Objectives. What is undernutrition? What is undernutrition? What does undernutrition look like?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Objectives. What is undernutrition? What is undernutrition? What does undernutrition look like?"

Transcription

1 Objectives Basics Jean-Pierre Habicht, MD, PhD Professor Division of Nutritional Sciences Cornell University Types and causes Determinants Consequences Global occurrence and progress Way forward What is undernutrition? What is undernutrition? Failure to eat enough food and absorb the essential nutrients to Perform well Be healthy Survive Energy Protein Essential fatty acids Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin B12 Folate Calcium Iron Iodine Zinc Etc. Deficiencies in any of these nutrients What does undernutrition look like? From: WHO From: WHO Marasmus Kwashiorkor

2 Inapparent undernutrition Inapparent undernutrition 125 cm 7 years old 103 cm 7 years old 100 cm 4 years old Causes of undernutrition Immediate causes Poor Diet Disease Underlying causes Basic causes From: UNICEF Diet From: UNICEF Breastfeeding Exclusive 0-5 months Continued 6-23 months Complementary feeding 6-23 months

3 Disease How does it happen? The infection undernutrition cycle Inadequate diet Loss of appetite Malabsorption Increased nutritional requirements Weight loss Growth faltering Lowered immunity From: UNICEF Increased incidence, severity and duration of disease and infection Sick people are more likely to get undernourished. Undernourished people are more likely to get sick. Severity is worse and duration of illness is longer in undernourished individuals. Illness causes more stunting in children consuming inadequate diet Growth (m mm) Supplemented Unsupplemented % of time ill with diarrhea From: Rivera J, et al. Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion 1989; 39: 292 Illness causes more stunting in children consuming inadequate diet Illness causes more stunting in children consuming inadequate diet Growth (m mm) mm Supplemented Unsupplemented Growth (m mm) mm Supplemented Unsupplemented % of time ill with diarrhea % of time ill with diarrhea From: Rivera J, et al. Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion 1989; 39: 292 From: Rivera J, et al. Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion 1989; 39: 292

4 When does illness lead to undernutrition? Bottom line. Illness does not lead to undernutrition among those with adequate diets. But. When does illness lead to undernutrition? Illness leads to more and more severe undernutrition if the diet is inadequate. When does illness lead to undernutrition? The conceptual framework One can control the deterioration of nutrition by illness by assuring adequate nutrition. Good nutrition prevents cumulative pernicious effects of illness. From: UNICEF. State of the World s Children New York: 1998 The conceptual framework What are the underlying causes of undernutrition? has many inter-related causes which need to be identified in order to be effectively addressed. The conceptual framework, first developed by UNICEF in 1990, has been very important in helping people frame their ideas and discussions.

5 The conceptual framework The conceptual framework leads to Impaired physical and mental development Death in short term How does undernutrition kill? Of the deaths in children 2 days to 5 years old: kills about 50% Infectious diseases kill about 80% The 80% includes double counting of children who die because they have both undernutrition and infectious disease. How does undernutrition kill? Of the deaths in children 2 days to 5 years old: Causes of child deaths from 2 days to 5 years old Malaria 15% Pneumonia 30% Other 14% Infection alone 30% Infection AND undernutrition 50% 80% 53% Measles 6% Diarrhea 27% HIV/AIDS 5% Injuries 5% From: Caulfield LE, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80:193.

6 Causes of child deaths from 2 days to 5 years old Malaria 15% Pneumonia 30% Causes of child deaths from 2 days to 5 years old Malaria 15% Pneumonia 30% Other 14% Other 14% 53% Measles 4% Measles 6% Diarrhea 27% HIV/AIDS 5% Diarrhea 27% HIV/AIDS 5% Injuries 5% From: Caulfield LE, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80:193. Injuries 5% From: Caulfield LE, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80:193. and infection kill together directly Overlap of circles is proportion of deaths due to synergism between undernutrition and infection. and infection kill together directly Overlap of circles is proportion of deaths due to synergism between undernutrition and infection. Number of undernourished children who died Synergism + Number of sick children who died Number of undernourished children who died Overlap + Number of sick children who died Overlap = Number of children who died who had both undernutrition AND infection and infection kill together directly Overlap of circles is proportion of deaths due to synergism between undernutrition and infection. and infection kill together directly Overlap of circles is proportion of deaths due to synergism between undernutrition and infection. Undernourished children Become sick Die of infection because of undernutrition Undernourished children Become sick Die of infection because of undernutrition Sick children Become undernourished Die of undernutrition because of infection

7 Causes of child deaths from 2 days to 5 years old Malaria + Malaria 7% 7% Pneumonia 15% kills Other 7% Other + 7% Diarrhea 13% Diarrhea + 14% Pneumonia + 15% Measles 3% Measles + 3% HIV/AIDS 2.5% HIV/AIDS + 2.5% Injuries 5% causes more than half of all deaths among children 2 days to five years old. It kills directly not through causing more disease. From: Caulfield LE, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80:193. Every level of undernutrition kills For an individual child, severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is more deadly than less severe undernutrition. Less severe undernutrition, however, is much more common. Therefore, globally, more deaths total occur among the less severely undernourished who appear healthy. Less children will die if the number of ill children who are undernourished decreases. if the number of children who become ill decreases. Effect of disease prevention is larger if undernutrition is prevalent. Uncertainty about proportion of children killed by undernutrition Previous to 1993, official estimates said less than 1% of child deaths were due to undernutrition. From , official estimates said slightly more than 50% of all child deaths were due to the synergism of undernutrition with infectious diseases. Uncertainty about proportion of children killed by undernutrition In 2008, new estimates were published indicating that 35% of child deaths were due to undernutrition. This 35% estimate includes neonatal (1 st day of life) deaths (37% of all child deaths) in the denominator. From: Black RE, et al. Lancet 2008;371:243

8 Causes of child deaths from 1 day to 5 years old 1 st day deaths 37% 35% Pneumonia 19% Measles 4% HIV/AIDS 3% Injuries 3% Causes of child deaths from 1 day to 5 years old 1 st day deaths 37% 35% Pneumonia 19% Other 9% Measles 4% HIV/AIDS 3% Injuries 3% Malaria 8% 53% Pneumonia 30% Malaria 8% Other 9% From: Bryce J, et al. Lancet 2005; 365:1147. Black RE, et al. Lancet 2008;371:243. Diarrhea 17% Malaria 8% Other 9% Diarrhea 17% Deaths from undernutrition Total deaths from 1 st day to 5 years old Diarrhea 17% Injuries 5% Measles 6% HIV/AIDS 5% Deaths from undernutrition Total deaths from 2 nd day to 5 years old Are 1 st day deaths relevant? Our interest is in preventing deaths by improving nutrition with infant and young child and nutrition interventions. Programs targeting children from birth to 5 years of age do not prevent the first day deaths. Such programs can prevent half of all deaths of those to whom the program is targeted. This does not include those who die at or right after birth. Proportion of preventable deaths in children 2 days to 5 years old Other 14% Diarrhea 27% Malaria 15% 53% Injuries 5% Pneumonia 30% From: Caulfield LE, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80:193. Measles 6% HIV/AIDS 5% Points for clarification Points for clarification Perceived discrepancy in proportion of children killed by undernutrition. (53% vs. 35%) Serious discrepancies block policy. Discrepancy depends on whether 1 st day deaths are presented and part of the denominator. has a direct effect on death. Direct effect on death is important for major policy decisions. Both disease and undernutrition have equally direct effects due to synergism neither is more underlying than the other.

9 Take-away message is the major single cause of death in the world whether or not deaths in the first day are counted. More deaths can be prevented by preventing undernutrition than by preventing any other cause of death. Lifelong impact of undernutrition has a lifelong negative impact on physical and mental development and leads to: Reduced school performance Reduced productivity and income-earning capacity in adult life Low birth weight in offspring What is malnutrition? Assessment of nutrition status Types Acute (SAM*, MAM) Chronic (stunting) Micronutrient* Measures Underweight (weight-for-age) Stunting (length or height-for-age) Wasting (weight-for-height) Overnutrition Types Overweight Obese Something Measures Body mass index (BMI) Stunting (length or height-for-age) Wasting (weight-for-height) Anthropometry Child size is a reflection of health and nutritional status when it is limited by undernutrition Not interested in size per se in contrast to those who raise livestock Biochemical i indices Levels of nutrient in blood Clinical assessment Physical examination to detect symptoms of undernutrition Dietary assessment Useful for counseling but not assessing nutritional status Anemia Vitamin A deficiency From: WHO. Worldwide prevalence of anemia Geneva: 2008 From: WHO. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk Geneva: 2009

10 Iodine deficiency Z-scores (weight or height of subject) median reference value standard deviation of reference population From: WHO. Iodine status worldwide. Geneva: 2004 Reference population Undernourished population Major downward shift of entire weight-for-height distribution during severe famine in southern Sudan, March, WHO. Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Geneva: 1995 Undernourished population Extent of undernutrition = distribution of undersized children The WHO Global Database on Child Growth Moderate undernutrition: Z-score < -2 SD Severe undernutrition: Z-score < -3 SD Major downward shift of entire weight-for-height distribution during severe famine in southern Sudan, March, WHO. Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Geneva: 1995

11 195 million children under 5 suffer from stunting Number of children under 5 years old who are moderately or severely stunted (2008) Equity gaps in stunting prevalence Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia Middle East, North Africa Latin America, Caribbean Europe, Central Asia Prevalence gap between the poorest (red) and richest (blue) quintiles (%) UNICEF. Tracking Progress on Maternal and Child Nutrition; New York: 2009 From: Gwatkin DR, et al. Socio-economic differences in health, nutrition, and population. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2007 n of children <5 o are stunted Proportion years wh Prevalence of stunting has declined.. Around Around Under-5 mortality declined between 1990 and 2008 Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia Middle East and North Africa East Asia and the Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS* Industrialized countries Developing countries World UNICEF. Tracking Progress on Child and Maternal Nutrition; New York: Under-five mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) *Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States From: UNICEF. Progress for Children 2010; New York: 2010 Unequal progress in under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) 2/3 of the progress made in reducing mortality has been made at the expense of equality. Way forward: setting priorities From: UNICEF. Progress for Children 2010; New York: 2010

12 Z-scores (WH HO) The window of opportunity for optimal IYCF practices to prevent undernutrition Age (months) Height for age (HAZ) Cost-effective proven interventions are known Maternal and child undernutrition is the underlying cause of 1.5 million deaths and 25% of the disease burden in children younger than five years. Black RE et al. The Lancet Series Child Survival Neonatal Survival Maternal Survival Sexual and Reproductive Health Child Development Maternal and Child From: Victora CG, et al. Pediatrics 2010;125:e473. Take-away message Most of undernutrition happens during the window of opportunity in a child s life. Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) is of greatest importance. Need to focus on scaling up practical, cost-effective, community-based interventions that are best designed to reach the women and children in greatest need. This training course was jointly developed by the Infant and Young Child Feeding Unit, Nutrition Section, UNICEF Headquarters, and Cornell NutritionWorks, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University. We acknowledge the cooperation of the United Nations University. Copyright 2011

Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in Africa. Now is the time to act!!

Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in Africa. Now is the time to act!! Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in Africa Now is the time to act!! Today s presentation 1. Under nutrition, micronutrient deficiency and its impact on child survival and morbidity 2. Global

More information

Scale, scope, causes and potential response

Scale, scope, causes and potential response Scale, scope, causes and potential response Status of Malnutrition in Afghanistan Why Malnutrition Matters Determinants of Malnutrition What Can Be Done Recommendations for Afghanistan Very high rate

More information

cambodia Maternal, Newborn AND Child Health and Nutrition

cambodia Maternal, Newborn AND Child Health and Nutrition cambodia Maternal, Newborn AND Child Health and Nutrition situation Between 2000 and 2010, Cambodia has made significant progress in improving the health of its children. The infant mortality rate has

More information

CHILD MALNUTRITION IN THE SAHEL REGION (AFRICA) APRIL 2010

CHILD MALNUTRITION IN THE SAHEL REGION (AFRICA) APRIL 2010 CHILD MALNUTRITION IN THE SAHEL REGION (AFRICA) APRIL 2010 There is no doubt that tens of thousands of families in the Sahel region of Africa are facing acute distress due to food shortages and more than

More information

Borstvoeding Bruist 25 September 2012

Borstvoeding Bruist 25 September 2012 Breastfed Infant as the Standard for Growth: WHO Child Growth Standards Borstvoeding Bruist 25 September 2012 Nutrition for Health and Development World Health Organization Anne Baerug Norwegian Resource

More information

75% 50% 25% Source: Calculated based on data from the UNICEF/WHO/The World Bank/UN Pop Div. Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report 2014

75% 50% 25% Source: Calculated based on data from the UNICEF/WHO/The World Bank/UN Pop Div. Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report 2014 % of deaths % of deaths African Region Neonatal and Child Health Profile Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO) Demographics and information system Health status indicators

More information

SRI LANKA SRI LANKA 187

SRI LANKA SRI LANKA 187 SRI LANKA 187 List of Country Indicators Selected Demographic Indicators Selected demographic indicators Child Mortality and Nutritional Status Neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates: trends Distribution

More information

Child Survival and Equity: A Global Overview

Child Survival and Equity: A Global Overview Child Survival and Equity: A Global Overview Abdelmajid Tibouti, Ph.D. Senior Adviser UNICEF New York Consultation on Equity in Access to Quality Health Care For Women and Children 7 11 April 2008 Halong

More information

United Republic of Tanzania African Region

United Republic of Tanzania African Region % of deaths % of deaths African Region Neonatal and Child Health Profile Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO) Demographics and information system Health status indicators

More information

International Nutrition Current & Emerging Issues in Nutrition, Health & Survival

International Nutrition Current & Emerging Issues in Nutrition, Health & Survival This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

IMPROVING CHILD NUTRITION. The achievable imperative for global progress

IMPROVING CHILD NUTRITION. The achievable imperative for global progress IMPROVING CHILD NUTRITION The achievable imperative for global progress United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF) April 2013 Permission is required to reproduce any part of this publication. Permission will

More information

Integrated Programming Targeting the Whole Child and Improved Educational Attainment

Integrated Programming Targeting the Whole Child and Improved Educational Attainment Integrated Programming Targeting the Whole Child and Improved Educational Attainment Renuka Bery, USAID/WASHplus project, FHI 360 Carol da Silva, FHI 360 Monica Woldt, FANTA project, FHI 360 March 8, 2015

More information

Anemia is a condition characterized by

Anemia is a condition characterized by 12 C H A P T E R ANEMIA AMONG WOMEN AND CHILDREN is a condition characterized by inadequate red blood cell volume and a low concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. Commonly, anemia is the final outcome

More information

THE LIFE CYCLE OF MALNUTRITION

THE LIFE CYCLE OF MALNUTRITION THE LIFE CYCLE OF MALNUTRITION By: STUART GILLESPIE RAFAEL FLORES From IFPRI 1999-2000 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2033 K. STREET WASHINGTON, DC 20006-1002 2000 THE LIFE CYCLE Malnutrition

More information

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health. National Child and Adolescent Health Policy

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health. National Child and Adolescent Health Policy Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health National Child and Adolescent Health Policy 2009-2013 July 2009 In line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the MOPH Child and Adolescent

More information

SUMMARY TABLE OF FINDINGS Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators, Sudan, 2006

SUMMARY TABLE OF FINDINGS Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators, Sudan, 2006 SUMMARY TABLE OF FINDINGS Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators, Sudan, 2006 Topic CHILD MORTALITY Child mortality SHHS indicator number MDG indicator number

More information

Child and Maternal Nutrition in Bangladesh

Child and Maternal Nutrition in Bangladesh Child and Maternal Nutrition in Bangladesh KEY STATISTICS Nutrition % of the population Malnutrition, in children (birth to 59 months) Wasting (weight-for-height) 17.4 2 Stunting (height-for-age) 43.2

More information

TRACKING PROGRESS ON CHILD AND MATERNAL NUTRITION. A survival and development priority

TRACKING PROGRESS ON CHILD AND MATERNAL NUTRITION. A survival and development priority TRACKING PROGRESS ON CHILD AND MATERNAL NUTRITION A survival and development priority United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF) November 29 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication is required.

More information

Vitamin A Deficiency: Counting the Cost in Women s Lives

Vitamin A Deficiency: Counting the Cost in Women s Lives TECHNICAL BRIEF Vitamin A Deficiency: Counting the Cost in Women s Lives Amy L. Rice, PhD INTRODUCTION Over half a million women around the world die each year from conditions related to pregnancy and

More information

Infant Mortality and Maternal Mortality in Lao PDR

Infant Mortality and Maternal Mortality in Lao PDR Infant Mortality and Maternal Mortality in Lao PDR Presented by: Dr Somchith Akkhavong Deputy Director Department of Hygiene and Prevention Ministry of Health, Vientiane Capital Lao PDR GFMER - WHO - UNFPA

More information

Module 1: Major Public Health Nutrition Issues Today

Module 1: Major Public Health Nutrition Issues Today Module 1: Major Public Health Nutrition Issues Today 1 Looking Ahead: The Global Challenges As the world becomes more connected, the nature of disease will also become globalized Some of the products and

More information

Rwanda 2000. Nutrition of Young Children and Mothers. l Office National de la Population U.S. Agency for International Development ORC Macro

Rwanda 2000. Nutrition of Young Children and Mothers. l Office National de la Population U.S. Agency for International Development ORC Macro TWONGERE UMUSARURO TUBYARE TURERE DUHARANIRE IMIBEREHO MYIZA Y'ABATURAGE Nutrition of Young Children and Mothers Rwanda 2000 l Office National de la Population U.S. Agency for International Development

More information

Nutrition Global Learning and Evidence Exchange: Evidence for Multi-Sectoral Effects of Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition

Nutrition Global Learning and Evidence Exchange: Evidence for Multi-Sectoral Effects of Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition Nutrition Global Learning and Evidence Exchange: Evidence for Multi-Sectoral Effects of Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition Pattanee Winichagoon, Mahidol University Phnom Penh, Cambodia December 13,

More information

Nutrition and Medicine, 2006 Tufts University School of Medicine Infant and Child Nutrition: Learning Objectives

Nutrition and Medicine, 2006 Tufts University School of Medicine Infant and Child Nutrition: Learning Objectives Nutrition and Medicine, 2006 Tufts University School of Medicine Infant and Child Nutrition: Learning Objectives Margo N. Woods, D.Sc. 1. Explain the use of anthropometry and growth charts in the assessment

More information

Improving Postpartum Family Planning in Settings with High Home Births: Results and implications of the Healthy Fertility Study

Improving Postpartum Family Planning in Settings with High Home Births: Results and implications of the Healthy Fertility Study Improving Postpartum Family Planning in Settings with High Home Births: Results and implications of the Healthy Fertility Study Saifuddin Ahmed Abdullah Baqui Healthy Fertility Study Team PPFP program:

More information

INDICATOR REGION WORLD

INDICATOR REGION WORLD SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA INDICATOR REGION WORLD Demographic indicators Total population (2005) 713,457,000 6,449,371,000 Population under 18 (2005) 361,301,000 2,183,143,000 Population under 5 (2005) 119,555,000

More information

MATARA. Geographic location 4 (2006-07) Distribution of population by wealth quintiles (%), 2006-07 27.3 21.4 12.9 23.7 14.8. Source: DHS 2006-07

MATARA. Geographic location 4 (2006-07) Distribution of population by wealth quintiles (%), 2006-07 27.3 21.4 12.9 23.7 14.8. Source: DHS 2006-07 Ministry of Health MATARA DEMOGRAPHICS Total population 822, (28) L and area (Sq. Km) 1,27 (26) under-five (%) 9.2 (26-7) 1 Females in reproductive age group (%) 2 5.1 (26-7) 1 Estimated housing units

More information

FACT SHEET MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

FACT SHEET MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH FACT SHEET MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH Tanzania s Progress in Maternal and Child Health Tanzania has made considerable progress in the reduction of child mortality. Under-five mortality rates continue to

More information

STRATEGIC IMPACT EVALUATION FUND (SIEF)

STRATEGIC IMPACT EVALUATION FUND (SIEF) IMPACT EVALUATION CLUSTER NOTE: EARLY CHILDHOOD NUTRITION, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT I. Background. The early childhood period is a time of rapid growth and development across four domains: physical, cognitive,

More information

Nutrition Promotion. Present Status, Activities and Interventions. 1. Control of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)

Nutrition Promotion. Present Status, Activities and Interventions. 1. Control of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) Nutrition Promotion The National Nutrition Centre (NNC) of the Department of Health has implemented Nutrition program area under National Health Plan covers two broad areas namely: Nutrition and Household

More information

2013 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics

2013 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics 2013 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics World Hunger Education Service DEPARTMENTS (Also see World Child Hunger Facts) This fact sheet is divided into the following sections: YOU CAN!... Hunger

More information

INFANT FEEDING AND CHILDREN S AND WOMEN S NUTRITIONAL STATUS 11.1 BREASTFEEDING

INFANT FEEDING AND CHILDREN S AND WOMEN S NUTRITIONAL STATUS 11.1 BREASTFEEDING INFANT FEEDING AND CHILDREN S AND WOMEN S NUTRITIONAL STATUS Nutritional deficiencies have been found to contribute to the high rates of disability, morbidity, and mortality in Nigeria, especially among

More information

Nutritional problems. Age-related diseases Functional impairments Drug-induced nutritional deficiencies

Nutritional problems. Age-related diseases Functional impairments Drug-induced nutritional deficiencies Nutritional problems Age-related diseases Functional impairments Drug-induced nutritional deficiencies Protein energy Vitamins Fibre Water Malnutrition >Deficiencies Obesity Hypervitaminosis >Excesses

More information

INDICATOR REGION WORLD

INDICATOR REGION WORLD SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA INDICATOR REGION WORLD Demographic indicators Total population (2006) 748,886,000 6,577,236,000 Population under 18 (2006) 376,047,000 2,212,024,000 Population under 5 (2006) 125,254,000

More information

Part 4 Burden of disease: DALYs

Part 4 Burden of disease: DALYs Part Burden of disease:. Broad cause composition 0 5. The age distribution of burden of disease 6. Leading causes of burden of disease 7. The disease and injury burden for women 6 8. The growing burden

More information

MULTIDISCIPLINARY TRAINING PROGRAMME ON GLOBAL NUTRITION POLICY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

MULTIDISCIPLINARY TRAINING PROGRAMME ON GLOBAL NUTRITION POLICY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MULTIDISCIPLINARY TRAINING PROGRAMME ON GLOBAL NUTRITION POLICY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Latin American Society of Nutrition (SLAN), World Health Organization (WHO)/ Pan American Health Organization

More information

The Challenge of Appropriate Pneumonia Case Management and the Impact for Child Health

The Challenge of Appropriate Pneumonia Case Management and the Impact for Child Health The Challenge of Appropriate Pneumonia Case Management and the Impact for Child Health Dr. Shamim Qazi Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health 1 ASTMH New Orleans November 2014 Major

More information

Action Against Hunger s Tool to Determine Where and When Nutritional Interventions are Needed in Times of Crises

Action Against Hunger s Tool to Determine Where and When Nutritional Interventions are Needed in Times of Crises ACF Canada. Action Against Hunger s Tool to Determine Where and When Nutritional Interventions are Needed in Times of Crises Tracy McDonough, M.Sc. Human Nutrition & Nadia Browne, M.Sc. Human Nutrition

More information

Maternal and Child Undernutrition 1 Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences

Maternal and Child Undernutrition 1 Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences Maternal and Child Undernutrition 1 Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences Robert E Black, Lindsay H Allen, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Laura E Caulfield, Mercedes

More information

Interactions between Nutrition and Infection in the Developing World. Keith P. West, Jr., DrPH, MPH Johns Hopkins University

Interactions between Nutrition and Infection in the Developing World. Keith P. West, Jr., DrPH, MPH Johns Hopkins University This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

Immunisation and Nutrition: an integrated approach for saving lives

Immunisation and Nutrition: an integrated approach for saving lives Immunisation and Nutrition: an integrated approach for saving lives Despite a dramatic decline in child mortality over the past two decades, approximately seven million children die every year, mainly

More information

PERINATAL NUTRITION. Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. Nutrition during infancy.

PERINATAL NUTRITION. Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. Nutrition during infancy. PERINATAL NUTRITION Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation Nutrition during infancy. Rama Bhat, MD. Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois Hospital Chicago, Illinois. Nutrition During Pregnancy

More information

Second International Conference on Nutrition. Rome, 19-21 November 2014. Conference Outcome Document: Rome Declaration on Nutrition

Second International Conference on Nutrition. Rome, 19-21 November 2014. Conference Outcome Document: Rome Declaration on Nutrition October 2014 ICN2 2014/2 Second International Conference on Nutrition Rome, 19-21 November 2014 Conference Outcome Document: Rome Declaration on Nutrition Welcoming the participation of Heads of State

More information

SYRIAN REFUGEE RESPONSE: LEBANON UPDATE ON NUTRITION

SYRIAN REFUGEE RESPONSE: LEBANON UPDATE ON NUTRITION SYRIAN REFUGEE RESPONSE: LEBANON UPDATE ON NUTRITION 5 September 2014 LEBANON #FutureOfSyria Agencies and the Government of Lebanon had requested US$1.89 billion in the interagency funding appeal. The

More information

Protein - is needed to build, maintain and repair muscle, blood, skin and bones and other tissues and organs in the body.

Protein - is needed to build, maintain and repair muscle, blood, skin and bones and other tissues and organs in the body. The Importance of Food Food is an essential part of everyone s lives. It gives us the energy and nutrients to grow and develop, be healthy and active, to move, work, play, think and learn. The body needs

More information

CHAPTER 11 ANEMIA. Almaz T. Sharmanov, Duishe K. Kudayarov and Kalia K. Toguzbaeva. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Anemia Measurement Procedures

CHAPTER 11 ANEMIA. Almaz T. Sharmanov, Duishe K. Kudayarov and Kalia K. Toguzbaeva. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Anemia Measurement Procedures CHAPTER 11 ANEMIA Almaz T. Sharmanov, Duishe K. Kudayarov and Kalia K. Toguzbaeva 11.1 Introduction Anemia is a condition which is characterized by a reduction in the red blood cell volume and a decrease

More information

Sohail J. Malik Hina Nazli Asma Shahzad Amina Mehmood April 15, 2015

Sohail J. Malik Hina Nazli Asma Shahzad Amina Mehmood April 15, 2015 Food Consumption Patterns and Nutrition Sohail J. Malik Hina Nazli Asma Shahzad Amina Mehmood April 15, 215 Plan of Presentation Food security and Consumption Patterns Food prices and cost of calories

More information

PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AND IMPACT OF IRON SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANAEMIC ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS

PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AND IMPACT OF IRON SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANAEMIC ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS Health and Population- Perspectives and Issue 30 (1): 45-55, 2007 PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AND IMPACT OF IRON SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANAEMIC ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS Pooja Trivedi* and Dr. Aruna Palta** ABSTRACT

More information

Nutrition and Health Challenges for India and Possible Solutions

Nutrition and Health Challenges for India and Possible Solutions Nutrition and Health Challenges for India and Possible Solutions Soumya Swaminathan, MD, FNASc, FASc, FAMS Director-General, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi A significant part of a nation

More information

The impact of high food prices on hunger

The impact of high food prices on hunger Briefing paper: Hunger on the rise Soaring prices add 75 million people to global hunger rolls The impact of high food prices on hunger Provisional FAO estimates show that the number of undernourished

More information

Health and Longevity. Global Trends. Which factors account for most of the health improvements in the 20th century?

Health and Longevity. Global Trends. Which factors account for most of the health improvements in the 20th century? 8 Health and Longevity The health of a country s population is often monitored using two statistical indicators: life expectancy at birth and the under-5 mortality rate. These indicators are also often

More information

WFP!""# World Food Programme Rome, Italy

WFP!# World Food Programme Rome, Italy WFP!""# World Food Programme Rome, Italy 2 Having considered the document on the Global Framework for Action to End Child Hunger and Undernutrition, the Board: a) welcomes the Ending Child Hunger and Undernutrition

More information

Reaching the Global Target to Reduce Stunting: How Much Will it Cost and How Can We Pay for it?

Reaching the Global Target to Reduce Stunting: How Much Will it Cost and How Can We Pay for it? Reaching the Global Target to Reduce Stunting: How Much Will it Cost and How Can We Pay for it? The proposal for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) put forward by the UN Member States that make up

More information

Africa facts and statistics

Africa facts and statistics www.wvafrica.org Child survival How many deaths? z The average under-five mortality rate for SSA in 2007 was 148 per 1000 live births resulting in 4.5million children dying before the age of five z 51

More information

IAEA Human Health Programme

IAEA Human Health Programme Human Health Programme May Abdel-Wahab, MD, PhD Director Division of Human Health Department of Nuclear Applications International Atomic Energy Agency A UNIQUE MANDATE OF THE UN SYSTEM The Agency shall

More information

Success and Challenges in maternal anemia programming in Asia

Success and Challenges in maternal anemia programming in Asia Success and Challenges in maternal anemia programming in Asia Emorn Wasantwisut, PhD Pattanee Winichagoon, PhD Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University Thailand Presented at the Maternal nutrition session,

More information

Economic growth, hunger and malnutrition. Income growth and changes in food consumption

Economic growth, hunger and malnutrition. Income growth and changes in food consumption Income growth and changes in food consumption Key message In order for economic growth to enhance the nutrition of the neediest, the poor must participate in the growth process and its benefits: (i) Growth

More information

Guidance note on Triage approach: Integration of TSFP into i-bsfp

Guidance note on Triage approach: Integration of TSFP into i-bsfp Guidance note on Triage approach: Integration of TSFP into i-bsfp To sustainably manage moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) in Sudan, it is vital wherever possible to implement both targeted supplementary

More information

Fish in the diet a review. Sara Stanner British Nutrition Foundation

Fish in the diet a review. Sara Stanner British Nutrition Foundation Fish in the diet a review Sara Stanner British Nutrition Foundation www.nutrition.org.uk s.stanner@nutrition.org.uk BNF who we are, what we do? What the review covers Fish consumption Nutrient composition

More information

PAKISTAN. Socio-Economic Differences in Health, Nutrition, and Population

PAKISTAN. Socio-Economic Differences in Health, Nutrition, and Population C o u n t r y R e p o r t s o n H NP a n d P o v e r t y Socio-Economic Differences in Health, Nutrition, and Population PAKISTAN About this series... This series is produced by the Health, Nutrition,

More information

The Influence of Infant Health on Adult Chronic Disease

The Influence of Infant Health on Adult Chronic Disease The Influence of Infant Health on Adult Chronic Disease Womb to Tomb Dr Clare MacVicar Introduction Many diseases in adulthood are related to growth patterns during early life Maternal nutrition important

More information

Preconception Period

Preconception Period Preconception Period Counseling and health education and materials to promote family planning Family planning methods o Double protection o Pregnancy prevention o STI/HIV o Oral contraceptives o Condoms

More information

Vitamin A. Why tackle vitamin A deficiency?

Vitamin A. Why tackle vitamin A deficiency? Vitamin A at a glance Why tackle vitamin A deficiency? Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) dramatically increases the risk of dying from childhood diseases and malaria, and may contribute to maternal mortality,

More information

A Review of Nutrition Policies

A Review of Nutrition Policies A Review of Nutrition Policies Draft report 20 December 2010 The review is based on a comprehensive survey questionnaire sent to WHO Member States in July 2009 and the responses received up to November

More information

GLOBAL HEALTH RISKS. Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks

GLOBAL HEALTH RISKS. Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks GLOBAL HEALTH RISKS Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks GLOBAL HEALTH RISKS Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks World Health Organization

More information

Testimony of Henry B. Perry, MD, PhD, MPH Senior Associate, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Testimony of Henry B. Perry, MD, PhD, MPH Senior Associate, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Testimony of Henry B. Perry, MD, PhD, MPH Senior Associate, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Congressional Hearing: The First One Thousand Days of Life

More information

Human Health and Nutrition

Human Health and Nutrition Issues in Brief Human Health and Nutrition Good health is fundamental to living a productive life, meeting basic needs and contributing to community life. Good health is an enabling condition for the development

More information

ESPEN guidelines in cystic fibrosis

ESPEN guidelines in cystic fibrosis ESPEN Congress Barcelona 2012 Achieving goals by guidelines: myth or reality? ESPEN guidelines in cystic fibrosis D. Turck (France) Guidelines on the nutritional support in cystic fibrosis WG D Turck (Lille,

More information

Terms of Reference. Senior Expert on CMAM Training June 2016 Lilongwe, Malawi

Terms of Reference. Senior Expert on CMAM Training June 2016 Lilongwe, Malawi Terms of Reference Senior Expert on CMAM Training June 2016 Lilongwe, Malawi 1. Context Over the years, malnutrition remained a challenge in Malawi with current wasting rates at 3.8 percent and stunting

More information

Early Childhood Development: Global Priorities and National Development

Early Childhood Development: Global Priorities and National Development Early Childhood Development: Global Priorities and National Development Early Childhood Development for nation building in Jamaica: Retrospective and Prospective, March 25-26, 2013 Susan Walker, PhD Child

More information

Key Indicators Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS)

Key Indicators Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) Key Indicators 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) Millennium Development Goals for 2015 Indicator 2014 KDHS Indicator Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Prevalence of underweight

More information

QDoes breastfeeding affect the mother s nutritional status?

QDoes breastfeeding affect the mother s nutritional status? Breastfeeding and Maternal Nutrition Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) FAQ SHEET 4 From the LINKAGES Project Updated July 2004 FAQ Sheet is a series of publications of Frequently Asked Questions on topics

More information

Chapter 21. What Are HIV and AIDS?

Chapter 21. What Are HIV and AIDS? Section 1 HIV and AIDS Today What Are HIV and AIDS? Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that primarily affects cells of the immune system and that causes AIDS. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

More information

The National Survey of Children s Health 2011-2012 The Child

The National Survey of Children s Health 2011-2012 The Child The National Survey of Children s 11-12 The Child The National Survey of Children s measures children s health status, their health care, and their activities in and outside of school. Taken together,

More information

A wealth of information on global public health

A wealth of information on global public health 2014 A wealth of information on global public health World Health Organization 2014 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO web site (www.who.int) or

More information

Democratic People s Republic of Korea. Final Report of the National Nutrition Survey 2012

Democratic People s Republic of Korea. Final Report of the National Nutrition Survey 2012 Democratic People s Republic of Korea Final Report of the National Nutrition Survey 2012 September 17 th to October 17 th 2012 CBS With technical support from: UNICEF, WFP, WHO March 2013 0 Table of Contents

More information

EVERY MONGOLIAN CHILD HAS THE RIGHT ÒO HEALTHY GROWTH

EVERY MONGOLIAN CHILD HAS THE RIGHT ÒO HEALTHY GROWTH ÞÍÈÑÅÔ IECD project, Health and Nutrition, UNICEF EVERY MONGOLIAN CHILD HAS THE RIGHT ÒO HEALTHY GROWTH FACTS AND FIGURES Inside: Infant and Under-Five Mortality Child Malnutrition Vitamin A Deficiency

More information

Thematic Report 2013. Joint Nutrition Assessment Syrian Refugees in LEBANON

Thematic Report 2013. Joint Nutrition Assessment Syrian Refugees in LEBANON Thematic Report 2013 Joint Nutrition Assessment Syrian Refugees in LEBANON 2013 JOINT Nutrition Assessment Syrian Refugees in LEBANON ASSESSMENT CONDUCTED: October and November 2013 FINAL Report FEBRUARY

More information

Facts and Figures. The World Health Report 2003 Shaping the Future. Life expectancy

Facts and Figures. The World Health Report 2003 Shaping the Future. Life expectancy World Health Organization Facts and Figures The World Health Report 2003 Shaping the Future Life expectancy Life expectancy at birth in 2002 reached a global average of 65.2 years, compared with 46.5 years

More information

Millenium Development Goals

Millenium Development Goals Hunger in a World of Plenty and the Role of Food in the Fight against HIV/AIDS Martin W. Bloem, MD, PhD Chief HIV AIDS and Nutrition Policy World Food Program Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

More information

MDHHS Winnable Battles

MDHHS Winnable Battles Michigan Department of Health & Human Services MDHHS Winnable Battles Social Determinants of Health Eden V. Wells, MD, MPH, FACPM Michigan Department of Health and Human Services Putting people first,

More information

483.25(i) Nutrition (F325) Surveyor Training: Interpretive Guidance Investigative Protocol

483.25(i) Nutrition (F325) Surveyor Training: Interpretive Guidance Investigative Protocol 483.25(i) Nutrition (F325) Surveyor Training: 1 With regard to the revised guidance F325 Nutrition, there have been significant changes. Specifically, F325 and F326 were merged. However, the regulatory

More information

HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care

HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care Nancy S. Padian, PhD, MPH Professor, Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences Associate Director for Research, Global Health Sciences and AIDS Research Institute: University

More information

MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality

MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality 143 MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality The target for Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to reduce the mortality rate of children under 5 years old (under-5 mortality) by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015.

More information

Through the food a pregnant woman eats, she gives her unborn child the nourishment required to begin and sustain fetal growth and development.

Through the food a pregnant woman eats, she gives her unborn child the nourishment required to begin and sustain fetal growth and development. Chapter 10 Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation Chapter 10 Lesson 10.1 Key Concepts The mother s food habits and nutritional status before conception, as well as during pregnancy, influence the outcome

More information

UNICEF Information Package

UNICEF Information Package UNICEF Information Package 1 About UNICEF Global presence we are on the ground in 191 countries to advance the rights of children, through country programmes and National Committees. Five organizational

More information

Health, history and hard choices: Funding dilemmas in a fast-changing world

Health, history and hard choices: Funding dilemmas in a fast-changing world Health, history and hard choices: Funding dilemmas in a fast-changing world Thomson Prentice Global Health Histories Health and Philanthropy: Leveraging change University of Indiana, August 2006 An embarrassment

More information

Dimensions of Global Health

Dimensions of Global Health Dimensions of Global Health James Plumb MD, MPH Francis Barchi MS, MBE DFCM - September - 2010 Global Health - Jefferson Global Health Working Group Inventory of current activities Courses Certificate

More information

Malnutrition in Zambia. Quick wins for government in 12-18 months. For The Attention of His Excellency The President of Zambia Mr. Edgar Chagwa Lungu

Malnutrition in Zambia. Quick wins for government in 12-18 months. For The Attention of His Excellency The President of Zambia Mr. Edgar Chagwa Lungu Malnutrition in Zambia. Quick wins for government in 12-18 months For The Attention of His Excellency The President of Zambia Mr. Edgar Chagwa Lungu A Zambia Where every mother and child is assured of

More information

Note Taking Guide. Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins (pp ) Foods Supply Nutrients. Foods Supply Energy. Section 8-1.

Note Taking Guide. Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins (pp ) Foods Supply Nutrients. Foods Supply Energy. Section 8-1. Section 8-1 Note Taking Guide Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins (pp. 192 199) Foods Supply Nutrients 1. List four reasons why the body needs nutrients. The body needs nutrients to a.. b.. c.. d.. 2. List

More information

Health Extension Program In Ethiopia. Federal ministry health of Ethiopia Forum on stunting reduction October 24-25,2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Health Extension Program In Ethiopia. Federal ministry health of Ethiopia Forum on stunting reduction October 24-25,2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Health Extension Program In Ethiopia Federal ministry health of Ethiopia Forum on stunting reduction October 24-25,2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Outline Overview on HEP Achievement Challenges The way forward

More information

HEALTH TRANSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SRI LANKA LESSONS OF THE PAST AND EMERGING ISSUES

HEALTH TRANSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SRI LANKA LESSONS OF THE PAST AND EMERGING ISSUES HEALTH TRANSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SRI LANKA LESSONS OF THE PAST AND EMERGING ISSUES Dr. Godfrey Gunatilleke, Sri Lanka How the Presentation is Organized An Overview of the Health Transition in Sri

More information

WHO/UNICEF JOINT STATEMENT

WHO/UNICEF JOINT STATEMENT WHO/UNICEF JOINT STATEMENT CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE DIARRHOEA Two recent advances in managing diarrhoeal disease newly formulated oral rehydration salts (ORS) containing lower concentrations of glucose

More information

taking Action Nutrition for Survival, Growth & Development

taking Action Nutrition for Survival, Growth & Development taking Action Nutrition for Survival, Growth & Development White Paper May 2010 Acknowledgments This White Paper is the result of contributions from a wide range of Action Against Hunger ACF International

More information

NUTRITION ESSENTIALS A Guide for Health Managers

NUTRITION ESSENTIALS A Guide for Health Managers NUTRITION ESSENTIALS A Guide for Health Managers WHO/BASICS/UNICEF 1999 ** Please note that this PDF version does not contain Figures 1-16 as described throughout the text. ACRONYMS ARI BASICS BCG BF BFHI

More information

Pre-service and In-service Capacity Building: Lessons Learned from Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)

Pre-service and In-service Capacity Building: Lessons Learned from Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) Pre-service and In-service Capacity Building: Lessons Learned from Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) Dr Wilson Were Medical Officer Child Health Services 1 IAEA International Symposium

More information

Hunger and Poverty: Definitions and Distinctions

Hunger and Poverty: Definitions and Distinctions Hunger and Poverty: Definitions and Distinctions The Hunger Project 5 Union Square West New York, NY 10003 www.thp.org Hunger and poverty are powerful but familiar terms. Everyone knows what they mean,

More information

Mortality and Morbidity Data Sources for Measuring Mortality

Mortality and Morbidity Data Sources for Measuring Mortality This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

Assess Life, Health and Wellbeing in the London Borough of Bexley Listening to you, working for you

Assess Life, Health and Wellbeing in the London Borough of Bexley Listening to you, working for you Joint Strategic Needs Assessment Chapter 20 Diet and Nutrition Assess Life, Health and Wellbeing in the London Borough of Bexley Listening to you, working for you CHAPTER 20 DIET AND NUTRITION 20.1 Introduction

More information

Household Food Consumption: looking beyond the score

Household Food Consumption: looking beyond the score Household Food Consumption: looking beyond the score ICDAM 17.5.2012 Session B-6 Measuring Dietary Diversity Presented by Kathryn Ogden, World Food Programme (WFP) Based on abstract by Astrid Mathiassen,

More information