Diffusione e perfusione in risonanza magnetica. E. Pagani, M. Filippi

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Diffusione e perfusione in risonanza magnetica. E. Pagani, M. Filippi"

Transcription

1 Diffusione e perfusione in risonanza magnetica E. Pagani, M. Filippi

2 DW-MRI

3 DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED MRI Principles Diffusion results from a microspic random motion known as Brownian motion

4 THE RANDOM WALK How the position of a jiggling molecule should change with time? After a given time, how far is it likely to be from where it began? The collisions are all random, so that we do not know! A? B

5 DIFFUSION ON A MACROSCOPIC SCALE The net displacements of molecules over time are randomly distributed if we consider a large population of molecules. We can only calculate the probability that a molecule travels a distance r in a time t. For a simple liquid such probability has a gaussian distribution with zero mean (the probability of moving in any direction is the same!).

6 DIFFUSION DISTANCE The variance of the travelled distance is given by Einstein s equation: <r 2 > = 6Dt The mean square distance is proportional to time, in other words, the mean molecular displacement, the diffusion distance, increases linearly with the square root of time. The diffusion coefficient, D, depends on the temperature, and characterizes the mobility of the molecules in the medium.

7 DIFFUSION AND MRI MRI is naturally sensitive to motion. With the use of strong gradients, the effect of the very small movement of diffusing particles becomes visible G TE Carr, H.Y., Purcell, E.M., Phys Rev 94, 630.

8 The random motion of the diffusing protons in the presence of a magnetic field gradient results in a random distribution of the phase shifts within the spins This leads to an imperfect refocusing of the spin echo, i.e. to a reduced amplitude of the MR signal. Voxel Random Motion Phase distribution Signal attenuation Gradient Statistical effect

9 DIFFUSION AND MRI 0 Pulsed gradient Spin echo Nearly istantaneus phase shift Nucleus which has not moved is refocused. TE We have a procedure for detecting net motion during a controlled interval E.O. Stejskal. J Chem Phys 1965; 43(10),

10 FREE vs. RESTRICTED DIFFUSION Obtaining a precise period of time for observation of diffusion is important Diffusion distance FREE DIFFUSION HINDERED DIFFUSION RESTRICTED DIFFUSION Sqrt(diffusion time) For long diffusion times, the measured diffusion coefficient asymptotically approaches a new value, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).

11 ANALYTIC EXPRESSION Relating spin echo intensity and D A 0 : echo intensity with no gradients ln (A/A 0 )= -b.adc ADC A b depends on the integral of the applied magnetic field gradients

12 Pulsed gradient Spin echo b factor TE b = 2 G 2 [ 2 ( - /3) + 3 /30-2 /6] In the mammalian brain the linear range ln (A/A0) = -b.adc is for 0 > b > 2000

13 ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION Control subject In the white matter diffusion is anisotropic

14 DIFFUSION ANISOTROPY IN THE WHITE MATTER axon myelin sheath IN WHITE MATTER DIFFUSION IS MUCH GREATER ALONG THAN ACROSS AXONS: WHY? myelin sheath axonal membrane neurofilamentous cytoskeleton axonal transport

15 DIFFUSION ANISOTROPY IN THE WHITE MATTER myelin axon

16 ANALYTIC EXPRESSION ln (A/A 0 )= - b ij D ij D: Diffusion Tensor (3x3 matrix) 6 unknown components At least 6 measurements with gradients + 1 without Basser PJ, et al Biophysical Journal 66,

17 DT INTERPRETATION D can be interpreted as the covariance matrix of a gaussian distribution which characterises the diffusion process. A surface of constant probability takes the form of an ellipsoid in 3D space Linear case Planar case Spherical case

18 Size Quantitative indexes - Mean Diffusivity D xx + 1/3 D yy D zz D

19 Size Quantitative indexes - Mean Diffusivity - Principal diffusivities: diffusivities along the three principal directions 1 2 3

20 Diffusion Anisotropy - Fractional anisotropy index (FA): this is a measure of the deviation from isotropy and is defined to be proportional to the ratio between the magnitude of the anisotropic part to the magnitude of the DT.

21 IMAGES OF ANISOTROPY corpus callosum subcortical WM internal capsule FA images show high contrast between the strongly anisotropic WM and the virtually isotropic CSF and GM.

22 IMAGES OF ANISOTROPY parallel fiber arrangement Anisotropy is highly variable in different white matter regions depending on the degree of coherence of fiber tract directions. fibers with different orientations

23 Orientation Principal directions e1,e2 and e3 x z y - Color-coded principal diffusion direction

24 Orientation Fiber Tractography Follow the direction along which the voxelaveraged diffusivity is maximum.

25 Orientation Fiber Tractography

26 Beyond the diffusion tensor More complex models Model free Fourier inversion: q-space formalism, high angular resolution approach, q-ball approach. P.T. Callaghan, et al Nature 351: L.R. Frank, et al Magn Reson Med 45:935-9 D.S. Tuch, Magn Reson Med 52:

27 Perfusion

28 PERFUSION Can be measured in two ways: 1. MRI contrast agents as a bolus: bolus tracking 2. blood as an endogenous contrast agent: arterial spin labelling (ASL)

29 BOLUS TRACKING 1. contrast agent is injected over a short time (5 s) 2. images are acquired rapidly 3. echo-planar sequence to give good time resolution 4. signal reduction used to estimate concentration of contrast agent from the relaxivity and echo time

30 BOLUS TRACKING Baseline signal intensity Injection t

31 Log Transformation c(t) -ln( I(t) / I 0 ) -ln(i/i 0 ) Injection t

32 Take account of shape of bolus 1. Want a graph that is independent of the quality of the contrast injection 2. Mathematically form an idealised tissue response curve c(t) Response to real bolus c m (t) Response to idealised bolus c(t) t t

33 Take account of shape of bolus 3. Arterial input function can be measured from the carotid artery or from a large enough vessel in the image plane. c(t) Response to idealised bolus t

34 Physiologically meaningful parameters 1. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) 2. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) 3. Mean transit time (MTT) CBV = (k/ )( c m (t)dt / AIF(t)dt CBV / CBF = c(t)dt / c max MTT = CBV / CBF t

35 ARTERIAL SPIN LABELLING Acquire two images: 1. blood is labelled before it moves into the imaged slice. Acquisition starts after an estimate of the mean transit time ( 1 s ) 2. control image difference between the two images

36 ARTERIAL SPIN LABELLING blood volume fraction is small low SNR higher field strength non-invasive repeated measures

List of Image Sets...XIX. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Historical Introduction... 1

List of Image Sets...XIX. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Historical Introduction... 1 Contents List of Image Sets...XIX Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Historical Introduction... 1 1. MRI and Its Hardware... 9 1.1 Introduction... 9 1.1.1 Spin and Magnetization... 9 1.1.2 Precession: Rotating

More information

Cerebral Blood Supply

Cerebral Blood Supply Cerebral Hemodynamic Imaging 臨 Cerebral Blood Supply The brain 2% of body weight Cerebral blood flow 15% of cardiac output Continuous supply Cerebral Blood Flow CBF Delivers oxygen and nutrients Removes

More information

Quantitative Analysis of Medical Imaging Data

Quantitative Analysis of Medical Imaging Data Quantitative Analysis of Medical Imaging Data Brandon Whitcher PhD CStat Mango Solutions London, United Kingdom www.mango-solutions.com user!2011 17 August 2011 The Menu Today Motivation Early-Phase Drug

More information

MRI Physics I: Spins, Excitation, Relaxation

MRI Physics I: Spins, Excitation, Relaxation MRI Physics I: Spins, Excitation, Relaxation Douglas C. Biomedical Engineering University of Michigan Michigan Functional MRI Laboratory Outline Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging NMR Spins

More information

Magnetic susceptibility in MRI. María José Otero Díaz

Magnetic susceptibility in MRI. María José Otero Díaz Magnetic susceptibility in MRI María José Otero Díaz Summary What is magnetic susceptibility? Artefacts due to susceptibility in MRI How to measure susceptibility Susceptibility imaging Applications: tractography.

More information

Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Imaging Using Steady-State Free Precession

Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Imaging Using Steady-State Free Precession MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE 7, 346-351 (1988) Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Imaging Using Steady-State Free Precession DENIS LE BIHAN Diagnostic Radiology Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes

More information

Proton Diffusion in GM. Proton Diffusion in WM. Current Concepts. Proton Diffusion DWI. Department of Radiology Stanford University

Proton Diffusion in GM. Proton Diffusion in WM. Current Concepts. Proton Diffusion DWI. Department of Radiology Stanford University Perfusion MR () vs. (Perfusion PWI) Mike Moseley, Ph.D. Department of Radiology Stanford University http://rsl.stanford.edu/moseley/ Current Concepts Monterey October 2009 Start Proton displacement is

More information

Neuroimaging module I: Modern neuroimaging methods of investigation of the human brain in health and disease

Neuroimaging module I: Modern neuroimaging methods of investigation of the human brain in health and disease 1 Neuroimaging module I: Modern neuroimaging methods of investigation of the human brain in health and disease The following contains a summary of the content of the neuroimaging module I on the postgraduate

More information

3/30/2013. Disclosure. Advanced Neuro MRI: Imaging Techniques and Protocol Optimization. MRI, 35 year ago. MRI Today. Outlines

3/30/2013. Disclosure. Advanced Neuro MRI: Imaging Techniques and Protocol Optimization. MRI, 35 year ago. MRI Today. Outlines http://www.magnet.fsu.edu Disclosure Advanced Neuro MRI: Imaging Techniques and Protocol Optimization Research funding provided by Siemens Healthcare. Chen Lin, PhD DABR Indiana University School of Medicine

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Introduction Atomic magnetism Nuclear magnetic resonance refers to the behaviour of atomic nuclei in the presence of a magnetic field. The first principle required to understand

More information

Enhanced Visualization of Diffusion Tensor Data for Neurosurgery

Enhanced Visualization of Diffusion Tensor Data for Neurosurgery Enhanced Visualization of Diffusion Tensor Data for Neurosurgery Frank Enders 1,2, Dorit Merhof 1,2, Peter Hastreiter 1,2, Marc Stamminger 2 und Christopher Nimsky 1,3 1 Neurocenter, Dept. of Neurosurgery,

More information

Improving Interpretability: ASL and VASO

Improving Interpretability: ASL and VASO Improving Interpretability: ASL and VASO Manus J. Donahue Depts. of Radiology, Physics and Psychiatry School of Medicine School of Medicine MCN / VUIIS 1132 21st Avenue South, AAA3115 email: mj.donahue@vanderbilt.edu

More information

Upcoming 26 February Structural MRI

Upcoming 26 February Structural MRI Structural Imaging Upcoming 26 February Structural MRI 28 February Intro to functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fmri) using the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) effect 5/7 March Spring break:

More information

Arterial-Spin Labeling

Arterial-Spin Labeling Why N How! Arterial-Spin Labeling Jean Chen Postdoctoral Fellow A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School 02/17/2011 Why? How? Why is it called

More information

Advanced MRI methods in diagnostics of spinal cord pathology

Advanced MRI methods in diagnostics of spinal cord pathology Advanced MRI methods in diagnostics of spinal cord pathology Stanisław Kwieciński Department of Magnetic Resonance MR IMAGING LAB MRI /MRS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH ON HUMANS AND ANIMAL MODELS IN VIVO Equipment:

More information

Limitations of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient-Based Models in Characterizing Non-Gaussian Diffusion

Limitations of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient-Based Models in Characterizing Non-Gaussian Diffusion Limitations of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient-Based Models in Characterizing Non-Gaussian Diffusion Chunlei Liu, 1,2 Roland Bammer, 1 and Michael E. Moseley 1 * Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 54:419 428

More information

Diffusion MRI imaging for brain connectivity analysis

Diffusion MRI imaging for brain connectivity analysis Diffusion MRI imaging for brain connectivity analysis principles and challenges Prof. Jean-Philippe Thiran EPFL - http://lts5www.epfl.ch - jp.thiran@epfl.ch From Brownian motion to Diffusion MRI - Motivation

More information

GE Medical Systems Training in Partnership. Module 8: IQ: Acquisition Time

GE Medical Systems Training in Partnership. Module 8: IQ: Acquisition Time Module 8: IQ: Acquisition Time IQ : Acquisition Time Objectives...Describe types of data acquisition modes....compute acquisition times for 2D and 3D scans. 2D Acquisitions The 2D mode acquires and reconstructs

More information

BOLD Functional MRI. Outline !"#$"%%& BMB601 Ang Li 03/01/2011

BOLD Functional MRI. Outline !#$%%& BMB601 Ang Li 03/01/2011 BOLD Functional MRI BMB601 Ang Li 03/01/2011 Outline Introduction to BOLD functional MRI History of BOLD fmri Principles of the BOLD effect BOLD hemodynamic response %& INTRODUCTION OF FUNCTIONAL MRI Introduction

More information

MR Image Contrast. MRI Process. MRI Process. MRI Process. Apply RF pulse to tip NMV into transverse plane. Sample transverse magnetization

MR Image Contrast. MRI Process. MRI Process. MRI Process. Apply RF pulse to tip NMV into transverse plane. Sample transverse magnetization MRI Process MR Image Contrast Apply RF pulse to tip NMV into transverse plane B1 Wm. Faulkner, B.S.,R.T.(R)(MR)(CT), FSMRT H2O CH3 MRI Process Sample transverse magnetization MRI Process Wait while protons

More information

Optimal Strategies for Measuring Diffusion in Anisotropic Systems by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Optimal Strategies for Measuring Diffusion in Anisotropic Systems by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 42:515 525 (1999) Optimal Strategies for Measuring Diffusion in Anisotropic Systems by Magnetic Resonance Imaging D.K. Jones, 1 M.A. Horsfield, 1 * and A. Simmons 2,3 The

More information

Table 11: Pros and Cons of 1.5 T MRI vs. 3.0 T MRI; Safety and Technical Issues, and Clinical Applications

Table 11: Pros and Cons of 1.5 T MRI vs. 3.0 T MRI; Safety and Technical Issues, and Clinical Applications Safety Issue 3.0 T MRI Pro 3.0 T MRI Con Immediate fringe field surrounding magnet A ferromagnetic object inadvertently brought into the scan room will experience a sharp increase in attraction toward

More information

Timing Diagrams for Spin Echo

Timing Diagrams for Spin Echo Outline 5.1 Pulse Sequences & Image Contrast for MRI Timing Diagrams for Spin Echo pulse sequences including: spin, fast spin, inversion recovery, gradient and planar imaging Carolyn Kaut Roth, RT (R)(MR)(CT)(M)(CV)

More information

Fast Spin Echo Imaging Frank R Korosec, PhD University of Wisconsin Madison

Fast Spin Echo Imaging Frank R Korosec, PhD University of Wisconsin Madison Fast Spin Echo Imaging Frank R Korosec, PhD University of Wisconsin Madison In conventional spin echo (SE) imaging, the longitudinal magnetization (that is generated by the presence of the main magnetic

More information

POLITECNICO DI MILANO DIPARTIMENTO DI ELETTRONICA, INFORMAZIONE E BIOINGEGNERIA (DEIB) DOCTORAL PROGRAMME IN BIOENGINEERING

POLITECNICO DI MILANO DIPARTIMENTO DI ELETTRONICA, INFORMAZIONE E BIOINGEGNERIA (DEIB) DOCTORAL PROGRAMME IN BIOENGINEERING POLITECNICO DI MILANO DIPARTIMENTO DI ELETTRONICA, INFORMAZIONE E BIOINGEGNERIA (DEIB) DOCTORAL PROGRAMME IN BIOENGINEERING MODEL-BASED ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSION MAGNETIC RESONANCE: STUDY OF MICROSTRUCTURAL

More information

Structural MRI Class 27 November 27 th 2013 DiNino

Structural MRI Class 27 November 27 th 2013 DiNino NBIO 401 Fall 2013 Structural MRI Class 27 November 27 th 2013 DiNino Objectives Be able to list three common misconceptions about structural MRI and explain why these are incorrect Be able to label the

More information

Mean Diffusivity and Fractional Anisotropy Histograms of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Mean Diffusivity and Fractional Anisotropy Histograms of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 22:952 958, May 2001 Mean Diffusivity and Fractional Anisotropy Histograms of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Mara Cercignani, Matilde Inglese, Elisabetta Pagani, Giancarlo Comi,

More information

Contrast-Enhanced MRI for Tissue Perfusion

Contrast-Enhanced MRI for Tissue Perfusion Contrast-Enhanced MRI for Tissue Perfusion Hsiao-Wen Chung ( 鍾孝文 ), Ph.D., Professor Dept. Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan Univ. Dept. Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital 1 of 95 Perfusion

More information

1 Introduction. Fast Gradient Echo Sequences Including Balanced SSFP Brian Hargreaves Department of Radiology, Stanford University

1 Introduction. Fast Gradient Echo Sequences Including Balanced SSFP Brian Hargreaves Department of Radiology, Stanford University Fast Gradient Echo Sequences Including Balanced SSFP Brian Hargreaves Department of Radiology, Stanford University bah@stanford.edu 1 Introduction Many common magnetic resonance imaging sequences are classified

More information

Incorporating Internal Gradient and Restricted Diffusion Effects in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Log Interpretation

Incorporating Internal Gradient and Restricted Diffusion Effects in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Log Interpretation The Open-Access Journal for the Basic Principles of Diffusion Theory, Experiment and Application Incorporating Internal Gradient and Restricted Diffusion Effects in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Log Interpretation

More information

Brain Connectivity Mapping and Analysis Using Diffusion MRI

Brain Connectivity Mapping and Analysis Using Diffusion MRI 19 Brain Connectivity Mapping and Analysis Using Diffusion MRI Brian G. Booth and Ghassan Hamarneh CONTENTS 19.1 Diffusion-Weighted Image Acquisition...530 19.1.1 Biological Basis for Diffusion MRI...530

More information

IMA Preprint Series # 2233

IMA Preprint Series # 2233 ODF RECONSTRUCTION IN Q-BALL IMAGING WITH SOLID ANGLE CONSIDERATION By Iman Aganj Christophe Lenglet and Guillermo Sapiro IMA Preprint Series # 2233 ( January 2009 ) INSTITUTE FOR MATHEMATICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

More information

runl I IUI%I/\L Magnetic Resonance Imaging

runl I IUI%I/\L Magnetic Resonance Imaging runl I IUI%I/\L Magnetic Resonance Imaging SECOND EDITION Scott A. HuetteS Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Allen W. Song Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Gregory McCarthy

More information

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging What are the uses of MRI? To begin, not only are there a variety of scanning methodologies available, but there are also a variety of MRI methodologies available which provide

More information

ParaVision 6. Innovation with Integrity. The Next Generation of MR Acquisition and Processing for Preclinical and Material Research.

ParaVision 6. Innovation with Integrity. The Next Generation of MR Acquisition and Processing for Preclinical and Material Research. ParaVision 6 The Next Generation of MR Acquisition and Processing for Preclinical and Material Research Innovation with Integrity Preclinical MRI A new standard in Preclinical Imaging ParaVision sets a

More information

Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Comprehensive Update on Principles and Techniques

Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Comprehensive Update on Principles and Techniques Review Article Neuroimaging and Head & Neck http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2014.15.5.554 pissn 1229-6929 eissn 2005-8330 Korean J Radiol 2014;15(5):554-577 Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Comprehensive

More information

This context is written for sixty credits master thesis in Brain Tissue Segmentation Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data

This context is written for sixty credits master thesis in Brain Tissue Segmentation Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data This context is written for sixty credits master thesis in Brain Tissue Segmentationn Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data Master of Science Thesis MOHAMMAD JAVADI Department of Signals and Systemss Division

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Determination of T1 and T2 values for Oil, Methanol, and Water

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Determination of T1 and T2 values for Oil, Methanol, and Water Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Determination of 1 and 2 values for Oil, Methanol, and Water Yen- Ruh Wuu, Professor Fraden Department of Physics, Brandeis University Abstract Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

More information

Image Processing for Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Image Processing for Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Image Processing for Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging C.-F. Westin, S.E. Maier, B. Khidhir, P. Everett, F.A. Jolesz, and R. Kikinis Surgical Planning Lab, Radiology, Brigham and Women s Hospital,

More information

Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance

Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Contents: Jorge Jovicich jovicich@mit.edu I) Historical Background II) An MR experiment - Overview - Can we scan the subject? - The subject goes into the magnet -

More information

IMAGE PROCESSING IN MR BY JOSEPH V HAJNAL. Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital

IMAGE PROCESSING IN MR BY JOSEPH V HAJNAL. Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital IMAGE PROCESSING IN MR BY JOSEPH V HAJNAL Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital The object of the lecture is to provide an introduction to and understanding of the following topics

More information

Matrix, Gradients & Signals Image formation & k-pace

Matrix, Gradients & Signals Image formation & k-pace Outline 6.1 MR Image Formation, s & Signals Image formation & k-pace Imaging s & Signals, and Amplitude selection encoding encoding Carolyn Kaut Roth, RT (R)(MR)(CT)(M)(CV) FSMRT CEO Imaging Education

More information

NMR for Physical and Biological Scientists Thomas C. Pochapsky and Susan Sondej Pochapsky Table of Contents

NMR for Physical and Biological Scientists Thomas C. Pochapsky and Susan Sondej Pochapsky Table of Contents Preface Symbols and fundamental constants 1. What is spectroscopy? A semiclassical description of spectroscopy Damped harmonics Quantum oscillators The spectroscopic experiment Ensembles and coherence

More information

Shape Anisotropy: Tensor Distance to Anisotropy Measure

Shape Anisotropy: Tensor Distance to Anisotropy Measure Shape Anisotropy: Tensor Distance to Anisotropy Measure Yonas T. Weldeselassie, Saba El-Hilo and M. Stella Atkins Medical Image Analysis Lab, School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University ABSTRACT

More information

Physics of MRI. Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201

Physics of MRI. Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Physics of MRI Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Based on J. L. Prince and J. M. Links, Medical Imaging Signals and Systems, and lecture notes by Prince. Figures are from the textbook

More information

Structural Brain Connectivity Analysis on HCP Dataset

Structural Brain Connectivity Analysis on HCP Dataset Structural Brain Connectivity Analysis on HCP Dataset Zhengwu Zhang Feb. 2, 2016 Joint work with Hongtu Zhu, Anuj Srivastava and Maxime Descoteaux Diffusion in Brain Tissue Ø Water molecules in different

More information

The Physiological Basis of the Haemodynamic Response

The Physiological Basis of the Haemodynamic Response The Physiological Basis of the Haemodynamic Response The Primate Visual System Bi/CNS 184 1 Four Bold Questions What is BOLD? How BOLD is generated physiologically? How BOLD is imaged using fmri? What

More information

Combined MR Data Acquisition of Multicontrast Images Using Variable Acquisition Parameters and K-Space Data Sharing

Combined MR Data Acquisition of Multicontrast Images Using Variable Acquisition Parameters and K-Space Data Sharing 806 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 22, NO. 7, JULY 2003 Combined MR Data Acquisition of Multicontrast Images Using Variable Acquisition Parameters and K-Space Data Sharing Ralf Mekle, Andrew

More information

Disclosure 8/6/2012. Clinical Educator Integra LifeSciences Neurosurgery Division. Rachel Malloy, MSN, RN, CNRN

Disclosure 8/6/2012. Clinical Educator Integra LifeSciences Neurosurgery Division. Rachel Malloy, MSN, RN, CNRN Disclosure Rachel Malloy, MSN, RN, CNRN Clinical Educator Integra LifeSciences Neurosurgery Division Rachel Malloy, MSN, RN, CNRN Is there hemorrhage? Are there other causes of symptoms? Is there visible

More information

2.1 Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques... 62

2.1 Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques... 62 Chapter 2 Materials and Methods Part I Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2.1 Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques... 62 2.2 The physics of NMR and MRI... 63 2.21 Spin... 63 2.22 Net magnetisation...

More information

CH407/CH507 INTERPRETATIVE SPECTROSCOPY

CH407/CH507 INTERPRETATIVE SPECTROSCOPY Dr.D. SPICER 3. EECTRON SPIN RESONANCE (ESR) SPECTROSCOPY. 3.1 Background Electron spin resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), has been used for about the last 50 years to

More information

Imaging of Acute Stroke. Noam Eshkar, M.D New Jersey Neuroscience Institute JFK Medical Center Edison Radiology Group

Imaging of Acute Stroke. Noam Eshkar, M.D New Jersey Neuroscience Institute JFK Medical Center Edison Radiology Group Imaging of Acute Stroke Noam Eshkar, M.D New Jersey Neuroscience Institute JFK Medical Center Edison Radiology Group Modalities Non Contrast CT (NCCT) Contrast CT Angiography MRI MR Angiography Perfusion

More information

Multiparametric microvascular MRI: a cluster approach to characterize glioma

Multiparametric microvascular MRI: a cluster approach to characterize glioma Multiparametric microvascular MRI: a cluster approach to characterize glioma Nicolas Coquery Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences U836 Equipe 5: Neuroimagerie Fonctionnelle et Perfusion Cérébrale nicolas.coquery@ujf-grenoble.fr

More information

What is Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal

What is Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal What is Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal Simo Vanni Brain Research Unit, O.V. Lounasmaa Laboratory Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre Aalto University School of Science Internet site for the

More information

Introduction to Neuroimaging Data. Phebe Kemmer BIOS 516 Sept 17, 2015

Introduction to Neuroimaging Data. Phebe Kemmer BIOS 516 Sept 17, 2015 Introduction to Neuroimaging Data Phebe Kemmer BIOS 516 Sept 17, 2015 The Human Brain Controls all body activities Heart rate, breathing, sexual function Motor activities and senses Learning, memory, language

More information

Radiofrequency Coil Quality Control

Radiofrequency Coil Quality Control Radiofrequency Coil Quality Control Donna M. Reeve, MS, DABR, DABMP Department of Imaging Physics Educational Objectives Describe different approaches to performing RF coil quality control testing Discuss

More information

7/14/2009. Outlines. MR Perfusion Imaging Techniques and Applications. MR Perfusion Imaging Methods. Perfusion. Typical DSC Perfusion Protocol

7/14/2009. Outlines. MR Perfusion Imaging Techniques and Applications. MR Perfusion Imaging Methods. Perfusion. Typical DSC Perfusion Protocol Outlines MR Perfusion Imaging Techniques and Applications Indiana University School of Medicine & Clarian Health Partners Perfusion Modeling Methods of Perfusion measurements and clinical protocols. Perfusion

More information

Challenges for Non-Invasive Brain Perfusion Quantification Using Arterial Spin Labeling

Challenges for Non-Invasive Brain Perfusion Quantification Using Arterial Spin Labeling The Neuroradiology Journal 24: 77-83, 2011 www.centauro.it Challenges for Non-Invasive Brain Perfusion Quantification Using Arterial Spin Labeling I. SOUSA 1,2,3, N. SANTOS 1,2,3, J. SANCHES 1,2, P. VILELA

More information

Lecture 1: Introduction to Random Walks and Diffusion

Lecture 1: Introduction to Random Walks and Diffusion Lecture : Introduction to Random Walks and Diffusion Scribe: Chris H. Rycroft (and Martin Z. Bazant) Department of Mathematics, MIT February, 5 History The term random walk was originally proposed by Karl

More information

5.35 Module 1 Lecture Summary 1 Fall 2012 SPECTROSCOPY Module #1

5.35 Module 1 Lecture Summary 1 Fall 2012 SPECTROSCOPY Module #1 SPECTROSCOPY 5.35 Module #1 Introduction to spectroscopy Spectroscopy permits measurement of a tremendous amount of information, often in a very simple way. Module consists of UV-VIS, fluorescence, IR,

More information

THEORY, SIMULATION, AND COMPENSATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MOTION ARTIFACTS IN FUNCTIONAL MRI. Douglas C. Noll* and Walter Schneider

THEORY, SIMULATION, AND COMPENSATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MOTION ARTIFACTS IN FUNCTIONAL MRI. Douglas C. Noll* and Walter Schneider THEORY, SIMULATION, AND COMPENSATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MOTION ARTIFACTS IN FUNCTIONAL MRI Douglas C. Noll* and Walter Schneider Departments of *Radiology, *Electrical Engineering, and Psychology University

More information

Current Trends in the Imaging of Diffuse Axonal Injury

Current Trends in the Imaging of Diffuse Axonal Injury September 2009 Current Trends in the Imaging of Diffuse Axonal Injury University of Texas Medical School in San Antonio Harvard Medical School Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Outline Introduction

More information

Quantitative Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Human Brain

Quantitative Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Human Brain Quantitative Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Human Brain The effect of varying number of acquisitions and number of diffusion sensitizing directions by Ketil Oppedal Thesis

More information

MRI for Paediatric Surgeons

MRI for Paediatric Surgeons MRI for Paediatric Surgeons Starship David Perry Paediatric Radiologist Starship Children s Hospital CHILDREN S HEALTH What determines the brightness of a pixel in MRI? i.e. What determines the strength

More information

Techniques of Fat Suppression

Techniques of Fat Suppression Introduction Techniques of Fat Suppression Ian Cameron, PhD FCCPM MR Physicist, The Ottawa Hospital, 501 Smyth Rd., Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1H 8L6 The Magnetic Resonance (MR) signal used to create MR images

More information

MRI "ALL-IN-ONE" Registry Review. Josh Van Den Bossche B.S., R.T. (R)(MR)

MRI ALL-IN-ONE Registry Review. Josh Van Den Bossche B.S., R.T. (R)(MR) MRI "ALL-IN-ONE" Registry Review Josh Van Den Bossche B.S., R.T. (R)(MR) Copyright 2014 Josh Van Den Bossche All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied or transmitted in any form or

More information

Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum

Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum Calculation of IR & NMR Spectra (Measuring nuclear vibrations and spins) 2013 EM spectrum Lecture Outline IR vibrations of nuclei on the electronic PES Theory Calculation scheme Strengths & limitations

More information

Towards DSC-based CAD applications in brain tumor imaging

Towards DSC-based CAD applications in brain tumor imaging Towards DSC-based CAD applications in brain tumor imaging or Get your hands off! Kyrre E. Emblem, PhD The Interventional Centre, Rikshospitalet,, Oslo, Norway A.A. MartinosCenter for Biomedical Imaging,

More information

The Variability of DTI Values in the Human Cervical and Lumbar Spinal Cord

The Variability of DTI Values in the Human Cervical and Lumbar Spinal Cord The Variability of DTI Values in the Human Cervical and Lumbar Spinal Cord by Celina Nahanni A thesis submitted to the Centre for Neuroscience in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master

More information

Lecture 14. Point Spread Function (PSF)

Lecture 14. Point Spread Function (PSF) Lecture 14 Point Spread Function (PSF), Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR), Contrast-to-noise Ratio (CNR), and Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) Point Spread Function (PSF) Recollect

More information

Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging Mathematics: Part I. Tensors, Rotations, and Eigenvectors

Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging Mathematics: Part I. Tensors, Rotations, and Eigenvectors Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging Mathematics: Part I. Tensors, Rotations, and Eigenvectors PETER B. KINGSLEY Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset,

More information

Spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation

Spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation Spin-lattice and spin-spin relaation Sequence of events in the NMR eperiment: (i) application of a 90 pulse alters the population ratios, and creates transverse magnetic field components (M () ); (ii)

More information

Radiative Processes in Astrophysics

Radiative Processes in Astrophysics Radiative Processes in Astrophysics I. Definitions, Introduction to Radiative Transfer theory Eline Tolstoy km. 195 etolstoy@astro.rug.nl Electromagnetic Spectrum refraction, diffraction & interference

More information

FieldStrength. Publication for the Philips MRI Community Issue 36 December Application tips: voxel size, bandwidth and water-fat shift

FieldStrength. Publication for the Philips MRI Community Issue 36 December Application tips: voxel size, bandwidth and water-fat shift FieldStrength Publication for the Philips MRI Community Issue 36 December 2008 Application tips: voxel size, bandwidth and water-fat shift This article is part of Field Strength issue 36, Dec. 2008 Application

More information

Prime Open-MRI Hitachi Medical Corporation MR Sales & Marketing. Copyright Hitachi Medical Corporation All rights reserved.

Prime Open-MRI Hitachi Medical Corporation MR Sales & Marketing. Copyright Hitachi Medical Corporation All rights reserved. Prime Open-MRI Hitachi Medical Corporation MR Sales & Marketing Copyright Hitachi Medical Corporation.2010. All rights reserved. A Different Solution for High-field Applications The prime magnet technologies

More information

Blood Flow Measurement Techniques

Blood Flow Measurement Techniques Blood Flow Measurement Techniques! not only blood pressure but blood flow important information! describes the supply of blood in organs and tissue! abnormal changes in the blood flow or blood velocity

More information

MRI Physics (Phys 352A)

MRI Physics (Phys 352A) MRI Physics (Phys 352A) Manus J. Donahue: mj.donahue@vanderbilt.edu Department of Radiology, Neurology, Physics, and Psychiatry Office: Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science (VUIIS) AAA-3115

More information

Patient s renal function

Patient s renal function Gadolinium Bolus Contrast Enhanced MRA Wm. Faulkner, B.S.,R.T.(R)(MR)(CT), FSMRT Largely eliminates flow artifacts seen on TOF or PC sequences Image contrast dependent on differences between T1 of gad

More information

Challenges in Medical Imaging

Challenges in Medical Imaging Challenges in Medical Imaging PhD Candidate Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences TÜBITAK 112E320 (2013-2016): New computational mathematical methods in pre-and postoperative brainstem white matter

More information

2/24/2009. Lecture 4 k-space Sampling Techniques and Applications. Clinical MRI Education Lecture 4 will 7am Tue. 2/24. Filling of k-space

2/24/2009. Lecture 4 k-space Sampling Techniques and Applications. Clinical MRI Education Lecture 4 will 7am Tue. 2/24. Filling of k-space Phase Encoding Steps (res = 4) Clinical MRI Education Lecture 4 will start @ 7am Tue. /4 Thanks for arriving early. Please wait Lecture 4 k-space Sampling Techniques and Applications Chen Lin, PhD Indiana

More information

Diffusion - relaxation distribution functions of sedimentary rocks in different saturation states

Diffusion - relaxation distribution functions of sedimentary rocks in different saturation states To be submitted to: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diffusion - relaxation distribution functions of sedimentary rocks in different saturation states M. D. Hürlimann (1), M. Flaum (2), L. Venkataramanan (1),

More information

Deriving and interpreting PK parameters in a physiological model

Deriving and interpreting PK parameters in a physiological model Deriving and interpreting PK parameters in a physiological model Anders Källén Anders.Kallen@AstraZeneca.com AstraZeneca R&D Lund/Biostatistics PK Phys model p. 1/18 Purpose of this presentation Two main

More information

Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance (NMR) logging

Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance (NMR) logging Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance (NMR) logging Definition of NMR Basic physics Tool designs Applications and examples Most of the examples and images shown in this lecture are from the following paper: Nuclear

More information

Quantitative Recovery Ordered (Q-ROSY) and Diffusion. Ordered Spectroscopy using the Spoiler Recovery. Approach

Quantitative Recovery Ordered (Q-ROSY) and Diffusion. Ordered Spectroscopy using the Spoiler Recovery. Approach The Open-Access Journal for the Basic Principles of Diffusion Theory, Experiment and Application Quantitative Recovery Ordered (Q-ROSY) and Diffusion Ordered Spectroscopy using the Spoiler Recovery Approach

More information

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Concussion: a structural approach. Paul Polak, M.A.Sc MRI Physicist Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center Buffalo, NY

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Concussion: a structural approach. Paul Polak, M.A.Sc MRI Physicist Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center Buffalo, NY Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Concussion: a structural approach Paul Polak, M.A.Sc MRI Physicist Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center Buffalo, NY Why Advanced Imaging? Why Advanced Imaging? normal acute

More information

Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Glycerin and Mineral Oil

Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Glycerin and Mineral Oil Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Glycerin and Mineral Oil Janet Chao, Dean Henze, Patrick Smith, Kent Lee February 27, 2013 Abstract Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was used in order to

More information

Automatic time gain compensation and dynamic range control in ultrasound imaging systems

Automatic time gain compensation and dynamic range control in ultrasound imaging systems Automatic time gain compensation and dynamic range control in ultrasound imaging systems Duhgoon Lee, Yong Sun Kim, and Jong Beom Ra * Dept. of EECS, KAIST, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-70 Korea

More information

Acoustic Velocity, Impedance, Reflection, Transmission, Attenuation, and Acoustic Etalons

Acoustic Velocity, Impedance, Reflection, Transmission, Attenuation, and Acoustic Etalons Acoustic Velocity, Impedance, Reflection, Transmission, Attenuation, and Acoustic Etalons Acoustic Velocity The equation of motion in a solid is (1) T = ρ 2 u t 2 (1) where T is the stress tensor, ρ is

More information

AAPM Summer School 2001 Troubleshooting the ACR MRI Accreditation Phantom Tests

AAPM Summer School 2001 Troubleshooting the ACR MRI Accreditation Phantom Tests Documents from ACR Troubleshooting the ACR MRI Accreditation Phantom Data Geoffrey D. Clarke University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Site Scanning Instructions Positioning & scan parameters

More information

Techniques and Physics

Techniques and Physics Techniques and Physics Semester 1 / Autumn 20 Credits Each Course is composed of Modules & Activities. Modules: Imaging Basics NI4R IMSc Computed Tomography Basics NI4R IMSc MR Basics NI4R IMSc Ultrasound

More information

Extensions to 3D and Improving Efficiency with Pulsed Field Gradients BCMB/CHEM 8190

Extensions to 3D and Improving Efficiency with Pulsed Field Gradients BCMB/CHEM 8190 Extensions to 3D and Improving Efficiency with Pulsed Field Gradients BCMB/CHEM 8190 Crowding in 2D NMR Spectra 2D NMR spectra of biomolecules are subject to problematic signal overlap - here (right) is

More information

Comparison of In Vivo and Ex Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Rhesus Macaques at Short and Long Diffusion Times

Comparison of In Vivo and Ex Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Rhesus Macaques at Short and Long Diffusion Times 1 The Open Neuroimaging Journal, 2011, 5, 00-00 Open Access Comparison of In Vivo and Ex Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Rhesus Macaques at Short and Long Diffusion Times Swati Rane 1 and Timothy Q. Duong*,2

More information

Biophysics I. DIFFUSION OSMOSIS

Biophysics I. DIFFUSION OSMOSIS EXPERIMENT 1 Experiment 1: add a droplet of ink to a glass of water Biophysics I. OSMOSIS 5th September 2012 Dr. Beáta Bugyi University of Pécs, Medical School, Department of Biophysics Observation 1:

More information

MRI Analysis of the Relaxation Data and Hidden Surprises

MRI Analysis of the Relaxation Data and Hidden Surprises MRI Analysis of the Relaxation Data and Hidden Surprises Stathis D. Gotsis, Ph.D. EUROMEDICA-Encephalos, Halandri, Greece DEEP General Assembly Athens, July 3-5, 2014 Gotsis 6. Quantitative evaluation

More information

MEASUREMENT OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW USING ARTERIAL SPIN LABELING METHOD ACROSS LIFESPAN CIWEN WANG. Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of

MEASUREMENT OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW USING ARTERIAL SPIN LABELING METHOD ACROSS LIFESPAN CIWEN WANG. Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of MEASUREMENT OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW USING ARTERIAL SPIN LABELING METHOD ACROSS LIFESPAN by CIWEN WANG Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Arlington in Partial Fulfillment

More information

Neuroimaging Biomarkers in HIV Infection: Report of Working Group 4. J.T. Becker (Pittsburgh, USA) L.G. Epstein (Chicago, USA)

Neuroimaging Biomarkers in HIV Infection: Report of Working Group 4. J.T. Becker (Pittsburgh, USA) L.G. Epstein (Chicago, USA) Neuroimaging Biomarkers in HIV Infection: Report of Working Group 4 J.T. Becker (Pittsburgh, USA) L.G. Epstein (Chicago, USA) NIMH/NINDS Consensus Meeting 13 June 2005 Objectives for Neuroimaging Markers

More information

Structural brain imaging is a window on postnatal brain development in children. Terry Jernigan

Structural brain imaging is a window on postnatal brain development in children. Terry Jernigan Structural brain imaging is a window on postnatal brain development in children Terry Jernigan Old (but still widely held) View of Human Brain Structure All neurons are present at birth. Myelination of

More information