Properties of the SABR model

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1 U.U.D.M. Project Report 2011:11 Properties of the SABR model Nan Zhang Examensarbete i matematik, 30 hp Handledare och examinator: Johan Tysk Juni 2011 Department of Mathematics Uppsala University

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3 ABSTRACT In the original Black-Scholes model, the volatility is assumed to be a constant. But with different strike prices, the options require different volatilities to match their market prices. In fact, when implied volatility is plotted against strike price, the resulting graph is typically downward sloping for equity markets called volatility skew, or valley-shaped for currency markets called volatility smile. Modeling the volatility smile is an active area of research in quantitative finance. Local volatility model captures the static pattern of volatility smile. However, it predicts the wrong dynamics of the volatility smile. This causes unstable hedges. To explain the volatility smile better, several stochastic volatility models have been developed, in which models that the volatility is driven by a stochastic process. In the present paper, a review of the SABR (Stochastic Alpha, Beta, Rho) model is presented. The pricing function of European options is studied in detail. More importantly, we show that the SABR model predicts the correct dynamics of volatility smile. We also analyze how the parameters α, β, ρ influence the option price and the volatility smile and skew. i

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF BLACK-SCHOLES MODEL AND LOCAL VOLATILITY MODEL Review of Black-Scholes model Review of the local volatility model SABR MODEL Introduction of SABR model Option pricing function under SABR model Hedging smile risks ANALYSIS OF THE DEPENDENCE OF PARAMETERS CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS REFERENCES APPENDIX: SINGULAR PERTURBATION METHOD ii

5 Volatility σ 1. INTRODUCTION The original Black-Scholes model presumes that the volatility of the underlying asset as a constant parameter. To obtain this constant parameter, we observe the option prices from the market and match our theoretical value for the option under Black-Scholes model to it. Since all the other variables can be observed directly, there is a one-to-one relationship between the and the option price. We can use this relation to get the implied volatility. Unfortunately, options with different strikes K require different volatilities to match their market prices, this suggests that the volatility is in general not a constant but is dependent on the strike K. Indeed, if we depict the volatility as a function of strike, it forms the so called volatility smile or volatility skew. See figure 1 Volatility Smile In-the-money At-the-money Out-of-the-money Figure 1. Volatility smile strike K To handle the smiles and skews, a local volatility model was developed by Dupire [2] and Derman-Kani [3]. In the local volatility model, the in the Black-Scholes model is replaced by the local volatility. The local volatility model is self-consistent, arbitrage-free and, can 1

6 be calibrated to match precisely the observed market smiles and skews. A problem with the local volatility model arises, that is the dynamic behavior of smiles and skews predicted by local volatility model is exactly opposite the behavior observed in the marketplace. This contradiction between the model and the marketplace tend to de-stabilize the delta risk and vega risk hedges derived from local volatility model, and often these hedges perform worse than the original Black-Scholes hedges. This will be discussed in detail later in section 2.2. To resolve this problem, Hegan et al [4] developed the SABR model, a stochastic volatility model in which the asset price and volatility are correlated. Compared with other stochastic volatility models such as the famous Heston model, SABR model has a simpler form and allows the market price and the market risks, including vanna risk V/ ρ and volga risk V/ ν (introduced by SABR model) to be obtained immediately from Black s formula. SABR model also provides good fits to the implied volatility curves observed in the marketplace. And, the formula shows that the SABR model captures the correct dynamics of the smile, and thus yields stable hedges. The main purpose of this thesis is to study the SABR model in detail and to investigate the dependence on the parameters,, and which altogether give the name of the model. 2

7 2. REVIEW OF BLACK-SHOLES MODEL AND LOCAL VOLATILITY MODEL In this chapter, we take a little time to review the Black-Scholes model and the local volatility model based on the Martingale pricing theory Review of Black-Scholes model Consider a European call option on an asset S with exercise date, and strike price K. If the holder exercises the option at, then on the settlement date he receives the underlying asset S and pays the strike K. Under the Martingale pricing theory, the value of the option is, (2.1) here D(t) is the discount factor for date t, F(t) is the forward price of the forward contract that matures on the settlement date that under the forward measure, i.e., (2.2). (2.3) By the call-put parity, the value of the corresponding European put option is. (2.4) The coefficient may be deterministic or random; one cannot determine the coefficient on purely theoretical grounds. That is, one must postulate a mathematical model for. Black-Scholes model postulates the coefficient as, where the volatility is a constant. Then the forward price is The value functions of call option and put option under this model yields,, (2.5) 3

8 , (2.6) where, (2.7). (2.8) Differentiating the option value function, for say, a call option with respect to the volatility, (2.9) where, (2.10) We note that. Substituting into, we have Therefore. (2.11) Substituting. (2.12), (2.13) into (2.12), 4

9 . (2.14) Since functions of, we know that option prices under the B-S model are increasing, and the volatility implied by the market price of an option is unique. However, with different strikes K, we need different volatilities to match the market data, which causes the following problems: 1. When we price an exotic option, for instance, a down-and-out call option with strike and the barrier, it is not clear that whether we should use the implied volatility at the strike, the implied volatility at the barrier, or some combination of & to price the option. 2. Since different volatilities are used for different strikes K, it is not clear that the delta and vega risks calculated at one strike are consistent with the same risks calculated at other strikes or not. 3. Since the implied volatility depends on the strike K, it is likely to also depend on the current value f of the forward price:. In this case, some of the vega risks of Black s model would actually be due to changes in the price of the underlying asset, and would be hedged more properly as delta risks Review of the local volatility model 5

10 In the local volatility model, Dupire assumed the coefficient has the form, i.e. the forward price is given by, (2.15) in the forward measure. The corresponding value function of European call and put options are, (2.16), (2.17) Then according to the Dupire s formula we can obtain an explicit algebraic formula for the implied volatility of the local volatility model: ; (2.18) Once has been obtained, the local volatility model becomes a single, self-consistent model which correctly reproduces the market prices of calls and puts for all strikes K and exercise dates. The problems of pricing exotics and hedging risks in the B-S model are now resolved by the local volatility model. Unfortunately, the local volatility model predicts the wrong dynamics of the implied volatility curve, which leads to inaccurate and often unstable hedges. To illustrate the problem, we use singular perturbation method (See Appendix) to find the equivalent Black volatility that is, (2.19) 6

11 The solution of this equation is dominated by the first term on the right hand side; Suppose that today the forward price is and the implied volatility curve seen in the market is. Then we have. (2.20) Calibrating the model to the market clearly requires choosing the local volatility to be Now, suppose that the forward value changes from to f,. (2.21), (2.22) from (2.21) we see that the model predicts that the new implied volatility curve is, (2.23) In particular, if the forward price increases to f, the implied volatility curve moves to the left; if decreases to f, the implied volatility curve moves to the right. This result is illustrated in figure 2 and figure 3. 7

12 Implied volatility Implied volatility f 0 f strike Figure 2. Implied volatility if the forward price increases from f 0 to f f f 0 strike Figure 3. Implied volatility if the forward price decreases from f 0 to f Local volatility model predicts that the market smile and skew moves in the opposite direction as the price of the underlying asset. This is in general opposite to market behavior, in which smiles and skews move in the same direction as the underlying. 8

13 Moreover, the delta risk of a call option predicted by the local volatility can be presented as where, (2.24), (2.25) is Black s formula for call option. We note that the first term of the delta risk is just the delta risk calculated by Black s model using the implied volatility, and the second term is the correction term made by the local volatility model. Since the term has the opposite sign to the real market behavior, this causes unstable hedges. 3. SABR MODEL 3.1. Introduction of SABR model To demonstrate the correct dynamics of implied volatility and thus provide stable hedges, the SABR model (Hegan et al. 2002) was derived. SABR model assumes the volatility of the forward price is a stochastic variable. In the SABR model the forward price and the volatility are under the forward measure, where the two processes are correlated by (3.1) (3.2) 9

14 . (3.3) 3.2. Option pricing functions under SABR model Assuming both the overall volatility α and the volatility of volatility ( volvol ) ν are small. First, we re-write our model in general form with, (3.4), (3.5) (3.3) where ε 1. We firstly consider the general case, power law., and then specialize the results to the Suppose that, at time t. Define the probability density by.(3.6) As a function of the forward variables T, F,A, the probability density p satisfies the forward Kolmogorov equation, (3.7) where. (3.8) (3.9) Let be the value of a European call option at date t, we have (3.10) 10

15 where we omit the discounting factor since it only affects the value at the last step. From the forward Kolmogrov equation (3.7), (3.8), we have. (3.11) We can re-write (3.10) as. (3.12) We substitute (3.7) into the formula and then integrate over A. Since integrating both the terms and overall A yields 0, our pricing function reduces to (3.13) Integrating by parts twice w. r. t. F yields (3.14) To simplify the problem, we define, (3.15) Then P satisfies the backward Kolmogorov equation, (3.16) 11

16 . (3.17) Note that depends on, but not on t and T separately. We define, (3.18) then our pricing function becomes, (3.19) where satisfies, (3.20). (3.21) Using perturbation expansion to this problem we would yield. (3.22) We notice that since the expansion involves powers of, this expansion would become inaccurate as soon as C(f) and C(K) are significantly different. In other words, a small change in the exponent would be expanded by the power term in the probability density. Instead, a better approach is to re-cast the series as. (3.23) Now, Let us define a new variable, (3.24) So that the leading term of in (3.23) is simply. We also define, (3.25) 12

17 then, (3.26)& (3.27) And, (3.28), (3.29) ; (3.30) also,. (3.31) Therefore, by substituting our new variable into the pricing function (3.19), (3.20) and (3.21), we have, (3.32) where is the solution of, (3.33). (3.34) Accordingly, it is quite natural to think that simplifying the problem by define by, (3.35) In terms of, we obtain, (3.36) where is the solution of 13

18 , (3.37). (3.38) Re-arranging the terms according to the order of ε, and, we have,, with Note that the variable α does not enter the problem for until O(ε), so Consequently, the derivatives,, and are all O(ε). So we can re-write our problem as (3.39), (3.40) Now we need to eliminate the term. Define by, (3.41) then, (3.42), (3.43). (3.44) 14

19 The option price now becomes, (3.45) where, (3.46). (3.47) As above, re-arranging terms as Since the leading term is independent of α, as before, we can conclude that the α derivatives and are O(ε). So we can re-write the problem as. (3.48) For the same reason, H is independent of α until and therefore is actually. Thus, (3.49) At this step, there are no longer any α derivatives, so we can treat α as a parameter instead of an independent variable. We have succeeded in reducing the problem to one dimension. 15

20 Let us now remove the term through. To leading order, and are constants. We can replace these ratios by, (3.50), (3.51) committing an O(ε) error, where the constant will be chosen later. We now define by then our option price becomes, (3.52), (3.53) where is the solution of (3.54). (3.55) We now define. (3.56) In terms of x, our problem becomes, (3.57) with (3.60) here. (3.61) 16

21 Now the final step is to define Q by, (3.62) then, (3.63) (3.64) Hence, (3.65) where Q is the solution of (3.66) with. (3.67) As above, we can replace,, by the constants,,, and commit only O(ε) errors. Define the constant κ by, (3.68) where will be chosen later. Then we can simplify our equation to (3.69). (3.70) Now the solution of this problem is clearly. (3.71) Our option price is accordingly becomes 17

22 (3.72) which can be written as, (3.73) where. (3.74) Moreover, quite amazingly, (3.75) through. Therefore our option price is. (3.76) Define, (3.77) option price becomes. (3.78) That is, the value of a European call option is given by, (3.79) with (3.74) through. 18

23 We have derived European call option pricing function under general SABR model. To utilize the pricing function more conveniently, we derive the implied normal volatility and the implied Black volatility now. First, we consider the normal model, (3.75) where the normal volatility is a constant. Setting,, and in our general SABR model (3.3) (3.5) and repeat the preceding analysis we would find that the option price for the normal model is. (3.76) Equating this to the option value for the SABR model implies that. (3.77) Taking the square root now shows that the option s implied normal volatility is given by (3.78) through. Since, we can re-write the answer as, (3.79) where, (3.80), (3.81), (3.82) The first factor 19. (3.83)

24 (3.84) represents the average difficulty in diffusing from today s forward f to the strike K. And the second factor, (3.85) where represents the main effect of the stochastic volatility. (3.86) Now, let us consider the Black s model. (3.87) For Black s model, the value of a European call with strike K and exercise date is, (3.88) with. (3.89) As in the case of normal volatility model, we repeat the analysis for the SABR model with and shows that (3.90) through. We can find the implied Black volatility for the SABR model by setting (3.90) equal to the implied normal volatility for the SABR model. This yields 20

25 (3.91) Now, let us go back to the special case of SABR model (3.1) (3.3). The according implied normal volatility for this model is (3.92) through, where and (3.93) & (3.94) We can simplify this formula by expanding (3.95) (3.96) This expansion reduces the implied normal volatility to (3.97) where (3.98)& (3.99) Again, equating the implied normal volatility for the SABR model to the implied normal volatility for Black s model yields the implied Black volatility for the SABR model 21

26 (3.100) through. Up to now, we have derived the implied Black volatility for SABR model, which provides us great convenience in pricing options. We can simply use the Black model (3.88), (3.89) to keep our pricing function structural simple. Here the SABR model and the implied Black volatility are given by the formulas (3.1) (3.3) and (3.100) Hedging smile risks As we have stated before, for local volatility model, has the opposite sign to the real market behavior, and this causes unstable hedges. Now, we want show that the SABR model has succeeded in overcoming the problem and produce stable hedges. Under the SABR model, the implied Black volatility is given by (3.100) where and are given by (3.98) and (3.99) 22

27 For the special case of at-the-money options, the underlying price is the same as the strike price, this formula reduces to. (3.101) Suppose that the strike price K is not far from the current forward price f, we can approximate the above formula as (3.102) where. (3.103) This equation cannot be used to price deals, but it is accurate enough to expose the qualitative behavior of SABR model. As f varies, the curve that the at-the-money volatility while considering the implied volatility smile traces is known as the backbone, as a function of strike K for a fixed f. The first term in (3.102) is the implied volatility for at-the-money options. Therefore, the backbone traversed by at-the-money option is essentially for SABR model. The backbone is almost entirely determined by the exponent β, with the exponent (a stochastic Gaussian model) giving a steeply downward sloping backbone, ; and the exponent (stochastic log normal model) giving a nearly flat backbone,. See figure 4 and 5: 23

28 Implied volatility Implied volatility backbone strike Figure 4. Backbone and volatility for β=0. backbone strike Figure 5. Backbone and volatility for β=1. Now we see, once the value of parameters ν, β, ρ and α have been chosen properly for the specific market, the SABR model (3.1) (3.3) is a single, self-consistent model that fits the option prices for all strikes K without adjustment, so we can use this model to price exotic options without ambiguity. Moreover, because of the downward sloping backbone, the SABR model reveals that 24

29 whenever the forward price f changes, the implied volatility curve shifts in the same direction. This is one of the most important advantages of the SABR model. Now, Let us consider the smile risks. First of all, we note that since the SABR model is a single, self-consistent model for all strikes K, so the risks calculated at one strike are consistent with the risks calculated at other strikes. Therefore, the risks of all the options on the same asset can be added together, and only the residual risk needs to be hedged. Let be Black s formula for, say, a call option. According to the SABR model, the value of a call is (3.104) where the volatility is given by equations (3.98) (3.100). Differentiating with respect to α yields the vega risk, the risk to overall changes in volatility:. (3.105) Note that to leading order, so the vega risk is roughly given by (3.106) 25

30 Since for the SABR model, we also have two parameters ρ and ν that are stochastic, therefore the SABR model has risks to those two parameters. We name the risk to ρ changing as vanna and the risk to ν changing as volga:, (3.107). (3.108) Vanna basically expresses the risk to the skew increasing, and volga expresses the risk to the smile becoming more pronounced. The delta risk expressed by the SABR model is calculated by differentiating the option price with respect to f,. (3.109) The first term is the ordinary delta risk one would calculate from Black s model; the second term is SABR model s correction to the delta risk. It consists of the Black vega times the predicted change in the forward f. As discussed above, the predicted change consists of a sideways movement of the volatility curve in the same direction as the change in the forward price f. However, we may notice that the delta risk calculated above has a slight problem. In the above expression of delta risk, we actually regarded as a constant. But once and f are correlated, i.e., whenever f changes,, at least on average, changes as well. This suggests that the delta risk could be calculated more accurately. To solve this problem, B. Bartlett [5] rewrites the dynamics of the SABR model as 26

31 , (3.110) where is another Brownian motion which is independent of Clearly, this modification of the SABR model implies that. (3.111). (3.112) In other words, the dynamics of α can be decomposed into two independent components: one due to the change of F, and the other one due to the idiosyncratic change in α. In terms of this modified SABR model, the new delta risk is then given by Hedging this risk should be more effective than hedging the original SABR delta risk.. (3.113) We note that the new term in the delta risk (3.114) is just times the original SABR vega risk. In a vega-hedged portfolio this term is zero, so if the original vega and delta risk are both hedged, so are the new delta risk. Under the new SABR model, it is obvious that the new vega risk is given by. (3.115) 27

32 4. ANALYSIS OF THE DEPENDENCE OF PARAMETERS Now, it would be interesting to consider how the parameters affects the option price and volatility smile. First, let us consider how an option price is affected by the overall volatility parameter α. As before, let be Black s formula (3.88) (3.89), According to the SABR model, the value of a call option is given by (3.104) where the volatility is given by equations (3.98) (3.100) where Differentiating the option price with respect to α, we note that this is the vega risk for SABR model. Using our result of the vega risk directly from the previous section, we see that 28

33 . (4.1) From our study of the Black-Scholes model, we know that an option s value is a monotonic increasing function of implied volatility, provided all other parameters being equal, so the first factor. We only need to consider the monotonicity of the implied Black volatility with respect to α. To leading order, we see, (4.2) with Since and We only need to consider Now, unfortunately, because the volvol ν is a stochastic variable which need to be fitted for the specific market, we cannot say anything more in general about the sign of this term. Therefore we conclude that the monotonicity of option price as a function of volatility α depends on the specific ν for the specific market. 29

34 Next, we consider the exponent β. As we discussed in the previous section, β mainly affects the slope of the backbone of volatility smile. When β=0, the slope of backbone is steep, and when β=1, the backbone is nearly flat. Moreover, like what is stated in the Hegan et al. 2002, market smiles can be fit equally well with any specific value of β, so selecting β is usually depending on the shape of the backbone that is believed for specific market. At last, to see how the correlation parameter ρ affects a call option price smile, we consider the vanna risk and the volatility Since we know, we only consider the term. To leading order,. (4.3) When the forward price and the volatility are positively correlated, ρ=1,, this causes a nearly flat skew in as a function of K varies; When the forward price and the volatility are uncorrelated or negatively correlated, ρ=0 or ρ=-1,, so the slope of the skew is downward. Therefore, we see that the correlation parameter ρ actually affects the volatility smile in the similar way as the exponent parameter β, which decides the slope of the volatility smile and skew. 5. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 30

35 The dynamics of the volatility smile which cannot be explained by the local volatility model can be successfully predicted by SABR model. The changing of parameters and affects the slope of the backbone of the volatility smile. The monotonicity of an option price as a function of volatility is not so clear; it also depends on the volvol factor. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Johan Tysk, the Head of the Department of Mathematics at Uppsala Universty, whom being my mentor and guides me through this thesis. I would also like to thank my family for their support and encouragements. REFERENCES [1] Björk Tomas., Arbitrage theory in continuous time, Oxford University press, Oxford, (1998). [2] Dupire, B., Pricing with a smile, Risk, January (1994) [3] Derman, K., and Kani, I., Riding on a smile, Risk February (1994) [4] Hegan, P. S., Kumar, D., Lesniewski, A. S. & Woodward, D. E. (2002), Maanaging smile risk, WILMOTT Magazine September (2003) [5] Bartlett, B., Hedging under SABR model, WILMOTT Magazine July/August (2006) 31

36 APPPENDIX: SINGULAR PERTURBATION METHOD Consider a European call with exercise date, settlement date, and strike price K. Let F(t) be the forward price at date t. We assume that (a1) under the forward measure. The corresponding value function of the option measure is given by under this, (a2) here is the discount factor to the settlement date at date t. Define (a3) Then we have. (a4) From Martingale pricing theory, we know under the forward measure backward Kolmogorov equation: satisfies the (a5) with the final condition. (a6) Now, define (a7) and the new variables. (a8), (a9) & (a10) In terms of the new variables, (a11), (a12) & (a13) 32

37 We scale the original pricing PDE (a5) as (a14) Since ε=a(k) 1, we have (a15) with. (a16) After solving this scaled pricing PDE for, the option value will be given by (a17) ε, Expanding,, (a18) where (a19) The pricing PDE becomes (a20) with We can solve this problem by expanding as (a21) Substituting this expansion into (a20) and equating the same powers of ε yields: At leading order, we obtain (a22)

38 with (a23) We solve this problem yields. (a24) For later convenience, we also calculate (a25),(a26) (a27) (a29) (a30) At order ε, we obtain (a31) (a32) Substituting the (a24) into (a31) and using the relation, we have (a33) The solution of this problem is (a34) At order, (a35) (a36) We substitute (a24) and (a34) into the problem, this yields (a37)

39 Solving this problem we obtain. (a38) Re-writing this solution as (a39) Now, substituting (a24), (a34), and (a39) back into (a21) we get (a40) Recall that this can be re-write as (a41) where (a42) To obtain the option value, recall that (a43) we note that (a44) Thus the value of the option is (a45) with (a46)

40 Now, we obtain the asymptotic solution for the option s price. It is not very convenient to use, so, instead, we compute the equivalent Black volatility implied by this price. To simplify the calculation, we take the square root of and obtain (a47) Since (a19) The first two terms on the right hand side are (a48) This suggests expanding A around the average (a49) instead of K. Therefore, we define (a50) and re-write (a46) in terms of and. This then shows that the option price is (a51) with (a52) Now we repeat the preceding analysis for the special case, Black s model, where = F, i.e., A(F) (a53) Our analysis indicates that the option price is (a54) with (a55)

41 Since it is easy to see that is an increasing function of, the Black price matches the correct price if and only if Equating yields the implied volatility where (a56) (a57) and This gives us the implied volatility for the European call option for the model. (a58) A similar analysis shows that the implied volatility for an European put option is given by the same formula. In particular, for local volatility model (a59) Substituting, into our equation for the implied volatility yields (a60)

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