1 iv STUDENT S DECLARATION I hereby declare that the work in this thesis is my own except for quotations and summaries which have been duly acknowledged. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted for award of other degree. Signature Name: MOHAMAD NAZRI BIN SEMOIN. ID Number: ME06078 Date:
2 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful and the Most Beneficent. It is with the deepest senses gratitude of the almighty that gives strength and ability to complete this thesis successfully. First of all, I would like to dedicate my sincere appreciation to my supervisor, Mr Mohd Fadzil Faisae bin Ab. Rashid and also lecturers at Universiti Malaysia Pahang for allowed taking me under their supervision. All of them have given me critics, encouragement, guidance, and valuable advices in order to complete this project. Without their continued support and interest, this thesis would not have been the same as presented here. My fellow colleagues should also be recognized for their support and friendship. My deeply thanks also goes to others who have provided assistance at various occasions that invite whether direct or indirectly in the completion of my project. Last, but certainly not least, my special thanks also extends to my family for the continual encouragement and support.
3 vii ABSTRACT This project proposed a new optimization technique based on the ant colony algorithm for solving single-pass turning optimization problems. The cutting process has focus on roughing stages. There are enough handbooks to provide recommended cutting parameters and not consider the economic aspects of machining. The cost of machining on these machines is sensitive to the machining variable. The project objectives are to develop Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm for CNC turning process and to optimize turning parameters for minimized production cost per unit. Method used for this project is Ant Colony Optimization. This method consists of many steps will elaborate detail in this thesis. The machining parameters are determined by minimized production cost per unit, subject to various practical machining constraints. The results indicate that the proposed ant colony framework is effective to optimized turning parameter. Lastly, ACO algorithm was successfully optimize depth of cut, cutting speed, feed rate and minimized production cost per unit.
4 viii ABSTRAK Projek ini mencadangkan teknik baru berdasarkan kepada Ant Colony Optimization untuk meyelesaikan masalah permulaan untuk mengunakan mesin larik. Process pemotongan hanya difokuskan kepada process permulaan. Terdapat pelbagai buku-buku panduan untuk proses pemotongan yang mencadangkan pembolehubah permotongan dan tidak mempertimbangkan aspek ekonomi pada mesin. Kos mesin ini adalah sensetif dengan pembolehubah mesin. Objektif projek ini adalah untuk menghasilkan Ant Colony Optimization untuk proses mesin larik dan mengurangkan kadar kos seunit. Kaedah yang digunakan untuk projek ini adalah Ant Colony Optimization. Keadah ini merangkumi pelbagai langkah yang telah ceritakan secara lebih lanjut di dalam laporan ini. Pembolehubah untuk mesin digunakan untuk mengurangkan kadar kos untuk satu unit, mengikut kepada pelbagai pembolehubah yang tetap. Keputusan yang diperolehi akan mencadangkan bahawa Ant Colont optimization ini bersesuaian untuk mengoptimumkan kadar pembolehubah untuk mesin larik. Akhirnya, Ant Colony Optimization ini telah berjaya mengoptimumkan kedalaman permotongan, kelajuan permotongan, kadar suapan dan megurangkan kadar kos seunit.
5 ix CONTENTS Page SUPERVISOR S DECLARATION STUDENT S DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT ABSTRAK CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS iii iv v vi vii viii ix xii xiii xv xvii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Project Background Problem Statement Project Objectives Project Scopes Project Planning 4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Turning Process Important to optimize turning parameters Previous Research Optimization Turning Parameters Operating parameters 11
6 x Feed rate Cutting speed Depth of cut Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) 13 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction Type of cut ACO Algorithm Implementation of Ant Colony Optimization Initialization Evaluation Objective function Constraints Data of problem Reproduction Crossover Mutation Trail diffusion Update trail New pheromone value Termination 35 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Introduction Simulation objectives Simulation setup and assumption Result Initialization result 39
7 xi Evaluation result Reproduction result Crossover result Mutation result Trail diffusion result Local search result Update trail New Pheromone value Termination result Results and discussion Optimum production cost versus generation graph Best overall production cost versus generation graph Verification Simple calculation Validation 58 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 5.1 Introduction Conclusion Recommendation 61 REFERENCES 62 APPENDIX A Simulation Programming 63 APPENDIX B Flow chart for PSM 87 APPENDIX C Gantt chart PSM 1 89 Gantt chart PSM 2 90
8 xii LIST OF TABLES Table No. Page 2.1 Summary from previous research optimization turning parameter random solutions Convert decimal to binary number After sort ascending Update trail for superior solution Initialization result Evaluation result Crossover result Mutation result Trail diffusion result Local search result Termination result Optimum production cost for graph optimum production cost 48 versus generation. 4.9 The best result for every iteration in graph best overall 50 production cost versus generation Iteration result for depth of cut, cutting speed, feed rate and cost Optimization of single pass using Nelder-Mead Simplex 54 Method (rough cut) Optimization of single pass using Nelder-Mead Simplex 58 Method (rough cut) (Saravanan, 2006)
9 xiii LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Page 2.1 CNC turning machine CNC turning possible shapes CNC turning example part Feed rates (Saravanan, 2006) V f = cutting speed (Saravanan, 2006) Depth of cut (Saravanan, 2006) Real ants follow a path between nest and food source (Saravanan, 2006) An obstacle appears on the path: Ants choose whether to turn left or right 14 (Saravanan, 2006). 2.9 Pheromone is deposited more quickly on the shorter path 14 (Saravanan, 2006) All ants have chosen the shorter path (Saravanan, 2006) Straight turning Raw material Finish product ACO algorithms Three parameters combined to find the solution Evaluation Superior and inferior Parent 1 and Parent Child 1 and Child Second step in mutation Value of X P1 and X P Find value of X iold F ( X inew ) is smaller than ( X iold ) F. 34
10 xiv 3.14 F ( X inew ) is bigger than ( X iold ) F Optimum production cost versus generation graph Best overall production cost versus generation graph. 49
11 xv LIST OF SYMBOLS D L V f Diameter of workpiece (mm) Length of the workpiece (mm) Cutting speed (m/min) Feed rate (mm/rev) f, f min max Minimum and maximum allowable feed rates R Surface roughness ( µ m) a ( r) R ( f ) Ra, max, a. max Maximum surface roughness of rough and finish cut, respectively P F Power of the machine (kw) Cutting force (N) o θ Temperature of tool-workpiece interface ( C) doc ( r) doc ( r) Depth of cut (mm) docmin, max Minimum and maximum allowable depth of cut (rough) ( f ) doc ( f ) docmin, max Minimum and maximum allowable depth of cut (finish) a 1, a2, a3, K Constant used in tool life equation T t m Tool life (min) Machining time (min) t cs Tool change time (min/edge) t R t h T u C o C t C T Quick return time (min/pass) Loading and unloading time (min/pass) Total production time (min) Operating cost (RM/piece) Tool cost per cutting edge (RM/edge) Total production cost (RM/piece) C P Power cost (RM/min) P1, P2 Parent 1, Parent 2
12 xvi m r X ph age Level of mutation Random number Fitness value Pheromone value Age ph ave Pheromone average lim step Limiting step X inew, X iold Fitness value iteration new, fitness value iteration old ph inew Pheromone value iteration new C w Workpiece cost (RM)
13 xvii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CNC ACO Computer Numerical Control Ant Colony Optimization
14 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 PROJECT BACKGROUND Machining parameters optimization has significant practical importance, particularly for operating Computer Numerical Control (CNC) turning machines. Due to the high cost of these machines, an economic analysis needs to be performed to operate them as efficiently as possible in order to obtain the required return on investment. Because the costs of machining on these machines are sensitive to the machining variable, the optimum values must be determined before a part is put into production. The operating parameters in this context are cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and so on that do not violate any of the constraints that may apply to the process and satisfy the objective criterion, such as minimum time, minimum production cost, or maximum production rate (Saravanan, 2006). The analysis will be done by using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) method. This method is a metaheuristic approach to tackling a hard problem that was first proposed in the early 1990s by Dorigo, Maniezzo and Colorni. Fascinated by the ability of the almost blind ants to establish the shortest route from their nests to the food source and back, researchers found that these ants secrete a substance called pheromones and use its trails as a medium for communicating information among themselves. Also, they are capable of adapting to change in the environment, such as finding the new shortest path when the old one is no longer available due to new obstacle (Wei Gao, 2007).
15 2 The purpose of this study is to developed Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm for CNC turning process. The main objective is to optimize CNC turning parameters by minimizing production cost per unit. The analysis will be done by collecting data. Then the data will be solving by applying Ant Colony Optimization method that developed in Matlab software. Nowadays, this technique is used to make sure the selection of machine parameters can minimize production cost per unit. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT In an early work, analysis of single and multi-pass turning under practical constraints has been done using minimum production cost or time criteria. The output of the product is usually high in order to increase the interest of the industry. However it is not easy to achieve that goal if there is no well plan by the industry. Optimization of operating parameters is an important step in machining, particularly for operating CNC machine tools. Although there are enough handbooks to provide recommended cutting parameters, they do not consider the economic aspects of machining (Vijayakumar et. al, 2003). Due to the high cost of these machines, an economic need exists to operate them as efficiently as possible to obtain the required return on investment. Because the cost of machining on these machines is sensitive to the machining variable, the optimum values must be determined before a part is put into production (Saravanan, 2006). Selecting proper values for machining parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut directly affects the machining economics in metal cutting process. Several cutting constraints must be considered in machining operations. A turning cutting operation involves several roughing cuts and a finishing cut. That makes the problem of determining the optimal cutting conditions more difficult and complicated.
16 3 Machining parameters can be determined based on the machine operator s experience or by following the cutting handbook supplied by the equipment manufacturer. However, those data are not guaranteed to be optimal or even good for a particular cutting environment (Yi-Chi Wang, 2007). Therefore, developing optimization algorithm for single-pass turning operations has become a useful tool to optimize turning parameters for minimizes production cost per unit. 1.3 PROJECT OBJECTIVES The purposed of these projects are to study and analyzed the CNC turning machines parameters and find the suitable value. The objectives of the project are: 1. To develop Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm for CNC turning process. 2. To optimize turning parameters for minimized production cost per unit. 1.4 PROJECT SCOPES This scope is created to make sure this project running well in the limited boundary. The scopes of this project are: 1. The algorithm is developed for single past turning. 2. This project considers three main parameters such as feed rates, cutting speed, and depth of cut that mostly used in previous research. 3. All of the constant parameters are adapted from references. For optimization with difference tool material and machine, it must be appropriate with the difference parameter value. 4. The algorithm is developing by using Matlab software. 5. Only consider roughing cut.
17 4 1.5 PROJECT PLANNING The planning for Optimization Turning Parameters Using Ant Colony Optimization is presented in this section. This planning consists of Flow chart PSM, Gantt chart PSM 1 and Gantt chart PSM 2, which is shown in Appendix B and Appendix C.
18 5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION Optimization of operating parameters is an important step in machining, particularly for operating Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools. Although there are enough handbooks to provide recommended cutting parameters, they do not consider the economic aspects of machining. Machining parameters problem have been dealt with several researchers. This chapter introduce to the step of optimization turning parameters using ant colony optimization. Now days, CNC machine is commonly used in industry. The operation of this machine is an expensive because it has many parameters to consider. However, the optimizations technique can be used to minimize production cost per unit.
19 6 2.2 TURNING PROCESS A Lathe produces parts by "turning" rod material and feeding a single-point cutter into the turning material. Cutting operations are performed with a cutting tool fed either parallel or at right angles to the axis of the workpiece. The tool may also be fed at an angle relative to the axis of the workpiece for the machining tapers and angles. The workpiece may originally be of any cross-section, but the machined surface is normally straight or tapered. Have many possible shape can produce in CNC turning such as variety of plain, taper, contour, fillet and radius profiles plus threaded surfaces. CNC turning also can be used to create shafts, rods, hubs, bushes and pulleys. Figure 2.1 CNC turning machine. Figure 2.2 CNC turning possible shapes.
20 7 Figure 2.3 CNC turning example part Important to optimize turning parameters Selecting proper values for machining parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut directly affects the machining economics in metal cutting process. Several cutting constraints must be considered in machining operations. In turning operations, a cutting process can possibly be complicated with a single pass or by multiple passes. Multi pass turning is preferable over single pass turning in the industry for economic reasons. That makes the problem of determining the optimal cutting conditions more difficult and complicated. Machining parameters can be determined base on machine operator s experience or by following the cutting handbook supplied by the equipment manufacturer. However, those data are not guaranteed to be optimal or even good for a particular cutting environment. Other wise, developing mathematical models for single pass turning operations has become useful tool for determining the optimal cutting conditions (Yi-Chi Wang, 2007).
21 8 2.3 PREVIOUS RESEARCH OPTIMIZATION TURNING PARAMETERS Optimization of operating parameters is an important step in machining, particularly for operating Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools. Although there are enough handbooks to provide recommended cutting parameters, they do not consider the economics aspects of machining. Machining parameters optimization problem have been performed with by several researchers. New optimization techniques based on the ant colony algorithm for solving multi-pass turning optimization problems are proposed. The cutting process has roughing and finishing stages. The machining parameters are determined by minimizing the unit production cost, subject to various practical machining constraints. In this paper, the Ant Colony Algorithm (ACO) algorithm is completely generalized and problem independent so that it can be easily modified to optimize this turning operation under various economic criteria, and numerous practical constraints (Vijayakumar et. al, 2003). An article by Vijayakumar et al. [Optimization of Multi-pass Turning Operations Using Ant Colony System] proposed an ant colony optimization methodology for determining the machining parameters in a multi-pass turning operation model. By using the problem of Chen and Tsai [A Simulated Annealing Approach for Optimization of Multi-pass Turning Operations], they concluded that their ant colony approach outperformed the other optimization techniques proposed by other researchers. This journal discusses an illustrative multi-pass turning problem, which was used in several literatures and demonstrates that the optimal solution as found by Vijayakumar et al. is not valid (Yi-Chi-Wang, 2007). Machining parameters optimization has significant practical importance, particularly for operating CNC machines. Because the cost of machining on these machines is sensitive to the machining variables, the optimum value must be determined before a part put into production. At the end of this analysis, has presented the initial
22 9 simplex informed by considering the minimum limit of speed and feed rate. The accuracy of this result is dependent upon the chosen initial simplex. The results are obtained for the following four simplexes and the best one is selected (Saravanan, 2006). In the 1997, analysis of [Design Optimization of Cutting Parameters for Turning Operations Base on Taguchi Method] is used to find the optimal cutting parameters for turning operations. As shown in this study, the Taguchi method provides a systematic and efficient methodology for the design optimization of the cutting parameters with far less effect than would be required for most optimization technique (W. H. Yang, Y. S. Tarng, 1997). An optimization analysis, strategy for the selection of economic cutting conditions in single pass turning operations are presented using a deterministic approach. From this paper, the detailed optimization analysis assisted by the feed-speed diagrams has provide an in-depth understanding of economic characteristics and the influence of the constraint and machining performance data, which was resulted in a clearly defined optimization strategy that ensures the global optimum solution (Wang, 2002). Therefore, summary from previous research optimization turning parameter, this is shown in Table 2.1 below.
23 10 Table 2.1: Summary from previous research optimization turning parameter. Author Journals / books Year Method Parameters considered R. Saravanan Optimization of operating parameters 2006 Nelder-mead simplex Feed rate, cutting speed, depth of cut for CNC machine tools method K. Vijayakumar, G. Prabhaharan, P.Asokan, R. Saravanan Optimization of multi-pass turning operation using ant colony method 2003 Ant colony optimization Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, number of rough cuts Yi Chi Wang A note on optimization of turning operations using ant colony method 2007 Ant colony optimization Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, tool life, cutting force, cutting power, surface roughness W. H. Yang, Y. S. Tarng Design optimization of cutting parameters 1997 Taguchi method Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut for turning operation based on the Taguchi method J. Wang, T. Kuriyagawa, X. P. Wei, D. M. Guo Optimization cutting condition for singlepass turning operation using a deterministic approach 2002 Deterministic approach Cutting speed, feed rate, cutting power, surface roughness, tool life
24 11 From Table 2.1, three main parameters that were considered in previous studies were feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut. Therefore, in this study these three main parameters will be considered Operating parameters Feed rate The maximum allowable feed has pronounced effect on both optimum spindle speed and production rate. Feed changes have a more significant impact on tool life than depth of cut change. The system energy requirement reduces with feed because the optimum speed becomes lower. Therefore, the largest possible feed consistent with allowable machine power and surface finish is desirable for a machine to be fully utilized. Obtaining much higher metal removal rates without reducing tool life is often possible by increasing the feed and decreasing the speed. In general, the maximum feed in a roughing operation is limited by the force that the cutting tool, machine tool, workpiece, and fixture are able to withstand. The maximum feed in a finish operation is limited by the surface finish requirement and often can be predicted to a certain degree based on the surface finish and tool nose radius. Figure 2.4 Feed rates (Saravanan, 2006).
vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF APPENDICES
PERPUSTAKAAN UMP 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000071 257 ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION (ACO) ALGORITHM FOR CNC ROUTE PROBLEM WAN NUR FARHANAR BT WAN ZAKARTA A Report Submitted In Partial Fulfillments
DESIGN OF A RECYCLE BIN TIN CAN CRUSHER MUHAMMAD HANIS BIN MUHAMMAD ZULKIFLI A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Diploma of Mechanical Engineering
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A NEW FREE AND FORCE VIBRATION TEST RIG MUHAMMAD NAIM BIN OTHMAN Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Diploma in Mechanical Engineering
PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT VIA SIMULATION METHOD (MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY) HASBULLAH BIN MAT ISA Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this report. A special thanks to our final year project coordinator, Mr. Zamri,
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TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES ii iii x xiv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 1.0 Background 1 1.1 Research Motivation 4 1.2 Research Objectives 5 1.3 Project Scope 6
i REAL TIME FACE DETECTION SYSTEM AMY SAFRINA BINTI MOHD ALI This thesis is submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (Hons.) (Electronics)
World Applied Sciences Journal 6 (1): 64-69, 2009 ISSN 1818-4952 IDOSI Publications, 2009 Optimization of Machining Parameters to Minimize Tool Deflection in the End Milling Operation Using Genetic Algorithm
i INTEGRATING CONSUMER TRUST IN BUILDING AN E-COMMERCE WEBSITE NUR ZAILAN BIN OTHMAN A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science
A STUDY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO A PROJECT SUCCESS IN MEGA PROJECT CONSTRUCTION IN MALAYSIA: A CASE STUDY OF KUALA LUMPUR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 2(KLIA2) NOOR HANIRA BINTI
Jurnal Teknologi MICROCONTROLLER-BASED FOR SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION TOOLS USING LEAST SQUARE METHOD FOR RC CIRCUITS Ang Jia Yi a*, M. S. Abdul Majid a, Azuwir M. N. a, S. Yaacob b a School of Mechatronic,
TOOL WEAR, TOOL LIFE, HAND TOOLS AND MACHINE TOOLS email: email@example.com 1 PROCESS OF CUTTING TOOL FAILURE Cutting Tool Failure Mechanisms: 1. By Plastic deformation 2. By chipping due to mechanical
Proceedings of the 6th WSEAS International Conference on Simulation, Modelling and Optimization, Lisbon, Portugal, September 22-24, 2006 19 An ant colony optimization for single-machine weighted tardiness
i TRANSFORMATIONAL PROJECT MANAGER: AN ENABLER OF AN ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP) IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS JOHN ONYEKACHI OKUGO A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
DEVELOPMENT OF ANTI-THEFT VEHICLE AND GPS LOCATOR USING GSM NURUL AFIZA BINTI OTHMAN This Report Is Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Bachelor Degree of Electronic Engineering (Telecommunication
ii CLIENT SERVER APPLICATION FOR SERVER FARM PERFORMANCE MONITORING ABDIRASHID HASSAN ABDI A project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Computer
CUSTOMER ONLINE PURCHASE INTENTION TOWARDS AIRLINE E-TICKETING IN KLANG VALLEY BY CHEW YUH YIING CHONG CHOOI SUN MICHELLE SIM KAI FERN YONG SOOK HUOI A research project submitted in partial fulfillment
DESIGNING AND FABRICATION MODULAR PRODUCT WITH THE INCORPORATION OF DIY ASSEMBLY METHOD (SHOE RACK) NIK ZUBAIDI BIN NIK MAHMOOD A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Bachelor
Radius Compensation G40, G41, & G42 (cutter radius compensation for machining centers, tool nose radius compensation for turning centers) These features are commonly well covered in most basic CNC courses.
UNIT 4 LIMIT GAUGING Structure 4.1 Introduction Objectives 4.2 Gauges and their Classifications 4.2.1 Standard Gauges 4.2.2 Limit Gauges 4.3 Working Gauges, Inspection Gauges and Reference Gauges 4.4 Gauges
EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL EVALUATION OF BENDING FOR STAINLESS STEEL MOHD HAFIZU BIN HASAN BASRI Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering
Performance Evaluation of the Process Industry Supply r Chain: Case of the Petroleum Industry in India :.2A By Siddharth Varma Submitted in fulfillment of requirements of the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
GEOMETRY OF SINGLE POINT TURNING TOOLS LEARNING OBJECTIVES Introduction to Features of single point cutting tool. Concept of rake and clearance angle and its importance System of description of Tool geometry
2.1 Introduction 2. DRILLING MACHINE Drilling machine is one of the most important machine tools in a workshop. It was designed to produce a cylindrical hole of required diameter and depth on metal workpieces.
Introduction to CNCMachining Krishanu Biswas Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering IIT Kanpur CNC Machines What is a CNC Machine? CNC : Computer and Numeric Control Conventionally, an operator
SOFTWARE TESTING Yogesh Singh MM CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Contents List of Figures List of Tables Preface Acknowledgements xi xv xxi xxiii 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Some Software Failures 1 1.1.1 The Explosion
SECURE E- MEDICAL RECORD SYSTEM JENNIFER LAW (Network Computing) This project is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Computer Science with Honours Faculty
1 of 6 9/9/2014 3:59 PM I. Catalog Information Credit- Degree applicable Effective Quarter: Fall 2014 MCNC 75B Computer-Aided Numerical Control (CNC) Programming and Operation; Lathe Introduction, Advanced