Finnish Aviation Safety Programme Annex 1. Finnish Aviation Safety Plan TRAFI/5443/ / (23)

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1 1 (23) Date issued: Date valid: Validity: until further notice Underlying international standards, recommendations and other documents: COM(2011) 144 WHITE PAPER Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area COM(2011) 670 COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT Setting up an Aviation Management System for Europe SEC(2011) 1261 COMMISSION STAFF WORKING PAPER The European Aviation Safety Programme EASA European Aviation Safety Plan (https://www.easa.europa.eu/sms/) Modification details: Date Version Change First published version. FINNISH NATIONAL AVIATION SAFETY PLAN CONTENTS 1 Acronyms Foreword European Aviation Safety Plan Presentation Structure Finnish National Aviation Safety Plan Presentation, structure and updating Systemic issues SYS.001 Creating and implementing a national aviation safety programme SYS.002 Determination and monitoring of safety performance indicators (SPI) and targets SYS.003 Encouraging the implementation of safety management systems (SMS) SYS.004 Use of flight data monitoring (FDM) information SYS.005 Introducing a risk-based approach to authority operations Operational issues OPS.001 Runway excursions OPS.002 Mid-air collisions and airspace infringements OPS.003 Controlled flight into terrain OPS.004 Loss of control in flight OPS.005 Runway incursions OPS.006 Safety of ground operations OPS.007 Safety of helicopter operations OPS.008 Safety of general aviation and recreational aviation... 20

2 2 (23) 4.4 Emerging issues EME.001 Consideration of emerging issues EME.002 Coordination of environmental and safety issues Human factors and performance... 23

3 3 (23) 1 ACRONYMS AMC DOC 9859 EASA EASP ECCAIRS Acceptable Means of Compliance ICAO Safety Management Manual European Aviation Safety Agency European Aviation Safety Programme European Coordination Center for Accident and Incident Reporting Systems Eurocontrol European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation FASP FASp FDM ICAO SAFA SANA SMS SSP USOAP Finnish Aviation Safety Programme Finnish Aviation Safety Plan Flight Data Monitoring International Civil Aviation Organization Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircrafts Safety Assessment of National Aircrafts Safety Management System State Safety Programme Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme

4 4 (23) 2 FOREWORD The purpose of the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme (FASP) is to maintain and improve the safety of aviation. Methodical improvement of safety requires planning and the determination of actions needed. Aviation safety planning in Finland is largely based on the transport policy report produced by the Ministry of Transport and Communications, on information gained through the transport system safety management process of the Finnish Transport Safety Agency and on the objectives and action items in the European Aviation Safety Plan published by the EASA, with which Finland has undertaken to comply. The present document describes the safety actions to be undertaken in the area of aviation by the Finnish Transport Safety Agency in the period 2013 to The Finnish Transport Safety Agency s efforts are directed towards improving safety on a daily basis, within the Agency s domain. The actions described in the present document are key actions that are the focus of particular prioritisation. In addition to these long-term actions, the Finnish Transport Safety Agency will also take immediate action whenever necessary to ensure a high level of safety in aviation. Pekka Henttu Director General, Aviation

5 5 (23) 3 European Aviation Safety Plan 3.1 Presentation Background In 2011, the European Commission issued a White Paper on Transport 1 that included the objective of the European Union being the safest region in the world for aviation. Prognoses 2 indicate that the number of flight movements in Europe will double by The commercial aviation safety situation in Europe is good at the moment; in the future, measures will be required to reduce the number of accidents even as the number of flights increases and to keep the annual number of fatalities at its present low level In 2011, the European Commission issued a Communication 3 to the Council and to the European Parliament, outlining the measures needed to attain the aforementioned objective. In this Communication, the Council notes that in addition to regulatory compliance there is a need for a systemic approach to safety, in other words the introduction of safety management systems (SMS) The Commission issued the first version of the European Aviation Safety Programme together with the Communication, describing how aviation safety is managed at the EU level. The European Aviation Safety Plan is the proactive element in the Safety Programme. The White Paper, Communication, European Aviation Safety Programme and European Aviation Safety Plan are the principal cornerstones for safety management at the European level. 3.2 Structure The European Aviation Safety Plan involves a risk-based assessment of the most important issues for aviation safety that should be given coordinated attention at the European level, and also actions outlined for improving safety These issues are divided into three categories: systemic issues, operational issues and emerging issues. Also, human factors and performance are considered as a separate category. The purpose of this division is to ensure both a proactive and a reactive approach to safety as comprehensively as possible The European Aviation Safety Plan is drawn up by the EASA for a four-year period at a time, the principle being that actions outlined for the first year of the plan are binding, while actions outlined for the following years may be amended as necessary. For the period , 118 action items are outlined, of which 21 have a deadline in 2012 or The actions outlined in the plan are assigned to the EASA, the European Commission, the member states and various EASA working groups. The most recent plan contains 21 actions assigned to member states. Finland has committed to implementing the relevant actions. 1 COM(2011) 144 WHITE PAPER Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area Towards a more competitive and resource efficient transport system. 2 EUROCONTROL CND/STATFOR Doc415, 17 Dec 2010 Long-Term Forecast Flight Movements COM(2011) 670 COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT Setting up an Aviation Management System for Europe.

6 3.1.7 The EASA monitors the progress of the actions on an annual basis. Finnish Aviation Safety Programme 6 (23) The European Aviation Safety Programme and the European Aviation Safety Plan are available on the EASA website at

7 7 (23) 4 Finnish National Aviation Safety Plan 4.1 Presentation, structure and updating Aviation safety management in Finland is described in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme (FASP). The FASP complies with the ICAO requirement for establishing a State Safety Programme. Appended to the FASP is the Finnish Aviation Safety Plan, which describes actions taken in Finland to improve aviation safety, with reference to action items defined at the European level Actions may also be entered into the plan from the transport policy report of the Ministry of Transport and Communications and through the transport system safety management process of the Finnish Transport Safety Agency Implementation of actions is monitored regularly as part of the continuous safety situation monitoring conducted by the Finnish Transport Safety Agency (Trafi). Moreover, the effectiveness of actions with regard to safety is continuously monitored through monitoring of safety performance indicators, for instance The structure of the safety plan follows that of the European Aviation Safety Plan, with actions divided into three categories: systemic issues, operational issues and emerging issues. Also, human factors and performance are considered as a separate category The Finnish Aviation Safety Plan is reviewed and updated at least once a year as the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme is updated. The Transport Analysis unit of Trafi is responsible for coordinating the maintenance and updates of the plan. The plan itself and any changes to it are confirmed by the Director General, Aviation Sector The Finnish Aviation Safety Plan is the first version of the plan. In the future, past versions of the plan will be available on the Trafi website The actions, their background and their timetable are described in more detail in the following chapters.

8 8 (23) 4.2 Systemic issues Systemic issues are system-wide problems that affect aviation as a whole. Their association to a particular safety event or circumstance is not always obvious; they may be latent factors in the operating principles, culture, working conditions or information flow in an organisation or a government. In most scenarios, they become evident by triggering factors and play a significant role in the development of safety occurrences. They often relate to deficiencies in organisational processes and procedures. These factors will be addressed with actions such as introducing safety management systems at the government and organisation levels and developing safety information monitoring systems. Needs for improving authorities operations will also be taken into account SYS.001 Creating and implementing a national aviation safety programme The member states of the ICAO have committed to implementing a State Safety Programme at the central government level. The EASA has noted that several countries have in fact not yet developed or implemented a national safety programme and that this is a matter that should be prioritised. Such a national safety programme includes a national safety plan. It also includes safety performance indicators (SPIs) and the definition of an acceptable level of safety, which are discussed below under action item SYS.002. The purpose of the actions is to ensure that Finland is in compliance with the requirements of the ICAO and the EASA with regard to the creating and adopting of a safety programme. SYS.001.1) Trafi will develop and implement a national safety programme. SYS.001.2) Trafi will develop and implement a national aviation safety plan. SYS.001.1) By Apr SYS.001.2) By Jan SYS.001.1) National safety programme published and implemented. SYS.001.2) National safety plan published and implemented. SYS.001.1) Completed. First version of the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme was published on 8 Apr 2012 and will be updated annually. SYS.001.2) In progress, on schedule. SYS 1.7

9 9 (23) SYS.002 Determination and monitoring of safety performance indicators (SPI) and targets The ICAO requires its member states to determine an acceptable level of safety through safety performance indicators (SPIs) and targets, as part of the State Safety Programme. At the moment, member states have developed their SPIs according to their own respective needs. The EASA aims to establish higher-level SPIs that would apply to all areas of aviation at the European level and at the national level. The acceptable level of safety must be determined together with the service providers. The purpose of the actions is to ensure that Finland is in compliance with the requirements of the ICAO in this regard and to influence the development of common European SPIs according to Finland s interests. SYS.002.1) Trafi will develop national aviation SPIs and determine their targets. SYS.002.2) Trafi will participate in the development of common European SPIs through the EASA Network of Analysts. SYS.002.3) Trafi will agree with service providers on an acceptable level of safety. SYS.002.1) By Apr SYS.002.2) During 2013 and continuously thereafter. SYS.002.3) During SYS.002.1) SPIs published. SYS.002.2) Higher-level SPI definitions published. SYS.002.3) Acceptable level of safety determined together with service providers. SYS.002.1) Completed. SPIs published as an annex to the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. SYS.002.2) Completed, continuous. SYS.002.3) Partly completed. Targets for SPIs defined for 2013; their current status is that of a recommendation. SYS 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.16

10 10 (23) SYS.003 Encouraging the implementation of safety management systems (SMS) The implementation of safety management systems (SMS) in aviation organisations is a prerequisite for systematic development of aviation safety. The implementation of an SMS at the European level is required by provisions in several EU Regulations. With a view to the entry of these requirements into force, the various working groups of the European Strategic Safety Initiative (ESSI) have developed guideline materials to support the implementation of an SMS in commercial aviation and helicopter operations. The purpose of the actions is to help actors in the aviation sector in the implementation and development of SMSs. SYS.003.1) Trafi will encourage actors to take note of the materials developed by the ESSI European Commercial Aviation Safety Team (ECAST) and European Helicopter Safety Team (EHEST). SYS.003.1) During spring SYS.003.1) Links to ESSI working group materials on the Trafi website and presentation of the materials at seminars and other stakeholder events. SYS.003.1) In progress, behind schedule. SYS 2.7

11 4.2.4 SYS.004 Use of flight data monitoring (FDM) information Finnish Aviation Safety Programme 11 (23) An FDM system is compulsory for all aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight of more than 27,000 kg. The system yields valuable information on all inflight events, which can be used together with occurrence reporting for evaluating operational safety trends and for identifying and eliminating risk factors. It is important for safety development to provide for the opportunity to share the results of FDM analysis among operators in accordance with just culture principles and to discuss trends and threats noted and safety-improving practices. The purpose of the actions is to develop the sharing and analysis of FDM information among aviation actors and authorities and to leverage FDM information further in the promotion of safety. SYS.004.1) Trafi will organise regular meetings with operators producing FDM information for transparent discussion about matters noted in the analysis of FDM information. SYS.004.2) Trafi will ensure that operators producing FDM information will, at the minimum, define events determined under the national SPIs (and, in the future, events defined by the EAFDM as standard events) as FDM events to be monitored. SYS.004.3) Trafi will agree with operators on regular summary reporting covering FDM events pursuant to the SPIs. SYS.004.1) During 2011 and continuously thereafter. SYS.004.2) During SYS.004.3) During SYS.004.1) Regular meetings with operators producing FDM information. SYS.004.2) Information specified under SPIs noted in FDM events insofar as that information is available in FDM information. SYS.004.3) Regular summary reporting of FDM events to Trafi. SYS.004.1) Completed, continuous. The national FDM group meets twice a year. SYS.004.2) Partly completed. SYS.004.3) In progress, on schedule. SYS 3.11

12 4.2.5 SYS.005 Introducing a risk-based approach to authority operations Finnish Aviation Safety Programme 12 (23) A risk-based approach involves operations management aiming to focus the efforts of an authority on those areas where its input will be the most effective and efficient in promoting safety. In order to pursue this approach, the authority must be able to identify risk areas and to target oversight and other actions appropriately with regard to their focus, content, scope, timing and repetition. The purpose of the actions is to introduce a risk-based approach to Trafi operations. SYS.005.1) Trafi will determine the operating principles and procedures for risk-based oversight and implement them. SYS.005.2) Trafi will develop risk assessment procedures and risk scenarios for aviation as well as for other forms of transport. The results of this development will be published so that they will be available for instance to authorities in other countries. SYS.005.1) By Jan SYS.005.2) By the end of SYS.005.1) Principles and procedures for risk-based oversight defined, and risk-based oversight implemented. SYS.005.2) Risk assessment procedures defined and implemented. SYS.005.1) In progress, on schedule. SYS.005.2) In progress, on schedule. None.

13 13 (23) 4.3 Operational issues Operational issues are brought to light through safety reports and analysis of occurrence data. Five significant accident scenarios have been identified at the European level; safety actions aim to address the background factors and contributing factors in these scenarios in order to alleviate their probability and their consequences. Background factors may be related to the flight crew, air traffic services, airport services, weather, etc. The actions principally address commercial aviation but also consider the special characteristics of other types of aviation such as general aviation, sport aviation and helicopter operations OPS.001 Runway excursions Worldwide, at least two runway excursions happen every day. The ICAO has noted that the annual number of runway excursions has not decreased for the past 20 years. Eurocontrol has published a document called the European Action Plan for Prevention of Runway Excursions (EAPPRE), based on a study of runway excursions in Europe and outlining several recommendations for actions to reduce the number of runway excursions. Member states should address the risk of runway excursions in their own operations in other ways too. The purpose of the actions is to reduce the risk to aviation safety of runway excursions and their contributing factors. OPS.001.1) Trafi will add runway excursions and their causal factors to the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.001.2) Trafi will take note of the EAPPRE recommendations and implement them together with organisations and service providers in the aviation sector (airport operators, air navigation service providers, flight operators, aircraft manufacturers). OPS.001.1) By Apr OPS.001.2) According to the timetables given in the EAPPRE recommendations. OPS.001.1) Runway excursions and their risk factors are taken into account in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.001.2) The EAPPRE recommendations have been implemented. OPS.001.1) Completed. Runway excursions and their causal factors included in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme, Annex 2: Finland s Safety Objectives and Safety Performance Indicators; actors are required to take these into account and thereby reduce their risk. OPS.001.2) In progress, behind schedule. Implementation of the recommendations has not been coordinated. AER 1.5, 1.6, 1.9

14 14 (23) OPS.002 Mid-air collisions and airspace infringements A mid-air collision (MAC), i.e. a situation where airborne aircraft come into contact with one another, is an extremely rare but extremely serious event. The EASA and ECAST have noted that risk factors for such an occurrence include shortcomings in ATC operations, airspace infringements, level busts (altitude deviations) and lateral deviations from cleared flight path. Eurocontrol has published the European Action Plan for Airspace Infringement Risk Reduction (EAPAIRR), a document defining several recommended actions for reducing the number of airspace infringements. Member states should address the risk of mid-air collisions in their own operations in other ways too. The purpose of the actions is to reduce the risk to aviation safety of mid-air collisions between aircraft and their contributing factors. OPS.002.1) Trafi will include mid-air collisions and their causal factors in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.002.2) Trafi will take note of the recommendations in the EAPAIRR and implement them together with organisations in the aviation sector. OPS.002.3) In the proximity of the Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, the potential consequences of airspace infringements by general aviation and sport aviation aircraft are extremely serious. To reduce this risk, Trafi will explore the possibility of setting up a Radio Mandatory Zone (RMZ) and a Transponder Mandatory Zone (TMZ) in the vicinity of the airport. OPS.002.1) By Apr OPS.002.2) According to the timetables given in the EAPAIRR recommendations. OPS.002.3) Spring OPS.002.1) Mid-air collisions and their risk factors taken into account in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.002.2) The EAPAIRR recommendations have been implemented. OPS.002.3) The report is completed and the actions therein proposed are implemented. OPS.002.1) Completed. Mid-air collisions and their causal factors included in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme, Annex 2: Finland s Safety Objectives and Safety Performance Indicators; actors are required to take these into account and thereby reduce their risk. OPS.002.2) In progress, behind schedule. OPS.002.3) Completed. Aviation Regulation OPS M1-31 published, entry into force 14 Nov AER 2.1, 2.8, 2.9 GA 1.5

15 15 (23) OPS.003 Controlled flight into terrain Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) is worldwide the second most common type of fatal accident, causing about one fourth of all fatal accidents. In EASA member states, CFIT events were the fourth most common type of fatal accident. CFIT occurs in most cases during approach and is caused by non-compliance with standard procedures, failure to observe instruments and a lack of situational awareness. Often CFIT also involves flying an approach as a non-precision approach. Member states should take the risk of CFIT events into account in their operations. The purpose of the actions is to reduce the risk to aviation safety of CFIT events and their contributing factors. OPS.003.1) Trafi will add CFIT events and their causal factors to the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.003.1) By Apr OPS.003.1) CFIT events and their risk factors taken into account in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.003.1) Completed. CFIT events and their causal factors included in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme, Annex 2: Finland s Safety Objectives and Safety Performance Indicators; actors are required to take these into account and thereby reduce their risk. AER 3.4, 3.5

16 16 (23) OPS.004 Loss of control in flight Loss of control inflight (LOC-I) is the most common type of fatal accident in the EASA member states. LOC-I events may be principally divided into cases where control is lost due to lack of action or incorrect action by the flight crew and cases where control is lost due to a technical fault in the aircraft. Weather (e.g. icing and wind shear) is often a contributing factor to loss of control. Member states should take the risk of LOC-I events into account in their operations. The EASA is collaborating for instance with the International Committee for Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE), which is developing aviation guidelines on how to operate under unusual circumstances. The purpose of the actions is to reduce the risk to aviation safety of LOC-I events and their contributing factors. OPS.004.1) Trafi will add LOC-I events and their causal factors to the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.004.2) Trafi will take note of, support and publish any forthcoming guidelines by EASA-supported working groups concerning operations in extended envelopes, and will participate in the work of these committees as and when possible. OPS.004.1) By Apr OPS.004.2) OPS.004.1) LOC-I events and their risk factors taken into account in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.004.2) Guidelines published. OPS.004.1) Completed. LOC-I events and their causal factors included in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme, Annex 2: Finland s Safety Objectives and Safety Performance Indicators; actors are required to take these into account and thereby reduce their risk. OPS.004.2) In progress, on schedule. AER 4.6, 4.7, 4.8

17 17 (23) OPS.005 Runway incursions Runway incursions are one of the most significant accident threat factors. The annual number of runway incursions has been increasing in Europe and in Finland. Contributing factors to runway incursions include weather phenomena, the layout and condition of airfields and radio communications phraseology. Eurocontrol has published the European Action Plan for Prevention of Runway Incursions (EAPPRI), a document outlining several recommendations for action to reduce the number of runway incursions. Member states should take the risk of runway incursions into account in their operations. The purpose of the actions is to reduce the risk to aviation safety of runway incursions and their contributing factors. OPS.005.1) Trafi will add runway incursions and their causal factors to the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.005.2) Trafi will take note of the EAPPRI recommendations and implement them together with aviation organisations and ensure that Local Runway Safety Teams are established and operating. OPS.005.1) By Apr OPS.005.2) According to the timetables given in EAPPRI, and continuous monitoring. OPS.005.1) Runway incursions and their risk factors taken into account in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.005.2) EAPPRI recommendations implemented, and Local Runway Safety Teams established and in operation. OPS.005.1) Completed. Runway incursions and their causal factors included in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme, Annex 2: Finland s Safety Objectives and Safety Performance Indicators; actors are required to take these into account and thereby reduce their risk. OPS.005.2) Partly completed. Most of the EAPPRI recommendations implemented and being monitored through the European Single Sky Programme / Local Single Sky Programme (ESSIP/LSSIP). Audits are employed to monitor continuously that the Local Runway Safety Teams are operating. AER 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.5

18 18 (23) OPS.006 Safety of ground operations Ground operations include ground handling functions and the movement of aircraft in any other area of the airport except the runways. Ground operations are of major significance for aircraft safety, for instance in terms of aircraft loading, damage from foreign object debris (FOD), fuelling and deicing. Errors and accidents in these operations may cause a wide variety of consequences, from minor dents or scratches to worst-case scenarios such as loss of control of an aircraft because of incorrect loading. Member states should take ground operations and the risks thereby caused into account in their operations. The purpose of the actions is to reduce the risk to aviation safety caused by ground operations functions. OPS.006.1) Trafi will include ground operations and their contributing factors to the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.006.1) By Apr OPS.006.1) Ground operations included in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. OPS.006.1) Completed. Ground operations included in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme, Annex 2: Finland s Safety Objectives and Safety Performance Indicators; actors are required to take these into account and thereby reduce their risk. AER 5.9, 5.10

19 19 (23) OPS.007 Safety of helicopter operations The European Helicopter Safety Team (EHEST) at EASA has set the objective of reducing the number of helicopter accidents by 80% by Member states should support the work of the EHEST and implement its recommendations. The purpose of the actions is to improve the safety of helicopter operations. OPS.007.1) Trafi will establish a national working group on helicopter safety and participate in the work of the EHEST. OPS.007.2) Trafi will determine, on an annual basis in cooperation with the proficiency check standardisation group and using a risk-based approach, the themes to be addressed on helicopter proficiency check flights. OPS.007.1) Sep 2011 and continuously thereafter. OPS.007.2) By the end of 2013 and annually thereafter. OPS.007.1) National working group established and participating continuously in the work of the EHEST. OPS.007.2) Themes identified and communicated to the aviation community, and materials produced for pilots supervising proficiency checks. OPS.007.1) Completed, continuous. National meetings on helicopter operations are held regularly, and there is a Trafi representative participating in the work of the EHEST. OPS.007.2) In progress, on schedule. Themes identified through a survey and flight safety reports, and an analysis and a safety bulletin produced based on them. HE 1.3

20 4.3.8 OPS.008 Safety of general aviation and recreational aviation Finnish Aviation Safety Programme 20 (23) The European General Aviation Safety Team (EGAST) is an EASA working group bringing together European general aviation organisations and authorities to share good practices, improve availability of information and improve safety. Member states should support the work and objectives of this group. The purpose of the actions is to improve the safety of general aviation and recreational aviation. OPS.008.1) Trafi aims to develop the collecting and analysis of safety data on general aviation and recreational aviation. OPS.008.2) Trafi will develop information-sharing procedures for data on serious incidents and occurrences in general aviation and recreational aviation. OPS.008.3) Trafi will set up a working group of Trafi employees and persons from the general aviation organisation to present and implement actions for improving the safety of general aviation and recreational aviation in a coordinated way. OPS.008.4) Trafi will determine, on an annual basis in cooperation with the proficiency check standardisation group and using a risk-based approach, the themes to be addressed on proficiency check flights. OPS.008.1) During 2013 and continuously thereafter. OPS.008.2) During OPS.008.3) Working group deliberation in autumn 2013, actions during OPS.008.4) By the end of 2013 and annually thereafter. OPS.008.1) Updated agreement with the Finnish Aeronautical Association concerning the collecting and sharing of safety data on general aviation and recreational aviation. OPS.008.2) Regularly published safety bulletin with a compilation of information on serious incidents and occurrences in general aviation and recreational aviation. OPS.008.3) Overall situation of recreational aviation and needs for action surveyed by the working group, action plan drafted and remaining actions implemented. OPS.008.4) Themes identified and communicated to the aviation community, and materials produced for pilots supervising proficiency checks. OPS.008.1) Completed, continuous. Begun by recreational aviation analysts at the Finnish Aeronautical Association. OPS.008.2) Completed, continuous. Publication of safety bulletins begun. OPS.008.3) In progress, on schedule. OPS.008.4) In progress, on schedule. Themes identified through a survey and flight safety reports, and an analysis and a safety bulletin produced based on them. GA 1.1, 1.5

21 21 (23) 4.4 Emerging issues This section anticipates issues that are emerging or where hazards exist for the immediate or near future or issues which should be addressed or given particular attention. Environmental issues and how to coordinate them with safety issues should also be given wider attention in the future EME.001 Consideration of emerging issues The nature of these issues is twofold: on one hand, safety aspects of changes and trends that impact aviation; on the other hand, the introduction of new products, systems, technologies and operations for which safety regulations may need to be updated. The purpose of the actions is to acknowledge the emerging issues noted in aviation and to reduce the risk to aviation safety caused by them. EME.001.1) Trafi will include emerging issues in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. EME.001.1) By Apr EME.001.1) Emerging issues included in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme. EME.001.1) Completed. Emerging issues included in the Finnish Aviation Safety Programme, Annex 2: Finland s Safety Objectives and Safety Performance Indicators; actors are required to take these into account and thereby reduce their risk. None.

22 4.4.2 EME.002 Coordination of environmental and safety issues Finnish Aviation Safety Programme 22 (23) Environmental issues have a significant impact on aviation, ranging from hazards caused by weather phenomena to operating procedures imposed by noise abatement requirements. Climate change and requirements to minimise environmental damage create pressures that affect aircraft fuel economy, flight profiles and the environmental properties of deicing fluids for aircraft and runways. Coordination of environmental and safety issues is a substantial challenge that requires research and cooperation between all actors in the aviation industry. The purpose of the actions is to take into account the impacts of environmental issues on aviation and to aim to coordinate them with aviation safety without compromising the latter. EME.002.1) Trafi will support the Tampere University of Technology in conducting research on the coordination of environmental and safety issues. EME.002.1) The synergies and conflicts between safety and environmental impacts will be taken into account in the Trafi environmental indicators for transport. EME.002.1) EME.002.2) By the end of EME.002.1) Final report published by the Tampere University of Technology. EME.002.2) Environmental indicators for transport published. EME.002.1) Completed. Final report completed. EME.002.2) In progress, on schedule. None.

23 23 (23) 4.5 Human factors and performance A projected increase in passenger numbers and next generation aircraft technology, together with constantly shifting political, economic and regulatory frameworks demand that the role of the human is seen as essential. The entire aviation system, through people, processes and performance, relies predominantly on individuals and teams for safety, efficiency and effectiveness. The possibility of human error always exists, and it must be acknowledged and addressed. No actions assigned to Member states were published under Human Factors and Performance in the European Aviation Safety Plan. Trafi nevertheless aims to address these issues too and to develop actions to reduce the risks caused by human factors.

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