Diffusione e perfusione in risonanza magnetica. E. Pagani, M. Filippi


 Meghan Casey
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Diffusione e perfusione in risonanza magnetica E. Pagani, M. Filippi
2 DWMRI
3 DIFFUSIONWEIGHTED MRI Principles Diffusion results from a microspic random motion known as Brownian motion
4 THE RANDOM WALK How the position of a jiggling molecule should change with time? After a given time, how far is it likely to be from where it began? The collisions are all random, so that we do not know! A? B
5 DIFFUSION ON A MACROSCOPIC SCALE The net displacements of molecules over time are randomly distributed if we consider a large population of molecules. We can only calculate the probability that a molecule travels a distance r in a time t. For a simple liquid such probability has a gaussian distribution with zero mean (the probability of moving in any direction is the same!).
6 DIFFUSION DISTANCE The variance of the travelled distance is given by Einstein s equation: <r 2 > = 6Dt The mean square distance is proportional to time, in other words, the mean molecular displacement, the diffusion distance, increases linearly with the square root of time. The diffusion coefficient, D, depends on the temperature, and characterizes the mobility of the molecules in the medium.
7 DIFFUSION AND MRI MRI is naturally sensitive to motion. With the use of strong gradients, the effect of the very small movement of diffusing particles becomes visible G TE Carr, H.Y., Purcell, E.M., Phys Rev 94, 630.
8 The random motion of the diffusing protons in the presence of a magnetic field gradient results in a random distribution of the phase shifts within the spins This leads to an imperfect refocusing of the spin echo, i.e. to a reduced amplitude of the MR signal. Voxel Random Motion Phase distribution Signal attenuation Gradient Statistical effect
9 DIFFUSION AND MRI 0 Pulsed gradient Spin echo Nearly istantaneus phase shift Nucleus which has not moved is refocused. TE We have a procedure for detecting net motion during a controlled interval E.O. Stejskal. J Chem Phys 1965; 43(10),
10 FREE vs. RESTRICTED DIFFUSION Obtaining a precise period of time for observation of diffusion is important Diffusion distance FREE DIFFUSION HINDERED DIFFUSION RESTRICTED DIFFUSION Sqrt(diffusion time) For long diffusion times, the measured diffusion coefficient asymptotically approaches a new value, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).
11 ANALYTIC EXPRESSION Relating spin echo intensity and D A 0 : echo intensity with no gradients ln (A/A 0 )= b.adc ADC A b depends on the integral of the applied magnetic field gradients
12 Pulsed gradient Spin echo b factor TE b = 2 G 2 [ 2 (  /3) + 3 /302 /6] In the mammalian brain the linear range ln (A/A0) = b.adc is for 0 > b > 2000
13 ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION Control subject In the white matter diffusion is anisotropic
14 DIFFUSION ANISOTROPY IN THE WHITE MATTER axon myelin sheath IN WHITE MATTER DIFFUSION IS MUCH GREATER ALONG THAN ACROSS AXONS: WHY? myelin sheath axonal membrane neurofilamentous cytoskeleton axonal transport
15 DIFFUSION ANISOTROPY IN THE WHITE MATTER myelin axon
16 ANALYTIC EXPRESSION ln (A/A 0 )=  b ij D ij D: Diffusion Tensor (3x3 matrix) 6 unknown components At least 6 measurements with gradients + 1 without Basser PJ, et al Biophysical Journal 66,
17 DT INTERPRETATION D can be interpreted as the covariance matrix of a gaussian distribution which characterises the diffusion process. A surface of constant probability takes the form of an ellipsoid in 3D space Linear case Planar case Spherical case
18 Size Quantitative indexes  Mean Diffusivity D xx + 1/3 D yy D zz D
19 Size Quantitative indexes  Mean Diffusivity  Principal diffusivities: diffusivities along the three principal directions 1 2 3
20 Diffusion Anisotropy  Fractional anisotropy index (FA): this is a measure of the deviation from isotropy and is defined to be proportional to the ratio between the magnitude of the anisotropic part to the magnitude of the DT.
21 IMAGES OF ANISOTROPY corpus callosum subcortical WM internal capsule FA images show high contrast between the strongly anisotropic WM and the virtually isotropic CSF and GM.
22 IMAGES OF ANISOTROPY parallel fiber arrangement Anisotropy is highly variable in different white matter regions depending on the degree of coherence of fiber tract directions. fibers with different orientations
23 Orientation Principal directions e1,e2 and e3 x z y  Colorcoded principal diffusion direction
24 Orientation Fiber Tractography Follow the direction along which the voxelaveraged diffusivity is maximum.
25 Orientation Fiber Tractography
26 Beyond the diffusion tensor More complex models Model free Fourier inversion: qspace formalism, high angular resolution approach, qball approach. P.T. Callaghan, et al Nature 351: L.R. Frank, et al Magn Reson Med 45:9359 D.S. Tuch, Magn Reson Med 52:
27 Perfusion
28 PERFUSION Can be measured in two ways: 1. MRI contrast agents as a bolus: bolus tracking 2. blood as an endogenous contrast agent: arterial spin labelling (ASL)
29 BOLUS TRACKING 1. contrast agent is injected over a short time (5 s) 2. images are acquired rapidly 3. echoplanar sequence to give good time resolution 4. signal reduction used to estimate concentration of contrast agent from the relaxivity and echo time
30 BOLUS TRACKING Baseline signal intensity Injection t
31 Log Transformation c(t) ln( I(t) / I 0 ) ln(i/i 0 ) Injection t
32 Take account of shape of bolus 1. Want a graph that is independent of the quality of the contrast injection 2. Mathematically form an idealised tissue response curve c(t) Response to real bolus c m (t) Response to idealised bolus c(t) t t
33 Take account of shape of bolus 3. Arterial input function can be measured from the carotid artery or from a large enough vessel in the image plane. c(t) Response to idealised bolus t
34 Physiologically meaningful parameters 1. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) 2. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) 3. Mean transit time (MTT) CBV = (k/ )( c m (t)dt / AIF(t)dt CBV / CBF = c(t)dt / c max MTT = CBV / CBF t
35 ARTERIAL SPIN LABELLING Acquire two images: 1. blood is labelled before it moves into the imaged slice. Acquisition starts after an estimate of the mean transit time ( 1 s ) 2. control image difference between the two images
36 ARTERIAL SPIN LABELLING blood volume fraction is small low SNR higher field strength noninvasive repeated measures
Quantitative Analysis of Medical Imaging Data
Quantitative Analysis of Medical Imaging Data Brandon Whitcher PhD CStat Mango Solutions London, United Kingdom www.mangosolutions.com user!2011 17 August 2011 The Menu Today Motivation EarlyPhase Drug
More informationNuclear Magnetic Resonance
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Introduction Atomic magnetism Nuclear magnetic resonance refers to the behaviour of atomic nuclei in the presence of a magnetic field. The first principle required to understand
More informationNeuroimaging module I: Modern neuroimaging methods of investigation of the human brain in health and disease
1 Neuroimaging module I: Modern neuroimaging methods of investigation of the human brain in health and disease The following contains a summary of the content of the neuroimaging module I on the postgraduate
More informationAdvanced MRI methods in diagnostics of spinal cord pathology
Advanced MRI methods in diagnostics of spinal cord pathology Stanisław Kwieciński Department of Magnetic Resonance MR IMAGING LAB MRI /MRS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH ON HUMANS AND ANIMAL MODELS IN VIVO Equipment:
More information3/30/2013. Disclosure. Advanced Neuro MRI: Imaging Techniques and Protocol Optimization. MRI, 35 year ago. MRI Today. Outlines
http://www.magnet.fsu.edu Disclosure Advanced Neuro MRI: Imaging Techniques and Protocol Optimization Research funding provided by Siemens Healthcare. Chen Lin, PhD DABR Indiana University School of Medicine
More informationGE Medical Systems Training in Partnership. Module 8: IQ: Acquisition Time
Module 8: IQ: Acquisition Time IQ : Acquisition Time Objectives...Describe types of data acquisition modes....compute acquisition times for 2D and 3D scans. 2D Acquisitions The 2D mode acquires and reconstructs
More informationDiffusion MRI imaging for brain connectivity analysis
Diffusion MRI imaging for brain connectivity analysis principles and challenges Prof. JeanPhilippe Thiran EPFL  http://lts5www.epfl.ch  jp.thiran@epfl.ch From Brownian motion to Diffusion MRI  Motivation
More informationTable 11: Pros and Cons of 1.5 T MRI vs. 3.0 T MRI; Safety and Technical Issues, and Clinical Applications
Safety Issue 3.0 T MRI Pro 3.0 T MRI Con Immediate fringe field surrounding magnet A ferromagnetic object inadvertently brought into the scan room will experience a sharp increase in attraction toward
More informationMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging What are the uses of MRI? To begin, not only are there a variety of scanning methodologies available, but there are also a variety of MRI methodologies available which provide
More informationIncorporating Internal Gradient and Restricted Diffusion Effects in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Log Interpretation
The OpenAccess Journal for the Basic Principles of Diffusion Theory, Experiment and Application Incorporating Internal Gradient and Restricted Diffusion Effects in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Log Interpretation
More informationPOLITECNICO DI MILANO DIPARTIMENTO DI ELETTRONICA, INFORMAZIONE E BIOINGEGNERIA (DEIB) DOCTORAL PROGRAMME IN BIOENGINEERING
POLITECNICO DI MILANO DIPARTIMENTO DI ELETTRONICA, INFORMAZIONE E BIOINGEGNERIA (DEIB) DOCTORAL PROGRAMME IN BIOENGINEERING MODELBASED ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSION MAGNETIC RESONANCE: STUDY OF MICROSTRUCTURAL
More informationParaVision 6. Innovation with Integrity. The Next Generation of MR Acquisition and Processing for Preclinical and Material Research.
ParaVision 6 The Next Generation of MR Acquisition and Processing for Preclinical and Material Research Innovation with Integrity Preclinical MRI A new standard in Preclinical Imaging ParaVision sets a
More informationIMA Preprint Series # 2233
ODF RECONSTRUCTION IN QBALL IMAGING WITH SOLID ANGLE CONSIDERATION By Iman Aganj Christophe Lenglet and Guillermo Sapiro IMA Preprint Series # 2233 ( January 2009 ) INSTITUTE FOR MATHEMATICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
More informationrunl I IUI%I/\L Magnetic Resonance Imaging
runl I IUI%I/\L Magnetic Resonance Imaging SECOND EDITION Scott A. HuetteS Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Allen W. Song Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Gregory McCarthy
More informationNMR for Physical and Biological Scientists Thomas C. Pochapsky and Susan Sondej Pochapsky Table of Contents
Preface Symbols and fundamental constants 1. What is spectroscopy? A semiclassical description of spectroscopy Damped harmonics Quantum oscillators The spectroscopic experiment Ensembles and coherence
More informationBasic Principles of Magnetic Resonance
Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Contents: Jorge Jovicich jovicich@mit.edu I) Historical Background II) An MR experiment  Overview  Can we scan the subject?  The subject goes into the magnet 
More informationImaging of Acute Stroke. Noam Eshkar, M.D New Jersey Neuroscience Institute JFK Medical Center Edison Radiology Group
Imaging of Acute Stroke Noam Eshkar, M.D New Jersey Neuroscience Institute JFK Medical Center Edison Radiology Group Modalities Non Contrast CT (NCCT) Contrast CT Angiography MRI MR Angiography Perfusion
More informationLecture 14. Point Spread Function (PSF)
Lecture 14 Point Spread Function (PSF), Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Signaltonoise Ratio (SNR), Contrasttonoise Ratio (CNR), and Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) Point Spread Function (PSF) Recollect
More informationCurrent Trends in the Imaging of Diffuse Axonal Injury
September 2009 Current Trends in the Imaging of Diffuse Axonal Injury University of Texas Medical School in San Antonio Harvard Medical School Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Outline Introduction
More informationMRI for Paediatric Surgeons
MRI for Paediatric Surgeons Starship David Perry Paediatric Radiologist Starship Children s Hospital CHILDREN S HEALTH What determines the brightness of a pixel in MRI? i.e. What determines the strength
More informationChallenges in Medical Imaging
Challenges in Medical Imaging PhD Candidate Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences TÜBITAK 112E320 (20132016): New computational mathematical methods in preand postoperative brainstem white matter
More informationLecture 1: Introduction to Random Walks and Diffusion
Lecture : Introduction to Random Walks and Diffusion Scribe: Chris H. Rycroft (and Martin Z. Bazant) Department of Mathematics, MIT February, 5 History The term random walk was originally proposed by Karl
More informationPulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Glycerin and Mineral Oil
Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Glycerin and Mineral Oil Janet Chao, Dean Henze, Patrick Smith, Kent Lee February 27, 2013 Abstract Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was used in order to
More informationSpinlattice and spinspin relaxation
Spinlattice and spinspin relaation Sequence of events in the NMR eperiment: (i) application of a 90 pulse alters the population ratios, and creates transverse magnetic field components (M () ); (ii)
More informationMatrix, Gradients & Signals Image formation & kpace
Outline 6.1 MR Image Formation, s & Signals Image formation & kpace Imaging s & Signals, and Amplitude selection encoding encoding Carolyn Kaut Roth, RT (R)(MR)(CT)(M)(CV) FSMRT CEO Imaging Education
More informationTechniques of Fat Suppression
Introduction Techniques of Fat Suppression Ian Cameron, PhD FCCPM MR Physicist, The Ottawa Hospital, 501 Smyth Rd., Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1H 8L6 The Magnetic Resonance (MR) signal used to create MR images
More informationMolecular spectroscopy III: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Molecular spectroscopy III: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which magnetic nuclei in a magnetic field absorb electromagnetic radiation at a
More informationTHEORY, SIMULATION, AND COMPENSATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MOTION ARTIFACTS IN FUNCTIONAL MRI. Douglas C. Noll* and Walter Schneider
THEORY, SIMULATION, AND COMPENSATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MOTION ARTIFACTS IN FUNCTIONAL MRI Douglas C. Noll* and Walter Schneider Departments of *Radiology, *Electrical Engineering, and Psychology University
More informationPatient s renal function
Gadolinium Bolus Contrast Enhanced MRA Wm. Faulkner, B.S.,R.T.(R)(MR)(CT), FSMRT Largely eliminates flow artifacts seen on TOF or PC sequences Image contrast dependent on differences between T1 of gad
More informationAcoustic Velocity, Impedance, Reflection, Transmission, Attenuation, and Acoustic Etalons
Acoustic Velocity, Impedance, Reflection, Transmission, Attenuation, and Acoustic Etalons Acoustic Velocity The equation of motion in a solid is (1) T = ρ 2 u t 2 (1) where T is the stress tensor, ρ is
More informationEtude POPART'MUS MRI Component
TECHNICAL SURVEY Dear Investigators, This document is a Technical Survey which provides the teams of THERALYS and of the Pierre Wertheimer Neurological Hospital of Lyon with an overview of your site s
More informationDynamic Bright Blood Imaging What is it?
Dynamic Bright Blood Imaging What is it? Amol Pednekar, Ph.D. Philips Healthcare, Houston, TX, USA. 1 Disclosure I have following disclosures related to my presentation Employee: Philips Healthcare I will
More information5 Factors Affecting the SignaltoNoise Ratio
5 Factors Affecting the SignaltoNoise Ratio 29 5 Factors Affecting the SignaltoNoise Ratio In the preceding chapters we have learned how an MR signal is generated and how the collected signal is processed
More informationIntroduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging Mathematics: Part I. Tensors, Rotations, and Eigenvectors
Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging Mathematics: Part I. Tensors, Rotations, and Eigenvectors PETER B. KINGSLEY Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset,
More informationDiffusion  relaxation distribution functions of sedimentary rocks in different saturation states
To be submitted to: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diffusion  relaxation distribution functions of sedimentary rocks in different saturation states M. D. Hürlimann (1), M. Flaum (2), L. Venkataramanan (1),
More informationMagnetic Resonance Imaging in Concussion: a structural approach. Paul Polak, M.A.Sc MRI Physicist Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center Buffalo, NY
Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Concussion: a structural approach Paul Polak, M.A.Sc MRI Physicist Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center Buffalo, NY Why Advanced Imaging? Why Advanced Imaging? normal acute
More information2/24/2009. Lecture 4 kspace Sampling Techniques and Applications. Clinical MRI Education Lecture 4 will 7am Tue. 2/24. Filling of kspace
Phase Encoding Steps (res = 4) Clinical MRI Education Lecture 4 will start @ 7am Tue. /4 Thanks for arriving early. Please wait Lecture 4 kspace Sampling Techniques and Applications Chen Lin, PhD Indiana
More information(NPH) Using COMSOL Multiphysics
Presented at the COMSOL Conference 2009 Milan Biosimulation of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Using COMSOL Multiphysics Kamal Shahim Dr. JM Drezet and dprof. JFMolinari, i EPFLausanne Dr. S. Momjian,
More informationSITE IMAGING MANUAL ACRIN 6698
SITE IMAGING MANUAL ACRIN 6698 Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging Biomarkers for Assessment of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Treatment: A substudy of the ISPY 2 TRIAL Version: 1.0 Date: May 28, 2012
More informationPaul S Tofts. Institute of Neurology (Queen Square), University College London, WC1N 3BG, UK
What can quantitative DCE T weighted MR imaging tell us? Paul S Tofts Institute of Neurology (Queen Square), University College London, WCN 3BG, UK http://www.ion.ucl.ac.uk/nmrphysics/paultofts/ p.tofts@ion.ucl.ac.uk
More informationNMR Techniques Applied to Mineral Oil, Water, and Ethanol
NMR Techniques Applied to Mineral Oil, Water, and Ethanol L. Bianchini and L. Coffey Physics Department, Brandeis University, MA, 02453 (Dated: February 24, 2010) Using a TeachSpin PS1A pulsed NMR device,
More informationFXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules.
UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.1 Solid, liquid and gas 1 Candidates should be able to : DESCRIPTION OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion
More informationStructural brain imaging is a window on postnatal brain development in children. Terry Jernigan
Structural brain imaging is a window on postnatal brain development in children Terry Jernigan Old (but still widely held) View of Human Brain Structure All neurons are present at birth. Myelination of
More informationTheory of Chromatography
Theory of Chromatography The Chromatogram A chromatogram is a graph showing the detector response as a function of elution time. The retention time, t R, for each component is the time needed after injection
More informationTraumatic Brain Injury Advanced Imaging. V. Michelle Silvera MD Division of Neuroradiology Boston Children s Hospital
Traumatic Brain Injury Advanced Imaging V. Michelle Silvera MD Division of Neuroradiology Boston Children s Hospital No disclosures CT: Noncontrast head CT firstline imaging Imaging Approach to TBI 1
More informationMargaret Rosenbloom, M.A., Edith V. Sullivan, Ph.D., and Adolf Pfefferbaum, M.D.
Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging to Assess Brain Damage in Alcoholics Margaret Rosenbloom, M.A., Edith V. Sullivan, Ph.D., and Adolf Pfefferbaum, M.D. Brain imaging using conventional
More informationA Comparison of Five Methods for Signal Intensity Standardization in MRI
A Comparison of Five Methods for Signal Intensity Standardization in MRI JanPhilip Bergeest, Florian Jäger Lehrstuhl für Mustererkennung, FriedrichAlexanderUniversität ErlangenNürnberg jan.p.bergeest@informatik.stud.unierlangen.de
More informationKap 8 Image quality, signal, contrast and noise
4/5/ FYSKJM 474 contrast SNR MRteori og medisinsk diagnostikk Kap 8 Image qualit, signal, contrast and noise resolution vailable MRparameters speed Main source of noise in MRI: Noise generated within
More informationBy submitting this essay, I attest that it is my own work, completed in accordance with University regulations. Andrew Yang
CHEM 251L: Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Professor Jonathan Parr By submitting this essay, I attest that it is my own work, completed in accordance with University regulations. Andrew Yang An Introduction
More informationPhysics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives
Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring
More informationDetailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems
Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems J. R. Gibson, a) S. Taylor, and J. H. Leck Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool,
More informationCOST AID ASL post processing Workshop
COST AID ASL post processing Workshop This workshop runs thought the post processing of ASL data using tools from the FMRIB Software Library (www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk.uk/fsl), we will primarily focus on the
More informationPhysics 53. Wave Motion 1
Physics 53 Wave Motion 1 It's just a job. Grass grows, waves pound the sand, I beat people up. Muhammad Ali Overview To transport energy, momentum or angular momentum from one place to another, one can
More informationChapter 10. The Doppler Effect
Chapter 10 The Doppler Effect In addition to presenting detailed, highresolution anatomical information, ultrasound energy can also be used to obtain and display information about some aspects of human
More informationWhite matter changes in multiple sclerosis: correlation of qspace diffusion MRI and 1 H MRS
Magnetic Resonance Imaging 23 (2005) 703 710 Original contributions White matter changes in multiple sclerosis: correlation of qspace diffusion MRI and 1 H MRS Yaniv Assaf a,b, T, Joab Chapman c,d, Dafna
More informationNuclear Magnetic Resonance
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Author: James Dragan Lab Partner: Stefan Evans Physics Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 794. (Dated: December 5, 23) We study the principles behind Nuclear
More informationSusceptibility Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping at 3 Tesla and Beyond
Susceptibility Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping at 3 Tesla and Beyond New Approaches and Applications DISSERTATION zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktoringenieur (Dr.Ing.)
More informationAn Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Academic Resource Center
An Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Academic Resource Center Table of Contents What is MRI? General MRI Machine Who is it for? How does it work? Magnetization vector Magnetization gradients
More informationSIZE OF A MOLECULE FROM A VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT
Experiment 8, page 1 Version of April 25, 216 Experiment 446.8 SIZE OF A MOLECULE FROM A VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT Theory Viscous Flow. Fluids attempt to minimize flow gradients by exerting a frictional force,
More informationPulsed nuclear magnetic resonance to explore relaxation times Hannah Saddler, Adam Egbert, and Will Weigand
Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance to explore relaxation times Hannah Saddler, Adam Egbert, and Will Weigand (Dated: 26 October 2015) The method of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was employed in this
More informationNuclear Magnetic Resonance Lisa M. Larrimore
Lisa M. The fundamentals of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were explored on samples containing large numbers of protons. Mineral oil and dilluted solutions of CuSO 4 were placed in a permanent
More informationMRI DATA PROCESSING. Compiled by: Nicolas F. Lori and Carlos Ferreira. Introduction
MRI DATA PROCESSING Compiled by: Nicolas F. Lori and Carlos Ferreira Introduction Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a clinical exam that is safe to the patient. Nevertheless, it s very important to attend
More informationDirectional Diffusion in RelapsingRemitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Possible In Vivo Signature of Wallerian Degeneration
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING 18:420 426 (2003) Original Research Directional Diffusion in RelapsingRemitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Possible In Vivo Signature of Wallerian Degeneration Roland
More informationAdvanced Fluid Characterization. Hydrocarbon identification and analysis using NMR
Advanced Fluid Characterization Hydrocarbon identification and analysis using NMR Applications Determination of fluid storage volume based on lithologyindependent total porosity Quantification of pay based
More informationState of Stress at Point
State of Stress at Point Einstein Notation The basic idea of Einstein notation is that a covector and a vector can form a scalar: This is typically written as an explicit sum: According to this convention,
More informationFunctional neuroimaging. Imaging brain function in real time (not just the structure of the brain).
Functional neuroimaging Imaging brain function in real time (not just the structure of the brain). The brain is bloody & electric Blood increase in neuronal activity increase in metabolic demand for glucose
More informationElectronic Supplementary Information
Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. This journal is the Owner Societies 2016 Electronic Supplementary Information Achieving High Resolution and Controlling
More informationMusculoskeletal MRI Technical Considerations
Musculoskeletal MRI Technical Considerations Garry E. Gold, M.D. Professor of Radiology, Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery Stanford University Outline Joint Structure Image Contrast Protocols: 3.0T
More informationProf.M.Perucca CORSO DI APPROFONDIMENTO DI FISICA ATOMICA: (IIIINCONTRO) RISONANZA MAGNETICA NUCLEARE
Prof.M.Perucca CORSO DI APPROFONDIMENTO DI FISICA ATOMICA: (IIIINCONTRO) RISONANZA MAGNETICA NUCLEARE SUMMARY (I/II) Angular momentum and the spinning gyroscope stationary state equation Magnetic dipole
More informationDtiStudio: Resource program for diffusion tensor computation and fiber bundle tracking
computer methods and programs in biomedicine 81 (2006) 106 116 journal homepage: www.intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/cmpb DtiStudio: Resource program for diffusion tensor computation and fiber bundle
More informationIndiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.
.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations
More informationUses of Derivative Spectroscopy
Uses of Derivative Spectroscopy Application Note UVVisible Spectroscopy Anthony J. Owen Derivative spectroscopy uses first or higher derivatives of absorbance with respect to wavelength for qualitative
More informationIntroduction to 1D and 2D NMR Spectroscopy (1) Basics
Introduction to 1D and 2D NMR Spectroscopy (1) Basics Lecturer: Weiguo Hu A328 Conte (71428) weiguoh@polysci.umass.edu October 2009 1 Content At a Glance Introduction to 1D and 2D NMR Spectroscopy Experimentation
More informationEvaluating System Suitability CE, GC, LC and A/D ChemStation Revisions: A.03.0x A.08.0x
CE, GC, LC and A/D ChemStation Revisions: A.03.0x A.08.0x This document is believed to be accurate and uptodate. However, Agilent Technologies, Inc. cannot assume responsibility for the use of this
More informationBinary Liquid Mixtures in Porous Solids
Binary Liquid Mixtures in Porous Solids S. M. Alnaimi +, J. Mitchell, J.H. Strange and J. B. W. Webber School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, CT2 7NR + Permanent Address: Physics
More informationSaturation Vapour Pressure above a Solution Droplet
Appendix C Saturation Vapour Pressure above a Solution Droplet In this appendix, the Köhler equation is derived. As in Appendix B, the theory summarised here can be found in Pruppacher & Klett (1980) and
More informationProjects at the Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance
Projects at the Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance Five projects involving Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Hvidovre Hospital Example: [113C]Pyruvate signal enhanced by ~50,000x! Magnetic Resonance
More information2. The graph shows how the displacement varies with time for an object undergoing simple harmonic motion.
Practice Test: 29 marks (37 minutes) Additional Problem: 31 marks (45 minutes) 1. A transverse wave travels from left to right. The diagram on the right shows how, at a particular instant of time, the
More informationAdaptively Constrained Convex Optimization for Accurate Fiber Orientation Estimation with High Order Spherical Harmonics
Adaptively Constrained Convex Optimization for Accurate Fiber Orientation Estimation with High Order Spherical Harmonics Giang Tran 1 and Yonggang Shi 2, 1 Dept. of Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA,
More informationGeneration and Detection of NMR Signals
Generation and Detection of NMR Signals Hanudatta S. Atreya NMR Research Centre Indian Institute of Science NMR Spectroscopy Spin (I)=1/2h B 0 Energy 0 = B 0 Classical picture (B 0 ) Quantum Mechanical
More informationOverview. Optimizing MRI Protocols. Image Contrast. Morphology & Physiology. User Selectable Parameters. Tissue Parameters
Overview Optimizing MRI Protocols Clinical Practice & Compromises Geoffrey D. Clarke, Radiology Department University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Pulse timing parameters for adjusting
More informationBIOMEDICAL ULTRASOUND
BIOMEDICAL ULTRASOUND Goals: To become familiar with: Ultrasound wave Wave propagation and Scattering Mechanisms of Tissue Damage Biomedical Ultrasound Transducers Biomedical Ultrasound Imaging Ultrasonic
More informationUnit G484: The Newtonian World
Define linear momentum (and appreciate the vector nature of momentum) net force on a body impulse of a force a perfectly elastic collision an inelastic collision the radian gravitational field strength
More informationTensor Visualisation
Tensor Visualisation Visualisation Lecture 14 Taku Komura Institute for Perception, Action & Behaviour School of Informatics Taku Komura Tensors 1 Reminder : Attribute Data Types Scalar colour mapping,
More informationProcess Control and Instrumentation Prof. D. Sarkar Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Process Control and Instrumentation Prof. D. Sarkar Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture  38 Instrumentation: General Principle of Measurement Systems (Contd.)
More informationMRI SEQUENCES. 1 Gradient Echo Sequence
5 An MRI sequence is an ordered combination of RF and gradient pulses designed to acquire the data to form the image. In this chapter I will describe the basic gradient echo, spin echo and inversion recovery
More informationPhysics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 13 KINETIC THEORY
1 P a g e Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 13 KINETIC THEORY Assumptions of Kinetic Theory of Gases 1. Every gas consists of extremely small particles known as molecules. The molecules of a given gas are
More informationAnalytical Test Method Validation Report Template
Analytical Test Method Validation Report Template 1. Purpose The purpose of this Validation Summary Report is to summarize the finding of the validation of test method Determination of, following Validation
More informationMGH Adult Diffusion Data Scanning Protocols
MGH Adult Diffusion Data Scanning Protocols Structural scans SIEMENS MAGNETOM ConnectomA syngo MR D11 \\USER\INVESTIGATORS\Default\AAHScout_64 TA:0:14 PAT:3 Voxel size:1.6 1.6 1.6 mm Rel. SNR:1.00 :fl
More informationGE 3.0T NPW,TRF,FAST,F R NPW,TRF,FAST,F R
GE 3.0T 3.0T WRIST Invivo 8CH Wrist Coil Sequence Ax T2 Cor PD Cor PDFS Cor T1 Cor PD (Small FOV) FOV (mm) 80 80 80 80 40 Matrix 384x224 384x256 320x256 384x320 320x192 Phase Direction RL RL RL RL RL #
More informationRealtime PCR: Understanding C t
APPLICATION NOTE RealTime PCR Realtime PCR: Understanding C t Realtime PCR, also called quantitative PCR or qpcr, can provide a simple and elegant method for determining the amount of a target sequence
More informationAdvanced 3G and 4G Wireless Communication Prof. Aditya K. Jagannatham Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
Advanced 3G and 4G Wireless Communication Prof. Aditya K. Jagannatham Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture  3 Rayleigh Fading and BER of Wired Communication
More informationReview Article Diffusiontensor MRI: theory, experimental design and data analysis ± a technical review
NMR IN BIOMEDICINE NMR Biomed. 2002;15:456 467 Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI:10.1002nbm.783 Review Article Diffusiontensor MRI: theory, experimental design and
More informationRemoval of Noise from MRI using Spectral Subtraction
International Journal of Electronic and Electrical Engineering. ISSN 09742174, Volume 7, Number 3 (2014), pp. 293298 International Research Publication House http://www.irphouse.com Removal of Noise
More informationDiffusion and Fluid Flow
Diffusion and Fluid Flow What determines the diffusion coefficient? What determines fluid flow? 1. Diffusion: Diffusion refers to the transport of substance against a concentration gradient. ΔS>0 Mass
More informationToshiba Excelart Vantage 1.5T MRI Tech Specs (Technical Specifications)
Toshiba Excelart Vantage 1.5T MRI Tech Specs (Technical Specifications) Excelart Vantage Magnet Configuration: Ultrashortbore Strength (or W x H): 1.5 T Homogeneity, ppm VRMS: Dimensions of maximum
More informationAus dem Institut für Centrum für Schlaganfallforschung Berlin. der Medizinischen Fakultät Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin DISSERTATION
Aus dem Institut für Centrum für Schlaganfallforschung Berlin der Medizinischen Fakultät Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin DISSERTATION Exploring Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers for Ischemic
More informationSenior Secondary Australian Curriculum
Senior Secondary Australian Curriculum Mathematical Methods Glossary Unit 1 Functions and graphs Asymptote A line is an asymptote to a curve if the distance between the line and the curve approaches zero
More informationFiber consistency measures on brain tracts from digital streamline, stochastic and global tractography
Universidad de Valladolid Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicación Tesis de Máster Máster Universitario en Investigación en Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones Fiber consistency
More informationThe accurate calibration of all detectors is crucial for the subsequent data
Chapter 4 Calibration The accurate calibration of all detectors is crucial for the subsequent data analysis. The stability of the gain and offset for energy and time calibration of all detectors involved
More information