# 1Meg. 11.A. Resistive Circuit Nodal Analysis

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2 2 Creating and Using Netlists Capture was first, it is the positive reference and the definition of positive current for R1 is from node 1 to node 2, or from left to right: R1 R35 DC = k Direction of positive current. R2 5k 1Meg Rz 10k 0 Now that we know which direction PSpice interprets as positive, when we ask for the current through R1, which would be specified as I(R1), we know how to interpret the answer. R k R MEG RZ k The remainder of the circuit components are resistors, and we know how to write the netlist for those: The netlist states that R2 is connected between nodes 2 and ground (0) and its value is 5 kω, R35 is connected between nodes 2 and 3 and its value is 1 MΩ, and RZ is connected between nodes 3 and ground and its value is 10 kω. The DC nodal analysis (or bias point) is always run, so we do not need to specify a simulation for this circuit. The last line we need to add is the.end statement. The complete netlist is shown below: Bias Point Solution of a Resistive Circuit * * This is file Book Circuits\Netlists\section 11A.cir\ * 1 0 DC 15 R K R k R MEG RZ k.end The first line of the file is the title and is required. If you forget to place the title in the first line, and instead put a line that describes a circuit component in the first line, that line will still be used as the title, and the component will not be used in the simulation. Also, any lines where the first character is an asterisk (*) are comments and ignored by PSpice. The next thing we need to do is to create this netlist in a text file. You can use any text editor you wish or you can use the text editor included with PSpice. The file we create must use the.cir extension. If you use the Windows Notepad, the default extension is.txt and you may need to rename your file. We will use the text editor that comes with PSpice. To run PSpice, click on the Start menu, select Programs, and then look in the Orcad Family Release 9.2 Lite Edition group and select PSpice AD Lite Edition:

3 Capture Creating and Using Netlists 3 Select File, New, and then Text File from the menus: Enter the netlist: We must now save the file. Select File and then Save from the PSpice menus:

4 4 Creating and Using Netlists Capture Change the directory to the one in which you want to save the file and also change the file type to.cir: Specify a name for the netlist and then click the Save button: Make sure you type in the.cir extension here. Note that you must type in the.cir extension when you specify the file name. We must now close the file and run the simulation. Select File and then Close to close the text file:

5 Capture Creating and Using Netlists 5 Select File and then Open Simulation: Select the.cir File type:.cir File type selected. Select the circuit file you wish to simulate and then click the Open button:

6 6 Creating and Using Netlists Capture We can now run the simulation. Select Simulation and then Run from the menus: When the simulation runs, information will be displayed in the simulation status window: Simulation status window. My window states that the simulation completed successfully. If you have any errors, you would be notified in this window as well. The results for this simulation are stored in the output file. If your circuit has errors, they will be listed in the output file as well. We will now look at the output file. Select View and the Output file:

7 Capture Creating and Using Netlists 7 The results of the bias point analysis are near the end of the file, so scroll the window until you see the text shown below: The results show that node 1 is at volts relative to ground, node 2 is at volts relative to ground, and node 3 is at.0963 volts relative to ground. netlist. Select File and then Close to close the output file, and then select File and then Close Simulation to unload the EXERCISE 111: Find the DC node voltages for the circuit below: SOLUTION: Create the netlist and run the simulation. Node numbers are assigned as shown above. The netlist is:

8 8 Creating and Using Netlists Capture Example DC 12 R K R k R k R k V2 2 3 DC 12.end Run the simulation and view the output file: EXERCISE 112: Find the DC node voltages for the circuit below: HINT: DC current sources must start with the letter I. The current enters the first node and leaves the second node. SOLUTION: Create the netlist and run the simulation. Node numbers are assigned as shown above. The netlist is: Example 112

9 Capture Creating and Using Netlists 9 I1 0 1 DC 2m R k 1 2 DC 15 R k R R k.end 11.B. Nodal Analysis with Dependent Sources Next we will redo the circuit of Section 3.B using netlists. The circuit is shown below: The nodes of this circuit have been given text labels, and we will use the same labels here. Note tha the nodes are named, V2, V3, and Vx. The new component in this circuit is a voltage dependent voltage source. The syntax for the netlist line of this type of source is:

10 10 Creating and Using Netlists Capture 1. The name must start with the letter E. Thus, in our circuit E1 is a good choice. 2. The first two nodes specify the nodes to which the source is connected. The first node is the positive reference, the second node is the negative reference. 3. The second two nodes sense the voltage. The first node is the positive reference, the second node is the negative reference. 4. The last thing specified is the gain of the dependent source. For our circuit, the netlist line for E1 is E1 Vx 0 V2 5 The source is named E1. The source is connected between node Vx and ground. It senses the voltage between nodes V2 and, with V2 being the positive reference. The gain of the source is 5. The remainder of the components have been used previously. The complete netlist is Nodal Analysis with Dependent Sources * * This is file Book Circuits\Netlists\Section 11B.cir * E1 Vx 0 V2 5 0 DC 12 R1 V2 1k R2 V2 Vx 3k R3 V2 V3 5k V2 V3 0 DC 17.end We can create the netlist using the same procedure shown in section 11.A. The results from the output file are have been copied and pasted below: Nodal Analysis with Dependent Sources **** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION TEMPERATURE = DEG C ****************************************************************************** NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE ( ) ( V2) ( V3) ( Vx) EXERCISE 113: Find the DC node voltages for the circuit below:

11 Capture Creating and Using Netlists 11 2 Vx R1 R3 DC = 24 Ix R2 F1 = 3Ix F1 R4 0 HINT: F1 is a currentcontrolled current source. The current through this source is 3 times the current Ix. To solve this circuit we need to be able to sense the current Ix. This is done by placing a zerovolt source in series with the element in which we want to measure the current. The circuit is modified as shown below: 2 Vx R1 R3 4 Ix DC = 24 F1 = 3I(Vsense) R2 Vsense DC = 0 F1 R4 0 Since Vsense has a voltage of zero, it does not affect the circuit. However, PSpice can only sense currents through voltage sources. Note that we have labeled the node between R2 and Vsense as node number 4. Since Vsense has a voltage of zero, the voltage of node 4 should also be zero volts.the syntax for a current controlled current source is: 1. The name must start with the letter F. Thus, in our circuit F1 is a good choice. 2. The first two nodes specify the nodes to which the source is connected. Current enters the source at the first node and leaves the source at the second. 3. The name of the voltage source through which current is measured. 4. The last thing specified is the gain of the dependent source. The netlist for the circuit is Example 113 *

12 12 Creating and Using Netlists Capture F1 Vx 0 Vsense 3 0 DC 24 R1 2 R2 2 4 Vsense 4 0 DC 0 R3 2 Vx R4 Vx 0.end The results from the output file are shown below: **** 09/07/01 11:48:18 ************** PSpice Lite (Mar 2000) ***************** Example 113 **** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION TEMPERATURE = DEG C ****************************************************************************** NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE ( 2) ( 4) ( ) ( Vx) EXERCISE 114: Find the DC node voltages for the circuit below: V2 Vx R1 7 R2 2 R DC = 8 R4 4 G1 GAIN = 0.5 V3

13 Capture Creating and Using Netlists 13 HINT: G1 is a voltagecontrolled current source. The current through G1 is 0.5 times the voltage Vx. Note that Vx is the voltage at node V2 minus the voltage at node V3. It is not necessary to add the text Vx to your circuit. The syntax for this source is: 1. The name must start with the letter G. Thus, in our circuit G1 is a good choice. 2. The first two nodes specify the nodes to which the source is connected. Current enters the source at the first node and leaves the source at the second. 3. The second two nodes sense the voltage. The first node is the positive reference, the second node is the negative reference. 4. The last thing specified is the gain of the dependent source. SOLUTION: The netlist for the circuit is: Example 114 * G1 0 V2 V3 0.5 R1 V2 V3 7 R2 V3 0 2 R3 V R4 0 4 V2 DC 8.end The results from the output file are: Example 114 **** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION TEMPERATURE = DEG C ****************************************************************************** NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE ( ) ( V2) ( V3) C. Diode Current and Voltage Next we will redo the circuit of Section 3.C using netlists. The circuit is shown below:

14 14 Creating and Using Netlists Capture 3 1 We have assigned the node between and R1 the label 3. In the original circuit, the node between R1 and D1 was called Vd. In this circuit, we need to use a.print statement which requires nodes to be labeled with numbers. Thus, we will label the node between R1 and D1 as node number 1. When we use netlists, we do not need to use a part called Dbreak. This part is used to make the creating of diode models easier in the schematic capture front end. However, to create the simple diode model we need for this circuit, all we do is add a.model line in netlist. The syntax of the netlist line for a diode is: 1. The name of the part in the schematic, D1 in this example. 2. The anode node of the diode. 3. The cathode node of the diode. 4. The name of the diode model. In this example, the model name will be Dx. The netlist line for this diode is D1 1 0 Dx Note that the diode model must be defined in the netlist or somewhere in a library specified by the netlist. Here we will create a line in the netlist that defines the model. For this model, all we need to define is the parameter Is. The model line for this model is:.model Dx D (Is=1e15) Although the bias point simulation calculates currents and voltages for all elements in the circuit, all currents are not displayed in the output file. To display this information, we need to run a DC simulation at a single point. To do this, we will use the list version of the DC statement:.dc LIST 5 This line specifies that a DC analysis should run and that should be set to a single value of 5 volts. Although this is redundant because is already specified in the circuit, we need to run a DC analysis to view the results, and for a DC analysis we need to specify a source or a temperature. The last thing we need to do is print the results of the analysis. We do this with a.print command..print DC V(1) I(D1) This line states to print the information from the DC analysis, and specifies the information to print. In this case we are printing the voltage a node 1 relative to ground and the current through D1. The complete netlist for this circuit is

15 Capture Creating and Using Netlists 15 Diode Voltage and Current D1 1 0 Dx 3 0 DC 5 R K.model Dx D (Is=1e15).DC LIST 5.print DC V(1) I(D1).end Create the netlist an run PSpice as we did in the previous examples. The results are saved in the output file: **** 09/09/01 15:22:01 ************** PSpice Lite (Mar 2000) ***************** Diode Voltage and Current **** DC TRANSFER CURVES TEMPERATURE = DEG C ****************************************************************************** V(1) I(D1) 5.000E E E03 JOB CONCLUDED TOTAL JOB TIME.02 We se that for = 5 volts, the diode voltage (the voltage between node 1 and ground) is volts and the current through the diode is ma. This result is slightly different than the result from the schematic simulation in section 3.C because, in that simulation, we specified the diode series resistance as 0.1 ohm.

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