1 Reducing Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers Prevention & Management of Pressure Damage Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
2 Prevalence & Cost Prevalence ranges from 10% to 18% in the UK (Clark & Cullum 1993). Cost to patient - pain, extended hospital stay and possible death. C t f t ti d 4 Cost of treating one grade 4 pressure ulcer is estimated at 10,551 (2004).
3 Pressure ulcers, pressure sores & bedsores A pressure ulcer is localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear. A number of contributing or confounding factors are also associated with pressure ulcers; the significance of these factors is yet to be elucidated. EPUAP (2009)
4 Common Pressure ulcer locations o Sacrum 49% Hips 11% Heels 9.5% Other 30.5% i.e. head, spinal vertebrae, scapulae, elbows and malleoli. (Collier 1995)
5 Causes of pressure ulcer development - External factors Pressure Shear Contributing factors Friction Moisture
6 Pressure damage Occurs when skin and other tissues are directly compressed between bone and another surface such as a bed or a chair. Shutting off blood supply causing tissue to die. Low pressure can cause damage - if over several hours. High pressure can cause damage - within minutes.
7 Shear Skin moves at a different rate to underlying structures t Stretches skin surface Stretches, Displaces and distorts ts blood capillaries. Example: When a seated patient slips down in a chair or bed
8 Friction Two surfaces move laterally across one another. Causes SCUFF an break in the skin which can be influenced by shear or pressure. e
9 Moisture Urine, Faeces, Sweat, Exudate Increases friction and shearing forces which can lead to skin adhering to surface. 17.6% of acute in-pt s are faecally incontinent (Junkin & Selekof 2007). 23% (ABMUHB West 2009) 54% of all skin injury results from exposure to incontinence (Gray et al 2007) times more likely to sustain pressure damage that continent patients Skin becomes water logged causing it to break down, lose its protective barrier and resulting a superficial lesion.
10 Causes Internal factors General health and age Mobility Body weight-impaired nutritional status Incontinence Poor blood supply Insensitivity to pain or discomfort Medication Inadequate diet or fluid intake
11 Surface In order to identify the correct surface we must 1 st identify the patients t risk
12 Risk Assessment Comprise of a selection of identified intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to pressure ulcer development risk. Each are given a numerical value which once calculated reflects the degree of risk an individual has of developing pressure damage. Should be completed within 2 hours of admission and reviewed as individuals condition changes (ABMULHB 2010) ACT ON RISK IDENTIFIED
14 Skin assessment General medical condition. Including all bony prominences every time you clean or reposition the patient or at the very least every shift. Is the surface assisting with protecting the patient? Moistness and incontinence. Nutrition.
15 What to LOOK for: Non-blanching redness (hyperaemia). Purplish/bluish patches on dark skinned people. Persistent red patches on light skinned people Swelling, Blisters Shiny areas & Dry patches Cracks, calluses and wrinkles
16 Signs to FEEL for are: Localised hard areas. Localised warm areas. Localised induration. Swollen skin over bony points.
17 The 1 st signs Blanching Erythema (redness) When lightly pressed the redness will turn white and then within a few second back to red. Circulation still present.
18 Intact skin with non- blanchable redness of a localized area usually over a bony prominence. Discoloration of the skin, warmth, edema, hardness or pain may also be present. Darkly pigmented skin may not have visible blanching.
19 Partial thickness loss of dermis presenting as a shallow open ulcer with a red pink wound bed, without slough. May also present as an intact or open/ruptured serum-filled blister.
20 Full thickness tissue loss. Subcutaneous fat may be visible but bone, tendon or muscle are not exposed. Some slough may be present. May include undermining &t tunneling.
21 Full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon or muscle. Slough or eschar may be present. Often include undermining and tunneling.
22 Nursing Care General care Nutrition Patient handling Skin care Turning/repositioning g 30 degree tilt Pressure relief equipment inc. cushions
23 Keep moving Repositioning should be determined by the results of skin inspection Individuals at risk & are able to - should be encouraged to inspect their own skin and redistribute their own weight Contact t between bony prominences should be avoided
24 K Keep moving Shear and friction i should be minimised i i Manual handling devices should be utilised correctly Use of the 30 degree tilt
26 Provision of equipment Mattresses cushions moving & handling equipment Mattresses, cushions, moving & handling equipment should be allocated according to assessment.
28 Correct Seating Position Total Body Weight Distribution 75% Buttocks/Thighs 19% Feet 4% Trunk 2% Arms
29 Other equipment.. Synthetic Sheepskins Doughnut rings Water filled gloves SHOULD NOT BE USED Allevyn Heel dressings have NO pressure relieving properties
30 DON TS: Massage affected skin. Apply Rubber glove filled with water. Apply talc. Relieve pressure with pillows if on pressure RELIEVING equipment!!!!
31 I Incontinence Undertake a continence assessment Manage with appropriate aids (pads / conveen, catheter, flexi seal etc) Advise patient / carers with regard skin care. Regularly cleanse and use of barrier products
32 If it is a Moisture Lesion Patients still require pressure relief As the presence of moisture increases the risk of pressure damage occurring (NICE 2005).
33 Nutrition Screen and assess nutritional status if individual at risk of/or as pressure damage. Refer individuals with a pressure ulcer to the dietitian for early assessment. Assess the total t nutrient t intake (food, fluid, oral supplements). Provide kcalories/kg body weight and 1.25 to 1.5 grams protein/kg body weight daily for individuals with a pressure ulcer. Provide oral supplements between meals if needed. Consider nutritional support (enteral or parenteral nutrition) if oral intake is inadequate. Assess renal function to ensure that high levels of protein are appropriate for the individual. Provide and encourage adequate daily fluid intake for hydration. Monitor individuals for signs and symptoms of dehydration.
34 Prevention is Better Than Cure Estimated cost of treating pressure sores in the UK is estimated at as high as 750million Best way to avoid pressure ulcers? MOVE! Patients position should be changed regularly
35 Understanding the causes of Pressure Ulcers is fundamental in preventing them. Equipment aids patient care and plays a significant role in pressure ulcer prevention. Remember - equipment is not a substitute for GOOD FUNDAMENTAL NURSING CARE
36 Implementing the SKIN BUNDLE Model
37 Pressure Ulcers and the Importance of Management Cost to patient Cost is around 2.4 billion a year Actual Pressure Ulcer Incident % unknown Cost of treating one grade 4 pressure ulcer is estimated t at 10,551 (2004) Costs around 30,000 to treat a patient along the surgical pathway Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
38 Content Area Drivers Interventions Risk Identification Understand the risk factors for acquiring pressure ulcers Understand the local context & analyse local data to assess patients on ward/unit most at risk Utilise patient At risk cards to quickly identify those at increased risk Reduce the Percentage of Hospital acquired Pressure Ulcers (per 1000 patient t days By 50% by 2010 Risk Assessment Reliable Implementation of the SKIN bundle Identification, grading of pressure ulcers existing on admission/transfer & appropriate intervention Education Assess pressure ulcer risk on admission for ALL patients ts Re-assess skin every 8 hours where necessary Initiate and maintain correct and suitable preventative measures Address these areas: Surface Keep Moving/Turning Incontinence Nutrition Initiate and maintain correct and suitable treatment measures Utilise the local Tissue Viability nursing expertise Educate staff regarding the assessment process, identification and classification of, and treatment of pressure ulcers Educate Patients & family Develop patient information pack Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
39 Progress so far Pilot Ward days Rolled out to 3 wards, those rolled out to 3 wards, etc. To date: 12 wards Roll out complete by March 2010
40 What we have found out so far Some good Practice 1. Right pressure relief for the patient 2. Low incidence id of ward acquired PU s Some poor practice 1. Recording of risk scores 2. Documenting care given 3. No communication log 4. Written info for patients Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
41 How to implement. 1. Arranged open meeting with ward staff 2. Acknowledge good practice as well as areas that need improvement 3. Conduct baseline audit of risk assessments 4. Update staff s s PU knowledge 5. Introduce Skin Bundle communication tool 6. Introduce monthly audit tool (50% sample) 7. Address risk assessment documentation 8. Push management of PU s up the agenda Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
42 Implementation of Skin Bundle Its over to you.. Suggest: 1. Start t small familiarise i staff with SB 2. Build on this set realistic target time for 100%
43 Who goes on the Skin Bundle Any patient who : AW Waterlow score of f15 or above. You perceive as being at risk (clinical judgement) regardless of Waterlow score.
44 Surface = does the surface meet the patients risk including seating. Keep Moving & SKIN CHECKS = Repositioning assessed 4 hourly in chair/in bed & changes in skin assessed. Incontinence = catheter patency, bowel action, hygiene & skin care Nutrition = dietician referral, protein drinks x3, maintain daily fluid balance chart Ongoing = Waterlow & Nutritional risk status
45 Skin Bundle PATIENT NAME DATES TIME 6am 10am 2pm 6pm 10pm 6am 10am 2pm 6pm 10pm SURFACE TYPE OF MATTRESS TYPE OF CUSHION KEEP MOVING IN BED PATIENT MOVED SACRUM CHECKED RED-YES RED-NO HEELS CHECKED RED-YES RED-NO OTHER AREAS CHECKED IN CHAIR PATIENT MOVED SACRUM CHECKED CONTINENCE RED-YES RED-NO Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
46 PATIENT MOVED SACRUM CHECKED CONTINENCE RED-YES RED-NO CATHETER IN SITU INCONTINENCE URINE BOWELS WASHED/DRIED NUTRITION TYPE OF DIET FOOD CHART DIET FLUIDS SUPPLEMENTS WATERLOW SCORE NUTRITION SCORE
47 Who completes SB? Anyone who is providing care and observing the skin HOWEVER: Must be initialled NOT just Must be initialled iti by RGN at least once during 12 hour period
48 Monthly audit tool (50%sample) Waterlow Nutrition OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MARC APRIL Nutrition Waterlow June July Aug Sept NOV DEC JAN Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
49 Data recording Record on SAFETY CROSS Measure DAYS BETWEEN PU s Measure ward acquired PU s Data collected MONTHLY Ultimately all data recorded via Metric's
50 Presenting data Number of days since a pressure ulcer developed on ward --- Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
51 Aim for. Full compliance with risk score targets Managing g the risk score Utilisation of Skin Bundle communication tool Use of patient written Information/Education leaflets No PU Incidence since Implementation Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
52 For the Future. 1. 0% tolerance to PU s 2. 50% reduction in hospital acquired PU s % compliance with SB & risk assessments 4. PU s to remain on agenda 5. Role out across entire organisation & community inc. nursing homes etc. Challenges Time for: Education and Training Implementing/ ward pressures Recording of data Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
53 ANY QUESTIONS? Spread the Learning and celebrate the successes
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