1 NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT W. David Smith Extension Crop Science Specialist Tobacco The goal of every tobacco farmer should be to develop a fertilization program that meets the needs of the crop while minimizing the cost and environmental impact. To reach this goal, farmers need a well-planned nutrient management program based on: soil testing to determine the quantity and availability of nutrients in the soil; fertilizer selection based on plant needs and soil fertility levels; the cost of fertilizers; and proper fertilizer application. Overfertilization (particularly with nitrogen and phosphorus) is expensive, wastes natural resources, and increases the potential for contamination of water resources. An environmentally sound nutrient management program involves an understanding of the basic principles of fertilization, which can be summarized as the five Rs: 1) Apply the right nutrient; 2) at the right rate; 3) at the right time; 4) in the right place; and 5) at the right cost. Soil Testing Soil testing is the first step in planning an economical and environmentally sound fertilization program and is provided as a free service by the Agronomic Division of North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Each soil sample is analyzed to determine ph and the available levels of most major nutrients, such as phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ), potassium (K 2 0), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). The division also determines soil levels of several micronutrients, such as manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). The soil test report suggests application rates for lime and for each nutrient that should meet crop needs under good growing conditions. The nutrient rates suggested on the soil test report reflect only what is found in the sample. Therefore, each sample should be taken properly so it adequately represents the field where the crop is to be grown. Take samples every three years (coastal plain) or four years (piedmont) from fields tended regularly by the same grower. Sample unfamiliar fields or those out of tobacco production for several years four to six months before the first tobacco crop. Submitting samples in the fall rather than winter or spring will enable you to receive soil test reports quickly and allow more time for planning fertilization programs. Soil boxes and instructions for taking samples can be obtained at your county Cooperative Extension center. Liming and Soil ph Providing the ideal ph of 5.8 to 6.0 through the application of dolomitic limestone is a key step in a costeffective and responsible nutrient management plan. According to NCDA&CS soil sample results, a significant percentage of soils are below the ideal range for tobacco (Figure 5-1). Compared to many crops tobacco is acid tolerant. However, soil ph levels below 5.0 are very undesirable. Soil test summaries indicated that nearly 23 percent of the soils in the coastal plain and 13 percent in the piedmont were below ph 5.0. Hopefully, these soils received lime before the 2002 crop was transplanted.
2 Figure 5-1.The ph of tobacco soils in the coastal plain and piedmont, Low ph causes greater solubility of soil aluminum (and manganese in piedmont soils), which reduces root growth and development. Therefore, liming to promote healthy root systems improves drought tolerance and nutrient absorption, sometimes resulting in better yields. In previous research trials, limed plots produced higher yields than nonlimed plots regardless of the nitrogen rate (Table 5-1). Also, note that the yield of nonlimed plots that received 15 pounds per acre of extra nitrogen was no higher than that of limed plots that received 15 pounds per acre less than suggested nitrogen. These data indicate: 1) Extra nitrogen cannot overcome the adverse effects of low soil ph. 2) Lower nitrogen rates are possible when acid soils are limed according to soil test suggestions. Table 5-1. Effects of Lime and Nitrogen on Tobacco Yield N Rate (lb/a) No Lime Used Yes Yield lb/a Suggested 15 2,272 2,497 Suggested 2,434 2,688 Suggested ,405 2,516
3 Nitrogen (N) Primary Nutrients Nitrogen has a greater effect on tobacco yield and quality than any other nutrient. Too little nitrogen reduces yield and results in pale, slick cured leaf. Too much nitrogen may increase yield slightly but may also make mechanical harvesting and curing more difficult, delay maturity, extend curing time, and result in more unripe cured leaf. Excessive nitrogen also stimulates sucker growth, which can lead to excessive use of maleic hydrazide (MH) and increase problems with hornworms and aphids. Nitrogen is also very leachable, and overapplication may contribute to groundwater contamination in deep, sand soils. Soil analysis is not used to estimate the nitrogen rate needed for a specific tobacco field in North Carolina. Rather, the 50- to 80-pound-per-acre range shown on the soil test report is based on information from numerous field tests conducted across the state. In these tests, a base nitrogen rate of 50 to 80 pounds per acre has given consistently good results on most soils in most seasons. This is the total amount of nitrogen supplied by normal applications of the N-P-K fertilizer and the sidedresser but does not include additional nitrogen sometimes needed for leaching adjustments. The lower portion of the range is suggested for fine-textured, fertile soils, especially where legumes such as soybeans or peanuts were grown the previous year The higher portion of the range is suggested for coarse-textured soils with topsoils deeper than 15 inches to clay. Suggested nitrogen rates for several average topsoil depths are shown in Table 5-2. Determine your portion of the nitrogen rate range primarily by topsoil depth, depth to clay. Fields with deeper, sandier topsoils usually are more leachable and contain less nitrogen as humic matter than those with shallower more heavily textured topsoils. Generally, you should reduce the nitrogen rates shown by about 5 to 10 pounds per acre if the previous crop was a legume or the variety to be planted is known to mature late or cure poorly when overfertilized with nitrogen. Even greater nitrogen rate reductions may be needed on dark soils with 1 percent or more humic matter. Also, when tobacco follows a heavily fertilized but poor corn crop (Less than 75 bushels per acre), the residual nitrogen available for the tobacco may be as high as that left by soybeans or peanuts. Only 15 pounds of extra nitrogen may reduce leaf quality, particularly in dry seasons. Both drought and excess nitrogen delay maturity and increase the amount of unripe tobacco. The first step to increasing the amount of ripe tobacco is to use a reasonable base nitrogen rate (particularly if irrigation is not available and mechanical harvesting is used), depending on topsoil depth, previous crop, variety to be grown, and experience. Also, be cautious and conservative with leaching adjustments for nitrogen. (See next section.) The second step is to delay harvest, if necessary, and make three or more primings so that each priming will have a high percentage of ripe leaves. The rate of ripening depends primarily on the amount and distribution of water, the nitrogen rate, soil type, and variety, so base your harvest rate on these factors, not on the calendar date or how fast your neighbor s tobacco is being harvested Table 5-2. Base Nitrogen Rates for Tobacco in Relation to Topsoil Depth Topsoil Depth Nitrogen Rate a (inches) (lb/a) a Does not include leaching adjustments. The normal ripening process is caused by partial nitrogen starvation, which should begin about topping time. Therefore, nitrogen in the soil should be nearly depleted by flowering. Overapplication of
4 nitrogen and/or prolonged drought extends nitrogen uptake beyond topping time and therefore delays ripening because the crop is still absorbing nitrogen. Leaves harvested when they are high in nitrogen are more difficult to cure and often turn dark at the end of yellowing and into the early leaf-drying stage. This problem is increased by dry, hot conditions, which cause the leaves to appear riper than they really are. Leaching. Leaching is the movement of certain nutrients below normal rooting depth due to excessive water moving (percolating) through the root zone of deep, sandy soils. Leaching of nitrogen is more likely to reduce yield and quality than leaching of other nutrients. Although leaching losses of sulfur, magnesium, and potassium sometimes occur, their effects on yield and quality are relatively small. More than 50 to 80 pounds of nitrogen per acre may be needed if leaching occurs, but determining the correct amount to replace is one of the most difficult and risky tasks in tobacco production. A general guide for making leaching adjustments for nitrogen is shown in Table 5-3. The amount of nitrogen to replace is expressed as a percentage of the suggested base rate that was applied before leaching occurred. If you used excess nitrogen before leaching occurred, subtract the number of excess pounds from the number of replacement pounds calculated. This guide is based on three major factors that influence the amount of leaching: 1) topsoil depth to clay, 2) the age of the crop when leaching occurs, and 3) the estimated inches of water that move through the fertilized root zone. Topsoil depth is used in the guide because water usually moves more freely and in larger quantities through deeper topsoils. Since the mass of tobacco roots normally occurs in the upper 12 to 14 inches of soil, the deeper the clay below rooting depth, the more likely it is that nitrogen will leach below the root mass. Crop age is included in the guide because plants absorb more of the needed nutrients s they get older, and the amounts left in the soil and subject to leaching decrease as the crop grows. Too, as the plants get larger, their leaves form a canopy that sheds some of the water to the row middles, reducing the amount of water passing through the fertilized zone. Topsoil Depth (inches to clay) Table 5-3. Nitrogen Adjustments for Leaching Estimated Water Percolated Weeks after Transplanting through Soil (inches) (% of applied N to replace) a Less than or more to or more or more or more a Apply about 1 pound of potassium (K20) for each pound of nitrogen used as a leaching adjustment if the topsoil is deeper than 10 inches.
5 A reasonable estimate of the amount of water that enters the soil and ultimately percolates through the root zone is necessary to calculate the leaching adjustment. The amount of rainfall alone usually is not a good indication of how much leaching has occurred. Factors such as soil texture and slope, crust formation, duration of rainfall, and the amount of moisture already in the soil also are important. Unfortunately, a practical method that includes these many percolation factors has not been developed, but growers who have experienced similar rainfall on their land in past years can make reasonable estimates. An invaluable tool in making leaching adjustments is an up-to-date record of daily rains and estimates of how much of each rain soaked into the soil. Because phosphorus leaches very little in our soils, it is expensive, and unnecessary, to use phosphoruscontaining fertilizers, such as or , to make leaching adjustments. Some growers do this, however, to supply additional sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg), or both along with nitrogen for adjustments on deep, sandy soils. These nutrients can be supplied a lower cost and just as effective by using or an that guarantees sulfur and magnesium but does not contain phosphorus. Another alternative is to mix equal amounts of Sul-Po-Mag (K-Mag) and one of the 1:0:0 ratio sidedressers. For example, an equal mixture of fertilizer and Sul-Po-Mag gives an N-P-K analysis, which also provides 5 percent magnesium and 11 percent sulfur. (If additional nitrogen is not needed, about 100 to 150 pounds of Sul-Po- Mag per acre usually will supply adequate sulfur and magnesium.) Drowning. Distinguishing between drowning and leaching is often confusing because excess water causes both problems. Leaching is usually not a serious problem on soils that have clay within 10 to 12 inches of the surface because percolation through the root zone is restricted. If the soil becomes saturated, oxygen starvation and then root decay will begin unless the saturated condition is alleviated within about 24 hours. Usually, the plants yellow and partially or completely wilt. Wilting is a symptom of drowning and indicates that leaching losses are minimal because water remains in the root zone rather than moving through it. Although some nitrogen may be moved down to the clay, causing a temporary deficiency, it will be absorbed later as root growth resumes. Adding 10 to 15 pounds of extra nitrogen in most drowning situations usually benefits the crop if it was not overfertilized with nitrogen before drowning. However, using the leaching adjustment procedure for a drowned crop often overestimates the amount of nitrogen to replace and may delay ripening and cause curing problems later in the season. Fertilizer Additions on Partially Drowned Tobacco. Heavy and frequent rains may cause drowning (i.e., root injury). Deep rooting is limited as long as the soil remains saturated, confining root development to the upper 6 to 10 inches. Many growers make at least one application of dry or liquid fertilizer following drowning in an attempt to reduce losses in yield and quality. Experiments were conducted on research stations near Kinston and Clayton in 1995 to evaluate the effects of soil-applied fertilizers on yield and quality of partially drowned tobacco; the term partially drowned is used because the tobacco remained wilted for only several days and then recovered. The fertilizers used are shown in Table 5-4; the results are averages of two nitrogen rates at Kinston (15 and 30 lb/a) and one nitrogen rate at Clayton (20 lb/a). All fertilizer treatments, made in one application on June 20, improved yield and value per acre compared to the nonfertilized control; the and 30 percent liquid nitrogen fertilizers increased yield and value about 10 percent, while the and fertilizers increased yield and value about 15 percent. This indicates that the potassium supplied by the and fertilizers may have improved yield more than the and 30 percent liquid nitrogen fertilizers that supplied only nitrogen. Compared to the control, none of the fertilizers improved grade index or average market price. The results in Table 5-5 indicate that using fertilizers at rates to provide 30 pounds of nitrogen per acre was no more effective than using them at rates to provide 15 pounds of nitrogen per acre. In addition, the nitrogen rate did not affect grade index or average market price. The plant roots in these tests never regained normal development and/or function following the extended drowned period. Therefore, the crops did not respond fully to the applied nutrients. Unfortunately, the results of these tests indicate that much of the extra fertilizers applied to drowned crops does not benefit them. Observations on farms in 1995
6 indicated that the more severe the drowning (i.e., root injury), the less likely the crops were to recover, regardless of the kinds or rates of fertilizers used. Foliar spray treatments with 30 percent liquid nitrogen were also evaluated in these and other tests in 1995, but the results probably are not reliable due to frequent showers within several hours after application. In addition, the foliar spray treatments did not appear to have provided any more benefit than the fertilizers shown in Table 5-4 when close observations were made later in the season. Foliar Sprays to Supply Extra Nitrogen. When excessive rain falls between lay-by and topping, the crop may turn yellow when the plants are too tall to band-apply dry fertilizers with tractor-mounted applicators. Consequently, some growers consider applying foliar sprays or dry materials overtop to supply extra nitrogen. Research has shown foliar sprays on tobacco to be of questionable value because most contain so little nitrogen that several applications are needed to supply the beneficial range of 10 to 15 pounds per acre. Also, substantial leaf injury may occur on tender crops if high rates are used to reduce the number of applications. Other possible disadvantages for some foliar products include (1) the cost is high per unit of nutrient and (2) a major portion of the nitrogen may be in the ammonium form. Test results indicate that fertilizer applied overtop or 30 percent liquid nitrogen applied as a wide band in the row middles is as or more effective than foliar sprays, and all of the needed nitrogen can be applied in one application without injuring leaves. Table 5-4. Effects of Fertilizer Additions on Yield and Value of Partially Drowned Tobacco, 1995 a Applic. Yield Grade Price Method lb/a Index $/Cwt Fertilizer Treatment a Value S/a None --- 1, , BC-OT 1, ,294 30% WB-RM 1, , BC-OT 1, , BC-OT 1, ,483 Average results of tests concluded at research stations near Clayton and Kinston; N rates for each fertilizer were 15 and 30 lb/a at Kinston and 20 lb/a at Clayton. Adjustments were applied on 6/20/95; BC-OT = broadcast overtop of plants and WB-RM = wide band sprayed in row middle. Table 5-5. Effects of Nitrogen Rate Adjustments on Yield and Value of Partially Drowned Tobacco, 1995 N Adj. Lb/a Yield Lb/a Grade Index Price $/Cwt Value $/a 0 1, , a 1, , a 1, ,412 a Results averaged over , 30 percent liquid N, , and fertilizers for each N rate. Test conducted at Lower Coastal Plain Research Station near Kinston.
7 Phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ) and Potassium (K 2 0) Phosphorus is not very leachable, even in sandy soils, and a good tobacco crop only removes about 15 pounds per acre (as P 2 O 5 ). However, many times this amount has been applied annually or biennially to most tobacco fields over the years, resulting in at least high levels of available phosphorus in about 85 percent of the fields used for tobacco. Potassium is leachable, especially in deep, sandy soils, and a good crop removes about 90 pounds per acre (as K 2 0). However, about 60 percent of our tobacco soils contain at lest high levels of available potassium because of more abundant soil sources and excessive application. Also, subsoils in tobacco fields often contain substantial amounts of potassium and other leachable nutrients that are seldom measured by soil tests because only topsoils are usually sampled (Table 5-6). Table 5-6. Average Soil Test Levels of Several Nutrients in Topsoils and Subsoils of 13 Flue-Cured Tobacco Fields, Soil Nutrients Soil Horizon P K S Ca Mg (Availability Index) a (% of CEC) Topsoil Subsoil a 0-10 = very low; = low; = medium; = high; 100+ = very high. These results represent primarily coastal plain soils and should be considered as preliminary at this point. But they do not provide additional evidence that application of several leachable nutrients above soil test recommendations usually does not improve tobacco yield and quality, but does increase production costs. In addition, overapplication increases the potential for these nutrients to reach our ponds and streams by soil and water movement. Selecting the N-P-K Fertilizer Growers with access to fertilizer blend plants can save money by having their N-P-K fertilizers blended according to specific soil test suggestions. However, standard-grade tobacco fertilizers are still predominantly used in North Carolina. Most contain three times more potassium than nitrogen but varying amounts of phosphorus relative to nitrogen and potassium. This is called the N:P:K ratio (Table 5-7). For example, analyses such as and are 1:1:3 ratios because they contain 1 pound of phosphorus and 3 pounds of potassium for each pound of nitrogen. An analysis has a 1:0:3 ratio because it does not contain phosphorus. So the primary difference among ratios is that they supply different amounts of phosphorus for each pound of nitrogen applied. Therefore, if you select the proper ratio and application rate, you can obtain phosphorus rates very close to the soil test suggestion without altering the rates of nitrogen and potassium. Generally, the N-P-K fertilizer should supply all of the suggested phosphorus, and possibly potassium, but no more than 40 pounds of nitrogen per acre; this is true for most soil types and rainfall conditions. Therefore, the amount of phosphorus suggested on the soil test report should determine which fertilizer ratio is selected from Table 5-7. For example, if a phosphorus rate between 0 and 40 pounds per acre is suggested, use 667 pounds of or 500 pounds of fertilizer per acre. The highest analysis available in a ratio will supply the nutrients at the lowest cost when used at the rates suggested Table 5-7.
8 For some soils, particularly in the coastal plain, available phosphorus is so high that the soil test report does not suggest applying it. In these instances, applying 500 pounds of fertilizer per acre will provide 40 pounds of nitrogen, no phosphorus, and 120 pounds of potassium per acre, plus some secondary nutrients. The zero phosphorus suggestion has caused some concern among growers. However, the results from many field tests conducted on soils with high to very high levels of soil test phosphorus do not reveal any reduction in yield and quality when 1:0:3-ratio fertilizers are used (i.e., when no phosphorus is applied). Remember, however, that phosphorus suggestions are made on the assumption that soil ph is maintained in the desirable 5.8 to 6.0 range. Therefore, failure to apply phosphorus on acid soils may reduce early growth and delay maturity, particularly when early root growth is reduced by unusually cool, wet conditions. These unfavorable soil and weather conditions are more likely to occur in the piedmont than the coastal plain. Table 5-7. Selection of Standard-Grade N-P-K Fertilizer Ratio, Analysis, and Rate Based on Soil Test Suggestions for Phosphorus P N-P-K Selection Fert. Costs a Suggested on Soil Test (lb/a) Ratio Analysis b (lb/a) c ($/ton) ($/a) Between 80 & 120 1:3: , Between 40 & 80 1:2: Between 0 & 40 1:1: None 1:0: a Based on 2000 average costs of N-P-K fertilizers from surveys conducted by 21 county Extension Service agents across North Carolina; prices are primarily for manufactured, bagged products. b Analyses most commonly available; other suitable analyses of the appropriate ratio may be available in some areas. c Each rate will supply 40 pounds of nitrogen and 120 pounds of potassium per acre and the highest rate of phosphorus listed to the left of each ratio. Some growers use N-P-K fertilizers at rates higher than those shown in Table 5-7. This is not recommended because it increases costs and supplies excessive rates of phosphorus and potassium. Also, numerous field tests have shown that using the N-P-K fertilizer to supply more than 40 pounds of nitrogen per acre does not improve yield and quality (see Table 8 on page 41 of 1991 Tobacco Information). Additional nitrogen (and potassium if needed) can be obtained more economically from sidedress materials than from N-P-K fertilizers. For example, a pound of nitrogen from fertilizer cost about $1.96 in 2000, while a pound of nitrogen from fertilizer cost only about 77 cents (based on average costs per ton in Tables 5-7 and 5-9). According to a survey conducted in 2000, the use of fertilizer declined from 36 percent of the acreage in 1979 to 5 percent in 2000, while use of fertilizer increased from 3 percent to 50 percent during the same period (Table 5-8). The combined use of 1:1:3 and 1:0:3 ratios increased from 5 percent of the acreage in 1979 to 69 percent in These changes occurred because many growers with highphosphorus soils recognized the money they could save by using low-phosphorus, high-analysis fertilizers to meet soil test suggestions for phosphorus and other nutrients. The reduction in phosphorus application of
9 approximately 45 percent between 1981 and 2000 has also lowered the potential for phosphorus movement into ponds and streams without reducing tobacco yield and quality. After choosing the fertilizer ratio based on the rate of phosphorus needed, the next step is to select a high-analysis grade of that ratio. Although high-analysis grades cost more per ton, they are less expensive per acre because much lower rates are needed to provide the same amounts of nitrogen and potassium (Table 5-7). Also, less fertilizer has to be transported, stored, and applied. These advantages may explain the trend in recent years toward greater use of the analysis, with declining use of and analyses (Table 5-8). Initially, some growers experienced curing problems with high-analysis fertilizers because they used them at higher than suggested rates without reducing the rate of sidedress nitrogen accordingly. Fortunately, this problem has been largely corrected by most growers. But fertilizer calibratio information, if needed, is available at your county Cooperative Extension center. Table 5-8. N-P-K Fertilizer Use Estimated by County Agents, Fertilizer Percentage of Acres Ratio Analysis :3: :2: < :1: :0: Various Liquids Various Drys Dry Versus Liquid N-P-K Fertilizers. Tests have been conducted to compare the same analysis (6-4-10) of dry-blended and liquid fertilizers on tobacco yield and quality. Each fertilizer was applied broadcast, in two deep bands (about 5 inches deep and 4 to 5 inches to each side of the row), or in two shallow bands (about 0.5 to 1 inch deep and 4 to 5 inches to each side of the row.) The broadcast applications were made about one week before planting and the band applications about one week after planting. The application rate (670 pounds per acre) was the same for both fertilizers and for each method of application, and all plots received the same rate of sidedresser about three weeks after planting. The type of fertilizer (dry or liquid) did not affect yield, market price, grade index, or value per acre. However, deep fertilizer placement produced higher yields than shallow placement of both types of fertilizer when little rainfall occurred during the first six weeks after planting. When the early season was unusually wet, however, broadcast application reduced market price, grade index, and value per acre because of a higher proportion of pale, immature tobacco. These results indicate the following: 1) Fertilizer placement and time of application are more important than whether the fertilizer is dry or liquid. 2) Dry and liquid fertilizers should perform equally well if they have similar nutrient contents and are applied at the same time and by the same method.
10 3) Deep band application (4 to 5 inches) should produce good yields and quality more consistently than broadcast or shallow band application (such as that obtained with rolling cultivators), regardless of the fertilizer type. The specific yield and quality data for these tests are on page 45 of 1994 Flue-cured Tobacco Information. Contact your Cooperative Extension Service for more information. Selecting the Sidedress Fertilizer The soil test suggestion for potassium is useful in selecting the proper ratio of the sidedress material. When the soil test suggests applying less than 120 pounds of potassium per acre, a 1:0:0 ratio sidedresser such as (soda), (calcium nitrate), (ammonium nitrate), or one of several liquid nitrogen sources can be used to supply the nitrogen needed in addition to the 40 pounds obtained from the N-P-K fertilizer. If the soil test suggestion is greater than 120 pounds of potassium per acre or if severe leaching occurs after the N-P-K fertilizer application, some potassium, in addition to nitrogen, may be needed in the sidedresser. In these instances, 1:0:1 ratio sidedressers such as or will usually supply all the extra potassium needed in addition to the 120 pounds obtained from the N-P-K fertilizer. In rare instances on deep, sandy soils, available potassium may be low enough to require use of a 1:0:3 ratio sidedresser such as or However, topsoil analyses and field tests indicate that less than 10 percent of the tobacco soils in North Carolina are low enough in potassium to require the 1:0:3 ratio as a sidedresser if 100 to 120 pounds of potassium per acre are supplied by the N-P-K fertilizer. In addition, the accumulation of available potassium in the subsoils of many tobacco fields (Table 5-6) indicates that only 1:0:0 ratio sidedress fertilizers are needed in many instances, even when topsoil analysis suggests adding more than 120 pounds per acre of potassium. The per-acre costs of several sidedressers and the amounts required to supply 30 pounds of nitrogen per acre are shown in Table 5-9. The least expensive dry source of sidedress nitrogen is fertilizer. However, take care to apply no more than half as much fertilizer per acre as or Applying excessive rates of fertilizer will drastically increase nitrogen application and reduce curability and quality of cured leaves. The most expensive sidedresser is and should be used only when the soil test suggestion for potassium cannot be met with the 1:0:1 ratio sidedressers. An alternative and less expensive 1:0:3 ratio sidedresser is fertilizer, which should be available at most blend plants. Table 5-9. Average Costs of Sidedress Fertilizers in 2000 Based on Surveys by 22 County Extension Agents Fertilizer 2000 Prices Rates and Costs For 30 lb N K 2 0 Applied Ratio Analysis ($/ton) (lb/a) ($/a) (lb/a) 1:0: % N. Liq gal 6 0 1:0: :0:
11 Table 5-10 shows the average performance of the most commonly used dry sidedressers in 11 tests conducted in 1991 through The surface soils contained medium levels of available potassium in five tests, low levels in three tests, and high levels in three tests. All plots received 670 pounds per acre of or fertilizer (120 pounds of potassium per acre) banded about two weeks later at equal rates of nitrogen. The results indicate that: 1. Yield and quality were similar for all sidedressers even though rainfall was relatively high at most sites in 1992 and Tobacco topsoils often test low to moderate in available potassium, but sidedressers containing potassium seldom increase yield or quality because adequate potassium is usually contained in subsoils of many tobacco fields that have clay within 10 to 12 inches of the soil surface. 2. Using a phosphorus-containing fertilizer, such as or , as the sidedress fertilizer did not improve yield and quality compared to using one of the less-expensive sidedresser materials. Table Agronomic Performance of Dry Sidedress Fertilizers Tests, Ratio Sidedress Fert. a Analysis Yield (lb/a) Price ($/cwt Grade Index 1:1: or , :0: , , , , :0: , , :0: , a Initial fertilizer was 670 lb/a of banded five to seven days after transplanting; all sidedressers were banded about two weeks later at equivalent rates of N. In 2000, 26 county Extension agents estimated that growers used sidedress materials in this order (expressed as a percentage of total acreage): 30 percent liquid nitrogen and 24 or 25 percent liquid nitrogen (+ sulfur), 7 percent; , 6 percent; or 25 percent; , 3 percent; and various other local analyses, 3 percent. Unfortunately, about 4 percent of the acreage was sidedressed with N-P-K fertilizers, the most expensive choice, which do not improve yield or quality (Table 5-10). This costly practice occurred in both the piedmont and coastal plain. Liquid Nitrogen Sidedress Fertilizers. Some growers who usually need only nitrogen in their sidedress fertilizer want less expensive nitrogen sources that can be applied faster than dry materials. In 13 tests conducted in 1996 through 1999, 30 percent liquid nitrogen and 24 or 25 percent liquid nitrogen (+ sulfur) were evaluated as sidedress fertilizers against more traditional dry sidedressers such as All plots were fertilized with an N-P-K fertilizer such as several days after transplanting, and the nitrogen sidedressers shown in Table 5-11 were applied two to three weeks later. Each sidedresser was applied at the same nitrogen rate in each test, ranging from 20 to 40 pounds of nitrogen per acre, depending on local soil
12 and early rainfall conditions. The liquids were not diluted with water, and rates ranged from about 7 to 14 gallons per acre over the sites. All sidedressers were banded in furrows 5 to 6 inches from each side of the plants and 4 to 5 inches deep; they were covered with soil immediately after application to guard against possible volatilization of the urea nitrogen contained in both liquid fertilizers. No noticeable growth and maturity differences were observed among the sidedressers in any test. Further, yield and grade index values were similar for the sidedressers in all tests (Table 5-11). While the yield for the 24 or 25 percent nitrogen sidedresser appears to be slightly higher than that for the 30 percent liquid nitrogen or , the differences were observed among the sidedressers in any test. Further, yield and grade index values were similar for the sidedressers in all tests (Table 5-11). While the yield for the 24 or 25 percent nitrogen sidedresser appears to be slightly higher than that for the 30 percent liquid nitrogen or , the differences were not statistically significant in any of the 13 tests, indicating that factors other than the sidedress fertilizer were most likely responsible for the yield differences shown. Since these tests were conducted over a wide range of soil and climatic conditions, growers who use these sources of sidedress nitrogen should not experience adverse effects on maturity, yield, and quality if the nitrogen rate is in the normal range for a given field and if the liquid fertilizers are strained, properly banded, and covered with soil as recommended. Table Effects of Liquid Nitrogen Sidedress Fertilizers on Tobacco Yield and Grade Index in 13 Tests, a Sidedress Fertilizer Yield (lb/a) Grade Index (dry) 2, % Liquid N 2, or 25% Liquid N + S 2, a Tests conducted on research stations near Whiteville, Kinston, and Oxford. As an example, for every 10 pounds of nitrogen needed per acre for these fertilizers, only 3.1 gallons of 30 percent liquid nitrogen or 3.9 gallons of 24 percent liquid nitrogen would be required per acre. The liquid nitrogen sources must be diluted with water if the liquid application equipment will not uniformly apply the 7 to 14 gallons per acre that most fields would need. However, because no adverse stand or growth effects were observed with the undiluted liquids, it should be sufficient to use only enough water to ensure uniform application. If 10 gallons of volume per acre were needed, for example a 200-gllon liquid applicator would sidedress about 20 acres of tobacco between refills the disadvantages of using liquid nitrogen fertilizers compared to traditional dry sidedress fertilizers are the requirement for liquid banding equipment and a slight reduction in soil ph in the row (0.1 to 0.2 units in 1997 tests). However, many growers have constructed their own inexpensive liquid applicators in the last year or two, and the cost of the extra dolomitic lime needed to correct the ph reduction is only about one dollar per acre. Another possible advantage of liquid nitrogen sidedressers is that they might be tank mixed with certain soil pesticides and applied together in one trip over the field. Numerous tests conducted on research stations have shown no adverse effects on early growth, yield, or quality from adding 1 pint per acre of Ridomil Gold EC with the liquid nitrogen sources. In two on-farm tests conducted in cooperation with NC State plant pathologist Tom Melton, tank mixing Ridomil Gold EC with 30 percent liquid nitrogen did not reduce black shank control. In most of these tests, a compatibility agent was included because Ridomil Gold EC tended to float on the water, particularly when mixed with the sulfur-containing liquid nitrogen sources. Therefore, you should try a jar test to evaluate compatibility before tank mixing Ridomil Gold EC with any liquid nitrogen source. Also, remember that tank mixing Ridomil Gold EC with liquid fertilizers is not specified on the Ridomil Gold EC label, so Syngenta may not assume responsibility for poor black shank control if its product is used in this manner.
13 Secondary Nutrients The secondary nutrients of concern for tobacco are calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). These nutrients are called secondary because they are usually needed by most crops in smaller amounts than the primary nutrients. However, they must be available in adequate amounts for good yields and quality. Calcium and Magnesium (Dolomitic Lime) If soil ph is kept within the desirable range of 5.8 to 6.0 with dolomitic limestone, the available levels of calcium and magnesium will usually be high enough to meet the needs of the crop. Otherwise, 40 to 50 pounds of calcium (Ca) and 15 to 20 pounds of magnesium (Mg) per acre are needed from the N-P-K fertilizer. Even with proper liming, some magnesium deficiency may occur on deep, sandy soils (more than 15 inches to clay) under severe leaching conditions. In these instances, supplying 15 to 20 pounds of magnesium per acre in the fertilizer may be desirable in the second and third seasons after lime application. However, using N-P-K fertilizers containing calcium and magnesium will not substitute for using dolomitic lime if soil ph is too low. Be especially aware of low soil ph. The state s latest soil test summaries show that about 30 percent of the tobacco fields tested in the last several years have had a ph lower than 5.5, and piedmont soils generally were more acid than those in the coastal plain. Sulfur (S) Sulfur deficiencies are most likely on deep, sandy soils (over 15 inches to clay) that are low in humic matter (less than 0.5 percent). Because sulfur leaches, deficiencies are more likely in these soils following heavy rainfall in the winter and spring, especially if sulfur is omitted from the fertilizer of the next tobacco crop. Symptoms of sulfur deficiency are very similar to and often mistaken for those of nitrogen deficiency. When a plant is low in nitrogen, the lower leaves are paler than the upper leaves and burn up prematurely. However, sulfur deficiency begins as yellowing in the buds; the leaves gradually pale from top to bottom, and the lower leaves do not burn up prematurely unless nitrogen is also deficient. Because sulfur is required for nitrogen use in the plant, adding high rates of nitrogen to sulfur-deficient crops will not turn the crops green, and can in fact, reduce leaf quality. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of the deficiency is very important and often requires tissue analysis. Soil tests for sulfur are sometimes unreliable. Therefore, to reduce the chance of sulfur deficiency on deep, sandy soils, add 20 to 30 pounds of sulfur (S) per acre from the N-P-K fertilizer every year. Sulfur deficiency occurring before lay-by can be corrected by banding 100 to 150 pounds of Sul-Po-Mag or potassium sulfate (0-0-50) as soon as possible after the deficiency is identified. However, sulfur deficiency on soils less than about 12 inches to clay is often temporary, even when no extra sulfur is applied, because adequate sulfur is usually contained in subsoils (Table 5-6) and will be absorbed as roots reach this depth. Micronutrients The soil test report for tobacco shows a $ symbol in the Suggested Treatment block for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), and a $ph symbol for manganese (Mn) if the availability index for one of these micronutrients is low. The $ symbol indicates that corrective treatment may be beneficial, but it is uncertain that tobacco will respond to application of copper or zinc. The $ph symbol appears on the report when soil ph is greater than 6.1 and the manganese availability index is less than 26 (low or very low). The symbols also call attention to an enclosed note, also identified by a symbol, that provides information on suggested rates, sources, application methods for these three micronutrients. Crops differ in their response to micronutrients, and tobacco is considered less sensitive to low soil levels than crops such as corn, soybeans, and small grains. Micronutrients are also somewhat expensive, depending on the kind and source. Therefore, their application for tobacco is not likely to be beneficial
14 unless indicated by soil or tissue analyses. When in doubt, use tissue analysis or strip testing on several rows to confirm a micronutrient need. Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) Known deficiencies of copper or zinc are extremely rare for tobacco. Rates suggested on the soil test report will be sufficient for several years, and future test results should be used to determine if and when copper and zinc should be reapplied. Manganese (Mn) Manganese deficiency begins to show on the lower leaves as flecks very similar to those caused by high ozone concentrations in the air (commonly called weather fleck). While weather fleck can occur anywhere in the state, manganese deficiency occurs primarily on low-manganese, overlimed soils in the coastal plain. Using too much lime causes soil ph to increase, which reduces manganese availability to plant roots. Tobacco plants develop manganese deficiency are grown on soils with a ph of 6.2 or higher and low levels of soil manganese (availability index less than 26). Based on soil test results, 7 percent of the tobacco soils in the coastal plain were ph 6.5 or above (Figure 5-1). Therefore, tobacco planted in these soils is at risk for manganese deficiency, particularly on soil types such as Goldsboro that have slightly higher organic matter than other coastal plains soils. Tobacco performs well when soil ph stays in the 5.8 to 6.0 range. Other major crops, such as soybeans, corn and small grains, also perform well in this ph range if soil phosphorus is high. Therefore, when these crops are in rotation with tobacco they usually should not be limed at rates higher than those suggested by the soil test for tobacco. Tissue analysis of flecked leaves, along with a soil test, is the best way to distinguish between manganese deficiency and weather fleck. However, it is important to submit leaf and soil samples as soon as flecking occurs because several days are required to complete analyses. If the problem is manganese deficiency, a corrective treatment should be made as soon as possible. If weather fleck is the culprit, only cooler, drier weather will help. Manganese deficiency can be corrected by soil or foliar application of several manganese sources. Manganese sulfate is a relatively soluble, inexpensive source that can be used for soil or foliar treatment. The more expensive chelated sources generally perform satisfactorily as foliar sprays but are not superior to sulfates when applied to the soil. For soil applications, mixing the manganese source with acid-forming fertilizers increases its effectiveness, and banding is usually better than broadcasting. Do not apply manganese broadcast on soils with a ph greater than 6.1 because it will be converted to a less available form. For band application, special blends may be required because premium fertilizers usually do not contain enough manganese to correct a deficiency. When applying manganese, the general recommendation for actual Mn in North Carolina is to add about 3 pounds per acre banded, 10 pounds per acre broadcast, or 0.5 pound per acre as a foliar spray. Foliar application of manganese is an efficient way of correcting an unexpected deficiency because lower rates are often as effective as much higher rates of soil-applied manganese. Chloride (Cl) There is no suitable soil test for chloride, but this nutrient is included in most N-P-K tobacco fertilizers. You will apply sufficient chloride when you use N-P-K fertilizers guaranteeing chloride at rates suggested in Table 5-7. Suggested rates of most fumigants also supply adequate amounts of chloride as chlorine; when Telone C-17 or Chlor-O-Pic is used, the N-P-K fertilizer does not need to contain chloride. Otherwise, the fertilizer should include enough chloride to provide a maximum of 20 to 30 pounds per acre. Higher rates will not improve yield but can reduce quality. Chloride may not be included in some fertilizers, particularly blends or liquids, unless requested by the grower. Excessive rates or improper application of some micronutrients can cause toxicity. Contact your county Cooperative Extension agent if you suspect you had a micronutrient problem in 2002 or if your soil test
15 indicates that a problem might occur in Your agent can help you decide whether treatment is advisable and, if so, which sources, rates, and application methods are most effective. Other Economic Considerations 1) Premium fertilizers with small amounts of several micronutrients and 20 to 30 percent water-insoluble nitrogen usually cost $10 to $20 more per ton than regular-grade fertilizers, but the yield or quality increases sometimes claimed for premium fertilizers cannot be confirmed in field tests. 2) Blended fertilizes generally cost several dollars less per ton than manufactured fertilizers of the same grade; they also perform as well as manufactured fertilizers of similar nutrient content if properly blended. 3) You can save additional several dollars per ton if you use bulk rather than bagged fertilizers. 4) Prescription blends and liquids prepared according to soil test specifications are often less expensive than dry, standard-grade fertilizers, but they may not be the best choice if broadcast application is the only option (see Dry Versus Liquid N-P-K discussed previously in this chapter and Time and Method of Application below). Also, growers with deep, sandy soils should make sure that the liquid or blended fertilizer they buy will supply sulfur and possibly chloride at rates suggested above. Time and Method of Application Proper placement and timing of fertilizer application provide maximum return for each dollar spent on fertilizers. Fertilizers should be applied at the proper time and with the proper method to maximize nutrient use by the crop while minimizing leaching losses and fertilizer salts injury to roots. Four methods of fertilize application have been evaluated in on-farm tests under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. Results varied among locations, primarily because of differences in soil moisture at and following transplanting: If soil moisture was adequate but not excessive, the bands at transplanting and bands within 10 days after transplanting methods yielded moderately better than the broadcast or one band deep methods. If early leaching conditions occurred, best results were obtained with the bands within 10 days after transplanting method, with bands at transplanting being a close second, and the broadcast method giving the poorest results. When the soil was dry, which contributed to fertilizer injury, the bands within 10 days after transplanting method gave the best results, and the one band deep method the poorest results. Overall, the bands at transplanting and bands within 10 days after transplanting methods produced better yields more consistently than the broadcast and one band deep methods. These methods are also more environmentally sound than pretransplant methods because nutrient uptake is more efficient and leaching losses are reduced. The broadcast and one band deep methods may contribute to fertilize salts injury, particularly on sandy soils in dry seasons. Also, because the fertilizer is sometimes applied several weeks before transplanting with these methods, there is more time for leaching to occur. The bands of transplanting and bands within 10 days after transplanting methods virtually eliminate fertilizer injury, resulting in a more uniform crop, and they may reduce leaching losses because the fertilizer is exposed to leaching conditions for a shorter time early in the season when leaching is most likely to occur. A problem with the bands within 10 days after transplanting method is that prolonged rains after transplanting may delay fertilizer application for more than 10 to 14 days. Because this delay may reduce early growth and possibly yields, many growers apply the N-P-K fertilizer as soon as the plants regain turgor or they apply some nitrogen (and sometimes potassium) at transplanting with equipment ( Soda-
16 Flo ) attached to the rear of the transplanter. This latter practice may be especially beneficial on poorly drained fields when the bands within 10 days after transplanting application method is planned for the N- P-K fertilizer. However you should reduce the rate of regular sidedress nitrogen accordingly, if more nitrogen is needed at all, to prevent ripening and curing problems due to excess nitrogen. On soils where leaching is not a problem, some growers use Soda-Flo as the only sidedress application, regardless of how the N-P-K fertilizer is applied. This eliminates a trip over the field or reduces the time and labor needed later for normal cultivation. Fertilizer Test Results, 2002 A test was conducted in 2002 to compare the effects of several fertilizer combinations on tobacco yield and quality (Table 5-12). The soil had a very high phosphorus level, so the soil test did not recommend adding any. In fact, the results of treatments 1 and 7 (adding 40 lb/a of phosphorus versus adding none) show that there is no need to apply fertilizer phosphorus on soils with high levels. Yield, quality, and early season growth were similar in both treatments. The test also found that sidedressers were equally effective. The results of treatments 1 through 4 which used common sidedressers, tracked with the results of past fertilizer studies (Tables 5-10 and 5-11). Fertilization Summary 1) Have a soil sample tested to determine nutrient and lime needs. Use dolomitic lime, if needed, to adjust ph and supply magnesium as well as calcium. Do not overlime! 2) Use a base nitrogen rate of 50 to 80 pounds per acre (total nitrogen from N-P-K and sidedress fertilizers); your portion of the rate range will depend on topsoil depth and texture, previous crop grown variety to be grown, and personal experience. 3) Select a high-analysis ratio of N-P-K fertilizer that will supply all the phosphorus suggested by the soil test when used at a rate that will supply no more than 40 pounds of nitrogen per acre. For many tobacco soils in North Carolina, this rate of a 1:1:3 or 1:0:3 ratio fertilizer will also supply adequate potassium. 4) Consider applying 20 to 30 pounds of sulfur per acre or possibly chloride on deep, sandy soils. There are no suitable soil tests for these nutrients, and some fertilizers d not contain them n adequate amounts. 5) Select a sidedress nitrogen fertilizer that contains potassium only if the N-P-K fertilizer in step 3 will not supply all the potassium suggested by the soil test. Only nitrogen from 1:0:0 ratio sidedressers will be sufficient for many soils. Additional potassium, if needed, can be obtained economically from 1:0:1 ratio sidedressers. Potassium levels in North Carolina tobacco soils are rarely low enough to require a 1:0:3 ratio sidedresser if 100 to 120 pounds of potassium per acre are applied from the N-P-K fertilizer. In addition, recent soil test results indicate that available potassium in subsoils of many tobacco fields is high enough that only 1:0:0 ratio sidedress fertilizers are needed in many instances, even when topsoil analyses suggest more than 120 pounds per acre of potassium. However, application of a sidedress fertilizer containing both nitrogen and potassium on partially drowned tobacco may be beneficial. 6) Determine and make leaching adjustments for nitrogen losses with caution only after leaching has occurred, not on the assumption that it will. Making a leaching adjustment on drowned tobacco often results in overapplication of nitrogen. 7) Use a method of N-P-K fertilizer application that maximizes nutrient uptake efficiency but minimizes fertilizer salts injury and early-season leaching losses, such as the bands at transplanting or bands within 10 days after transplanting methods. The latter method is more risky on poorly drained soils because frequent rains after transplanting could delay fertilizer application for more than 10 days.
17 Table Effect of Fertilizer Treatments on Tobacco Yield, Value, and Grade Index an the Central Crops Research Station, 2002 Treatment Yield Lb/A Value $/A Grade Index 1) (500 lb/a) (188 lb/a) 2) (500 lb/a) (194 lb/a) 3) (500 lb/a) (9.2 GPA) 4) (500 lb/a) CN-9 (27.3 GPA) 5) (500 lb/a) CN-9 (27.3 GPA) TPW (9.6 lb/a) 6) (500 lb/a) CN-9 (27.3 GPA) TPW (9.6 lb/a) 7) (500 lb/a) (188 lb/a) 8) (333 lb/a) (200 lb/a) 9) (308 lb/a) (194 lb/a) 3,231a 5,699a 70a 3,450a 6,045a 70a 3,286a 5,621a 65a 3,319a 5,809a 70a 3,346a 5,928a 74a 3,253a 5,645a 68a 3,383a 5,974a 72a 3,352a 5,913a 76a 3,396a 5,984a 75a 10) (308 lb/a) 3,156a 5,522a 71a (188 lb/a) Treatments results followed by the same letter within a column should be considered similar
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SL253.04 Soil and Leaf Tissue Testing for Commercial Citrus Production 1 Thomas A. Obreza, Mongi Zekri, Edward A. Hanlon, Kelly Morgan, Arnold Schumann, and Robert Rouse 2 Introduction Nutrient deficiency
Establishing pastures - Readers Note This document is part of a larger publication. The remaining parts and full version of the publication can be found at: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/dairy-cattle/feed/publications/establishing-pastures
Grapevine Nutrition: Healthy Vines = Hardy Vines Kevin W. Ker, PhD, P.Ag. KCMS Applied Research and Consulting Inc. and Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute (CCOVI) Brock University, St. Catharines
Evaluation of Combination Phosphorus Sulfur Fertilizer Products for Corn Production John Sawyer and Daniel Barker Professor and Assistant Scientist Department of Agronomy Iowa State University Introduction
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POTASSIUM Potassium is the last of what might be called the big three soil nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. These three primary nutrients are, by far, the nutrients most commonly limiting
PUTTING FORAGES TOGETHER FOR YEAR ROUND GRAZING Jimmy C. Henning A good rotational grazing system begins with a forage system that allows the maximum number of grazing days per year with forages that are
THE IMPORTANCE OF Ph CONTROL IN SPRAY SOLUTIONS Often we ask what affect does the ph in our spray solution have on pesticides and fertilizers that we apply to crops. In this article we will try to outline
DRIP IRRIGATION OF ALFALFA Jerry D. Neufeld 1 INTRODUCTION The Treasure Valley of Idaho produces many diversified and specialized crops. The primary irrigation systems are furrow and sprinkler irrigation.
CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM: THE SECONDARY COUSINS George Rehm, University of Minnesota 1. Introduction In the discipline of soil fertility, sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) are put into the category
Reprinted from the June 2009 Edition of GMPro Magazine Nitrogen: All Forms Are Not Equal Summary: By understanding the different chemical forms of nitrogen, you can manage rootzone ph and avoid toxic buildup
Mineral Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities Jim Owen, Jr. North Willamette Research and Extension Center Key to Nutrient Deficiencies Base of plant mobile (N, P, K, Mg) Whole (mid) plant partially mobile
Drinking Water Quality for Poultry Prepared by: Thomas A. Carter Specialist in Charge Extension Poultry Science Ronald E. Sneed Extension Biological and Agricultural Engineering Specialist Published by:
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