More information

Watch and wait Monitoring while treatment is not necessary

Watch and wait Monitoring while treatment is not necessary Watch and wait Monitoring while treatment is not necessary Revised December 2011 The diagnosis of a blood cancer can be a devastating event for patients, families and friends. It is therefore vital for

More information

Understanding blood tests a guide for people with lymphoma

Understanding blood tests a guide for people with lymphoma Freephone helpline 0808 808 5555 information@lymphomas.org.uk www.lymphomas.org.uk Understanding blood tests a guide for people with lymphoma When you are being tested or treated for lymphoma you will

More information

Many people with non-hodgkin lymphoma have found an educational support group helpful. Support

Many people with non-hodgkin lymphoma have found an educational support group helpful. Support Track 2: Treatment Options [Narrator] Many people with non-hodgkin lymphoma have found an educational support group helpful. Support groups take many forms: some meet the needs of people with all kinds

More information

ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA (AML),

ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA (AML), 1 ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA (AML), ALSO KNOWN AS ACUTE MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA WHAT IS CANCER? The body is made up of hundreds of millions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly

More information

Treatment of low-grade non-hodgkin lymphoma

Treatment of low-grade non-hodgkin lymphoma Produced 28.02.2011 Due for revision 28.02.2013 Treatment of low-grade non-hodgkin lymphoma Lymphomas are described as low grade if the cells appear to be dividing slowly. There are several kinds of low-grade

More information

Understanding Leukemia LEUKEMIA LYMPHOMA MYELOMA

Understanding Leukemia LEUKEMIA LYMPHOMA MYELOMA Understanding Leukemia LEUKEMIA LYMPHOMA MYELOMA Introduction This booklet is for anyone interested in learning more about leukemia. It explains the four main types of leukemia, how leukemia is diagnosed,

More information

Bone Marrow Transplantation

Bone Marrow Transplantation Bone Marrow Transplantation Introduction Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside all of your bones, including your hip and thigh bones. The bone marrow is like a factory that makes different types of blood

More information

Multiple Myeloma Understanding your diagnosis

Multiple Myeloma Understanding your diagnosis Multiple Myeloma Understanding your diagnosis Multiple Myeloma Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount

More information

Hairy Cell Leukemia Facts

Hairy Cell Leukemia Facts No. 16 in a series providing the latest information for patients, caregivers and healthcare professionals www.lls.org Information Specialist: 800.955.4572 Highlights l Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic

More information

Your visit to the Breast Clinic. Information for patients Breast Services

Your visit to the Breast Clinic. Information for patients Breast Services Your visit to the Breast Clinic Information for patients Breast Services This leaflet will provide you with information about the Breast Clinic and what might happen during your appointment. If after reading

More information

Understanding cancer talk

Understanding cancer talk Understanding cancer talk Doctors may use words you don t understand. It s okay to ask them to explain something again. Understanding cancer advanced disease benign Disease that has spread outside the

More information

Low grade non-hodgkin Lymphoma

Low grade non-hodgkin Lymphoma Low grade non-hodgkin Lymphoma www.lymphomas.org.uk The knowledge to challenge lymphatic cancers The Lymphoma Association provides: freephone helpline emotional support for those affected by lymphomas

More information

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes abnormal myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell), red blood cells, or platelets. Adult

More information

Treating Melanoma S kin Cancer A Quick Guide

Treating Melanoma S kin Cancer A Quick Guide Treating Melanoma Skin Cancer A Quick Guide Contents This is a brief summary of the information on Treating melanoma skin cancer from our website. You will find more detailed information on the website.

More information

Multiple Myeloma. This reference summary will help you understand multiple myeloma and its treatment options.

Multiple Myeloma. This reference summary will help you understand multiple myeloma and its treatment options. Multiple Myeloma Introduction Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells. Each year, thousands of people find out that they have multiple myeloma. This reference summary will help

More information

Primary bone cancer. For people with cancer, their family and friends

Primary bone cancer. For people with cancer, their family and friends This fact sheet is for people with primary bone cancer who would like to know more about their cancer and its treatment. It describes the types, causes and symptoms of primary bone cancer, as well as treatments

More information

NON-HODGKIN S LYMPHOMA FACTSHEET

NON-HODGKIN S LYMPHOMA FACTSHEET What is Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma? Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a cancer which affects cells in the lymphatic system called lymphocytes. The various types of non-hodgkin's lymphoma are divided into 'high grade'

More information

BOWEL CANCER. The doctor has explained that you have a growth or tumour, in your bowel or rectum and could be cancer.

BOWEL CANCER. The doctor has explained that you have a growth or tumour, in your bowel or rectum and could be cancer. Patient and Carer Information BOWEL CANCER Please read this leaflet carefully. It is important that you take note of any instructions or advice given. If you have any questions or problems that are not

More information

An overview of CLL care and treatment. Dr Dean Smith Haematology Consultant City Hospital Nottingham

An overview of CLL care and treatment. Dr Dean Smith Haematology Consultant City Hospital Nottingham An overview of CLL care and treatment Dr Dean Smith Haematology Consultant City Hospital Nottingham What is CLL? CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too

More information

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Understanding your diagnosis

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Understanding your diagnosis Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding your diagnosis Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the

More information

Other treatments for chronic myeloid leukaemia

Other treatments for chronic myeloid leukaemia Other treatments for chronic myeloid leukaemia This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding chronic myeloid leukaemia. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free

More information

LYMPHOMA IN DOGS. Diagnosis/Initial evaluation. Treatment and Prognosis

LYMPHOMA IN DOGS. Diagnosis/Initial evaluation. Treatment and Prognosis LYMPHOMA IN DOGS Lymphoma is a relatively common cancer in dogs. It is a cancer of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) and lymphoid tissues. Lymphoid tissue is normally present in many places in the

More information

Canine Lymphoma Frequently Asked Questions by Pet Owners

Canine Lymphoma Frequently Asked Questions by Pet Owners Canine Lymphoma Frequently Asked Questions by Pet Owners What is lymphoma? The term lymphoma describes a diverse group of cancers in dogs that are derived from white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes

More information

Diagnosis of primary bone cancer

Diagnosis of primary bone cancer This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding primary bone cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 9. Contents How bone cancer is diagnosed Further

More information

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia Introduction Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. The increased number of these cells leads to overcrowding of healthy blood cells. As a result, the healthy cells are not

More information

Biological Therapies for Cancer

Biological Therapies for Cancer Biological Therapies for Cancer Key Points Biological therapies use the body's immune system to fight cancer or to lessen the side effects that may be caused by some cancer treatments. Biological therapies

More information

Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma

Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma Freephone helpline 0808 808 5555 information@lymphomas.org.uk www.lymphomas.org.uk Skin lymphomas are uncommon and only around 10 people out of every million of the population will develop a skin lymphoma

More information

The Treatment of Leukemia

The Treatment of Leukemia The Treatment of Leukemia Guest Expert: Peter, MD Associate Professor of Hematology Director, Yale Cancer Center Leukemia Program www.wnpr.org www.yalecancercenter.org Hi, I am Bruce Barber and welcome

More information

Types of treatment for liver cancer

Types of treatment for liver cancer Useful information for cancer patients Contents This information is an overview of treatments for primary liver cancer. There are sections on Primary or secondary cancer The main treatments for primary

More information

Lumbar Puncture Procedure and Intrathecal Chemotherapy Explained

Lumbar Puncture Procedure and Intrathecal Chemotherapy Explained Lumbar Puncture Procedure and Intrathecal Chemotherapy Explained Patient Information Introduction This leaflet tells you about the procedures known as lumbar puncture and intrathecal chemotherapy. We hope

More information

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1 Mesothelioma Introduction Mesothelioma is a type of cancer. It starts in the tissue that lines your lungs, stomach, heart, and other organs. This tissue is called mesothelium. Most people who get this

More information

Diagnosis of ovarian cancer

Diagnosis of ovarian cancer Diagnosis of ovarian cancer This information is an extract from the booklet, Understanding cancer of the ovary. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 5. Usually you

More information

RADIATION THERAPY FOR LYMPHOMA. Facts to Help Patients Make an Informed Decision TARGETING CANCER CARE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR RADIATION ONCOLOGY

RADIATION THERAPY FOR LYMPHOMA. Facts to Help Patients Make an Informed Decision TARGETING CANCER CARE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR RADIATION ONCOLOGY RADIATION THERAPY FOR Facts to Help Patients Make an Informed Decision TARGETING CANCER CARE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR RADIATION ONCOLOGY FACTS ABOUT The lymphatic system is a network of tiny vessels extending

More information

Metastatic Cancer: Questions and Answers. Key Points

Metastatic Cancer: Questions and Answers. Key Points CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Metastatic Cancer: Questions

More information

Blood & Marrow Transplant Glossary. Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program Patient Guide

Blood & Marrow Transplant Glossary. Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program Patient Guide Blood & Marrow Transplant Glossary Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program Patient Guide Glossary Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) -- Also called "absolute granulocyte count" amount of white blood

More information

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in children

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in children 1 61.02 Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in children AML can affect children of any age, and girls and boys are equally affected. Leukaemia Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) FAB classification of AML Causes of

More information

Testicular Cancer: Questions and Answers. Key Points

Testicular Cancer: Questions and Answers. Key Points CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Testicular Cancer: Questions

More information

Chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

Chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer Chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding lung cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 3. Contents

More information

PERIPHERAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT INTRODUCTION

PERIPHERAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT INTRODUCTION PERIPHERAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT INTRODUCTION This booklet was designed to help you and the important people in your life understand the treatment of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell support: a procedure

More information

Thyroid Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thyroid cancer is and what treatment options are available.

Thyroid Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thyroid cancer is and what treatment options are available. Thyroid Cancer Introduction The thyroid is a gland in the neck. Thyroid cancer is a common type of cancer. It accounts for 1% to 5% of cancer cases worldwide. As medical technology advances, more cases

More information

M6-1 NOTE. Each major learning point is clearly identified by boldface type throughout the guide and emphasized in the PowerPoint presentation.

M6-1 NOTE. Each major learning point is clearly identified by boldface type throughout the guide and emphasized in the PowerPoint presentation. Basics of Cancer Treatment Module 6 Basics of Cancer Treatment Target Audience: Community members Staff of Indian health programs, including Community Health Representatives Contents of Learning Module:

More information

Lymphomas after organ transplantation

Lymphomas after organ transplantation Produced 21.03.2011 Revision due 21.03.2011 Lymphomas after organ transplantation People who have undergone an organ transplant are more at risk of developing lymphoma known as post-transplant lymphoproliferative

More information

Adult Medical-Surgical Nursing H A E M A T O L O G Y M O D U L E : L E U K A E M I A 2

Adult Medical-Surgical Nursing H A E M A T O L O G Y M O D U L E : L E U K A E M I A 2 Adult Medical-Surgical Nursing H A E M A T O L O G Y M O D U L E : L E U K A E M I A 2 Leukaemia: Description A group of malignant disorders affecting: White blood cells (lymphocytes or leucocytes) Bone

More information

How do I find the best place to get treatment for my lymphoma?

How do I find the best place to get treatment for my lymphoma? Produced November 2010 Next revision due November 2012 How do I find the best place to get treatment for my lymphoma? Introduction Fortunately this is not a question that patients with cancers of the blood

More information

Background Information Myeloma

Background Information Myeloma Myeloma FAST FACTS Myeloma, also known as multiple myeloma, is a type of cancer that develops from plasma cells which originate in the bone marrow 1 Myeloma is the second most common type of blood cancer

More information

Estimated New Cases of Leukemia, Lymphoma, Myeloma 2014

Estimated New Cases of Leukemia, Lymphoma, Myeloma 2014 ABOUT BLOOD CANCERS Leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), myeloma, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are types of cancer that can affect the

More information

This information explains the advice about tuberculosis (TB) that is set out in NICE guideline 33.

This information explains the advice about tuberculosis (TB) that is set out in NICE guideline 33. Tuberculosis: prevention, ention, diagnosis, management and service organisation Information for the public Published: 13 January 2016 nice.org.uk About this information NICE guidelines provide advice

More information

OVARIAN CANCER TREATMENT

OVARIAN CANCER TREATMENT OVARIAN CANCER TREATMENT Cancer Care Pathways Directorate Tailored Information in Cancer Care (TICC) Sir Anthony Mamo Oncology Centre National Cancer Plan May 2015 Contents About this booklet 1 The Ovaries

More information

Surgery for kidney cancer

Surgery for kidney cancer This information is an extract from the booklet, Understanding kidney cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 5. Surgery is often the only treatment that is

More information

Types of surgery for kidney cancer

Types of surgery for kidney cancer Useful information for cancer patients Contents This information is about the different operations that you may have for kidney cancer. Surgery can be used to treat almost any stage of kidney cancer. There

More information

How common is bowel cancer?

How common is bowel cancer? information Primary Care Society for Gastroenterology Bowel Cancer (1 of 6) How common is bowel cancer? Each year 35,000 people in Britain are diagnosed with cancer of the bowel, that is to say cancer

More information

Understanding Chronic Leukaemia

Understanding Chronic Leukaemia Understanding Chronic Leukaemia A guide for people with cancer, their families and friends Cancer information For information & support, call Understanding Chronic Leukaemia A guide for people with cancer,

More information

Information Pathway. Myeloma tests and investigations. Paraprotein measurement

Information Pathway. Myeloma tests and investigations. Paraprotein measurement Information Pathway Myeloma UK Broughton House 31 Dunedin Street Edinburgh EH7 4JG Tel: + 44 (0) 131 557 3332 Fax: + 44 (0) 131 557 9785 Myeloma Infoline 0800 980 3332 www.myeloma.org.uk Charity No. SC

More information

It can be devastating to be diagnosed with a cancer like multiple myeloma. But there are treatments that can help you live longer and feel better.

It can be devastating to be diagnosed with a cancer like multiple myeloma. But there are treatments that can help you live longer and feel better. Patient information from the BMJ Group It can be devastating to be diagnosed with a cancer like multiple myeloma. But there are treatments that can help you live longer and feel better. What is multiple

More information

Care and Problems of The Circulatory System. Chapter 17 Lesson 2

Care and Problems of The Circulatory System. Chapter 17 Lesson 2 Care and Problems of The Circulatory System Chapter 17 Lesson 2 Care of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems Most of the risk factors related to problems with your circulatory system are within your control.

More information

Smoking and misuse of certain pain medicines can affect the risk of developing renal cell cancer.

Smoking and misuse of certain pain medicines can affect the risk of developing renal cell cancer. Renal cell cancer Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which

More information

What is ovarian cancer and how common is it?

What is ovarian cancer and how common is it? Information for you Published in January 2016 (next review date: 2019) Ovarian cancer Who is this information for? This information is for you if you have ovarian cancer or want to know more about it.

More information

Answering your questions on Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML)

Answering your questions on Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) Answering your questions on Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) Your guide to understanding CML and Glivec (imatinib) treatment The information in this booklet is designed to help you understand chronic myeloid

More information

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma Freephone helpline 0808 808 5555 information@lymphomas.org.uk www.lymphomas.org.uk (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-hodgkin lymphoma, which is a cancer of blood cells called lymphocytes. DLBCL is

More information

Patient Information. What you need to know about. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Patient Information. What you need to know about. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patient Information What you need to know about Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma This brochure is a part of a Patient Information Series supported by Baxter. This information is not meant to be a substitute for the

More information

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Overview

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Overview Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Overview The information that follows is an overview of this type of cancer. It is based on the more detailed information in our document, Leukemia-Chronic Lymphocytic. This

More information

About ovarian cancer. Fact sheet 2. Epithelial ovarian cancer. Diagnosis. What are the different types of ovarian cancer?

About ovarian cancer. Fact sheet 2. Epithelial ovarian cancer. Diagnosis. What are the different types of ovarian cancer? Fact sheet 2 About ovarian cancer We, Ovacome, are a support network for people affected by ovarian cancer in the UK. We provide information and support, raise awareness and put you in touch with others

More information

Understanding Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Understanding Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Understanding Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma A guide for people with cancer, their families and friends Cancer information For information & support, call Understanding Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma A guide for people with

More information

Chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) 1

Chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) 1 Chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) 1 Chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) This information is from the booklet Understanding acute myeloid leukaemia. You may find the full booklet

More information

Low-grade non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)

Low-grade non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) Low-grade non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) For adults and children with blood cancer bloodwise.org.uk Patient information My details This is a place to put important information about you, your condition and

More information

Bone Cancer Understanding your diagnosis

Bone Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Bone Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Let s Make Cancer History 1 888 939-3333 cancer.ca Bone Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer you may feel alone and afraid.

More information

Soft tissue sarcoma. For people with cancer, their family and friends

Soft tissue sarcoma. For people with cancer, their family and friends This fact sheet is for people with soft tissue sarcoma who would like to know more about their cancer and its treatment. It describes the types, causes and symptoms of soft tissue sarcoma as well as treatments

More information

Information for patients attending Breast Imaging

Information for patients attending Breast Imaging James Paget University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Information for patients attending Breast Imaging Patient Information Department Folder Telephone: 01493 452885 Contents Introduction 4 Screening

More information

Lymphoma Cancer Treatment

Lymphoma Cancer Treatment Scan for mobile link. Lymphoma Cancer Treatment What is Lymphoma? Lymphoma is a cancer that develops in the white blood cells (lymphocytes) of the lymphatic system, which is part of the body s immune system.

More information

DT- PACE chemotherapy for myeloma

DT- PACE chemotherapy for myeloma Patient information DT- PACE chemotherapy for myeloma Your doctors have suggested that you are likely to benefit from chemotherapy treatment. They are recommending a standard form of treatment called DT-PACE

More information

Multiple Myeloma. Understanding your diagnosis

Multiple Myeloma. Understanding your diagnosis Multiple Myeloma Understanding your diagnosis Multiple Myeloma Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large

More information

Causes of fatigue (tiredness)

Causes of fatigue (tiredness) Causes of fatigue (tiredness) 1 Causes of fatigue (tiredness) This information is from the booklet Coping with fatigue (tiredness). You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see

More information

Inflammatory breast cancer

Inflammatory breast cancer april 2007 information about Inflammatory breast cancer What is inflammatory breast cancer? Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare and rapidly growing form of breast cancer. Unlike other breast cancers which

More information

Lymphoma. Starting Point. Diagnosed with Lymphoma?

Lymphoma. Starting Point. Diagnosed with Lymphoma? ESSENTIALS Lymphoma Diagnosed with Lymphoma? It s important to understand everything you can about your diagnosis, treatment options, and places to go for support. This will help you make treatment decisions

More information

Laparoscopic Splenectomy and Adrenalectomy. A simple guide to help answer your questions about surgery

Laparoscopic Splenectomy and Adrenalectomy. A simple guide to help answer your questions about surgery Laparoscopic Splenectomy and Adrenalectomy A simple guide to help answer your questions about surgery What is a spleen? The spleen is a solid organ that lies in the upper left side of the abdomen, just

More information

Surgery for kidney cancer

Surgery for kidney cancer This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding kidney cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 5. Contents Removing part of the kidney (partial

More information

Foreign travel precautions a guide for people with lymphoma

Foreign travel precautions a guide for people with lymphoma Freephone helpline 0808 808 5555 information@lymphomas.org.uk www.lymphomas.org.uk Foreign travel precautions a guide for people with lymphoma Having lymphoma or being on treatment for lymphoma does not

More information

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patient Information What are the aims of this leaflet? This leaflet has been written to help you understand more about squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. It tells you what they

More information

How lung cancer is diagnosed

How lung cancer is diagnosed This information is an extract from the booklet, Understanding lung cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 5. Contents At the hospital CT (computerised tomography)

More information

R-IVAC chemotherapy for lymphoma

R-IVAC chemotherapy for lymphoma Patient information R-IVAC chemotherapy for lymphoma Introduction Your doctors have suggested that you are likely to benefit from a course of R-IVAC chemotherapy treatment. They have weighed the expected

More information

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Introduction Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer of the lymphocytes (a kind of white blood cell). The variant of this disease in which there are not

More information

Biological Therapies for Cancer: Questions and Answers. Key Points

Biological Therapies for Cancer: Questions and Answers. Key Points CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Biological Therapies for

More information

Leukemias and Lymphomas: A primer

Leukemias and Lymphomas: A primer Leukemias and Lymphomas: A primer Normal blood contains circulating white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets 700 red cells (oxygen) 1 white cell Neutrophils (60%) bacterial infection Lymphocytes

More information

Interferon treatment for your cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL)

Interferon treatment for your cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) Interferon treatment for your cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) You have been prescribed the medicine interferon alpha-2a, also known by its brand name Roferon -A, for the treatment of your cutaneous T-cell

More information

Using hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea)

Using hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) Using hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) Information for adult patients with sickle cell disease This information sheet has been given to you to help answer some of the questions you may have about taking

More information

Diagnosing secondary breast cancer

Diagnosing secondary breast cancer Diagnosing secondary breast cancer This information is from the booklet Understanding secondary breast cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 6. Contents Tests

More information

Ovarian cancer. Patient information from the BMJ Group. What is ovarian cancer? What are the symptoms?

Ovarian cancer. Patient information from the BMJ Group. What is ovarian cancer? What are the symptoms? Patient information from the BMJ Group Ovarian cancer Ovarian cancer is a serious disease. If it s diagnosed at an early stage, ovarian cancer can usually be cured. But even cancers that are more advanced

More information

What is chronic lymphocytic leukaemia?

What is chronic lymphocytic leukaemia? Revised October 2011 What is chronic lymphocytic leukaemia? The diagnosis of a blood cancer can be a devastating event for patients, families and friends. It is therefore vital for everyone to have access

More information