1 WELFARE REFORM WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR HOUSING? GARY VAUX
2 WELFARE REFORM o Winners and Losers o Conditionality o Housing benefit cuts, caps and calculations o Universal credit risks and rewards
3 Welfare Reform Summary o Total gross saving of 19b. ( 15.9b net) o Introduction of ESA (October 2008) o Changes to definition of lone parent (Oct 2007) o Introduction of LHA (April 2008) o Increase in women s pension age (April ) and for men and women to age 66 by o Migration from IB to ESA (April ) o New Work Programme (July 2011) o Changes to DLA ( ) Personal Independence Payment introduced
4 Welfare Reform Summary o Changes to H.B. (April 2011 onwards) o Changes to tax credits (April 2011 onwards) o Use of CPI not RPI (April 2011) o Loss of Child Trust Fund, Health in Pregnancy Grant and restrictions on Maternity Grant (Aug 2010 April 2011) o Total Benefit Income 500 p.w. for families, 350 for single people (2013) o Universal Credit (October 2013 to 2018) o New sanctions for fraud and error, including 50 fixed penalty. o Council Tax Benefit - localised and cut by 10% o Savings Credit within PC frozen for 4 years
5 WHO DOESN T LOSE OUT? o Current pensioners future increases are tied to highest of 3 figures (2.5%/CPI/Earnings). o No changes to Attendance Allowance (but Dilnott report on care costs due in June 2011) o Some lower income families (CTC and tax threshold increases) o Some measures e.g. changes to DLA, ESA transition, some HB changes don t apply to older claimants o Extra help with mortgage interest, introduced in January 2009, extended to January 2013.
6 Who doesn t lose out.. o Winter fuel payments retained (but 50/ 100 supplement paid in 2008 to 2010 will not be paid in 2011) o Miscellaneous concessions e.g. disabled tenants with non-resident carers o Child tax credit to be increased by 30 above (CPI) rate of inflation in 2011/12 and 50 in 2012/13.
7 Employment and Support Allowance o Replacing Incapacity Benefit and Income Support paid due to ill-health full migration from April 2011 onwards, over 3 year period. o Limited to one-year on Contributory basis unless in support group after that will be means-tested. o ESA for Young People abolished (April 2012) o Maximum of 1.5million claimants to transfer o Results from pilot show 30% are failing WCA (30% into Support Group; 40% into WRAG)
8 Employment and Support Allowance migration o Some will get jobs (DWP estimate 7%) o 24% wont transfer to ESA due to age o Transitional protection (frozen benefit) but only for those who go on to ESA not for those who go onto JSA
9 Employment and Support Allowance Example 26 year old who currently gets income support due to ill-health totalling per week plus full HB of 90. If switched to ESA (work-related activity group) = (but protected) plus full HB If placed on JSA =
10 Disability Living Allowance/PIP o New criteria for working age claims pointscoring system similar to ESA (2013 onwards) o New process based on medical examinations o DWP estimate a 20% reduction in expenditure and caseload o Remains non means-tested and noncontributory o PIP targeted on those in greatest need daily living (not care) and mobility (not walking) o Double whammy likely to be overlap with those going through ESA migration
11 PERSONAL INDEPENDENCE PAYMENT o May be applied to under 16 s and those aged 65+ who were awarded DLA before reaching that age. o Does not affect Attendance Allowance o 6-month pre-qualifying period (currently 3 months for DLA) but terminally-ill will be fast-tracked. o Greater account of aids and adaptations o If PIP acts as the 'passport' to carers allowance, then some carers will lose entitlement to that benefit.
12 Changes to Tax Credits o INCREASED TAPER 39% TO 41% (April 2011) o UPPER THRESHOLD SET AT 40K (April 2011) o FAMILY ELEMENT WITHDRAWN IMMEDIATELY AFTER CHILD ELEMENT STOPS (April 2012) o ABOLITION OF EXTRA AMOUNT FOR CHILDREN UNDER 0NE. o REDUCTION IN DISREGARD INCOME ( 25K TO 10k TO 5K) o NEW 2500 DISREGARD IF INCOME FALLS
13 WORKING TAX CREDIT WTC BASIC AND 30 HOUR ELEMENTS FROZEN FOR 3 YEARS FROM 2011/12. HELP WITH CHILD CARE LIMITED TO 70%, NOT 80%, FROM APRIL 2011 COUPLES WITH CHILDREN MUST WORK 24 HOURS PER WEEK BETWEEN THEM TO GET WTC, AND ONE MUST WORK AT LEAST 16 HOURS (APRIL 2011)
14 Child Benefit and Education Maintenance Allowance o CB to be taxed at 100% for households containing one or two higher-rate tax payers (April 2013) o Creates cliff-edge effect at starting point of higher rate tax. o Where taxed, claimant remains entitled to child benefit, which protects long-term N.I. record ( carers credit formerly known as Home Responsibilities Protection) o EMA to be included within discretionary Learner Support Funds (localised) no new EMA claims after Jan 2011 and abolished June 2011.
15 TOTAL BENEFIT INCOME CAP. o Total benefit income to be capped at 26,000 per year from April 2013 for families and 350 for single adults o To include all major means-tested benefits, tax credits, child benefit and carers allowance but households with DLA or WTC or War Widows claimant excluded. o Administered mainly by HB service capping rent.
16 EXAMPLES TBI cap o A lone parent with 4 children has an income from benefits of per week at present, made up of income support, child benefit and child tax credit. To stay below the TBI 'cap' she would need to find accommodation, inclusive of council tax, at or below 187 per week. o A couple on JSA with 3 children would have benefit income of 292 a week so would need to find somewhere to live at 208 per week (inclusive of council tax) o A couple on JSA with 4 children would have a benefit income of a week so would have to find somewhere to live that was below 150 a week to avoid the cap.
17 Benefit Income Cap - impact o The household benefit cap will cost 50,000 households an average of 93 per week, according to the DWP s impact assessment. o 'The cap is likely to affect where different family types will be able to live. Housing Benefit may no longer cover housing costs and some households may go into rent arrears. This will require expense and effort by landlords and the courts to evict and seek to recoup rent arrears. Some households are likely to present as homeless, and may as a result need to move into more expensive temporary accommodation, at a cost to the local authority. It is not possible to quantify these costs because they are based on behavioural changes which are difficult to assess robustly. o 30% of those affected will be from black and minority ethnic communities.
18 Conditionality - Income Support/JSA/ o Lone parents moved from IS to JSA at child s 7 th birthday (Oct 2010) and extended for parents of 5+6 year olds from October o Work Programme (July 2011) o Work Activity Scheme 4 weeks compulsory community service for certain JSA claimants. o Mandatory work experience programme o Increased sanctions for people who turn down work (up to 3 years exclusion from JSA no hardship payments) o Help with mortgage interest stops for JSA claimants after 2 years (January 2011 onwards)
19 HOUSING BENEFIT o Target is 1.8b saved from 21b budget. o Abolition of 15 profit that could be made under LHA rules (April 2011) o HB to be capped at 4-bed property size (April 2011) o Change basis of LHA from 50 th percentile to 30 th percentile (April 2011 but phased in) o Cap LHA at set figures (April 2011) o Increase non-dependant deductions (April 2011) o New tenants in social housing to pay rents at 80% of market rent.
20 HOUSING BENEFIT o Size-related criteria in HB for working-age under-occupiers in social housing (April 2013) - 670,000 affected, average loss of 13 per week o Single Accommodation rate of LHA to be extended to year olds (January 2012) - 88,000 affected, losing average of 50 p.w. o LHA increased by CPI, not movement in rent levels. o Increase in DHP budget by 40m (April 2011) o Extra LHA allowed for disabled people with non-resident carer (April 2011)
21 Impact of 30 th percentile change in one area 1 room 1 bed 2 bed 3 bed 4 bed 5bed SE Herts (June 2010 based on 50 th percentile) SE Herts (June 2010 based on 30 th percentile)
22 Non Dep Deductions.. o Non-dep aged 18 or over and in remunerative work: o gross income less than = 7.40 ( 9.40 from April 2011) o gross income = ( 21.55) o gross income = ( 29.60) o gross income = ( 48.45) o gross income = ( 55.20) o gross income greater than 382 = ( 60.60) o Aged 25 or over and on Income Support, Job Seekers Allowance or Employment Support Allowance (IR), or aged 18 or over and not in remunerative work = 7.40 ( 9.40) o In receipt of Pension Credit or not in receipt of main phase ESA(IR) rate = Nil (still nil)
23 Cumulative effects on households of HB changes (April-Oct 2011) o Number of households losing HB o Region No. of households Loss p.w. o London 159, o South East 123, o East Midlands 58, o Humber and Yorks 87,310 9 o Nationally 936, o o o o Limiting LHA to 4-bed rate; capping LHA at between 250 and 400 a week removing the 15 a week profit LHA set at 30 th percentile
24 Impact on working/nonworking households:- o Welfare changes by 2014/15 o Amount cut ( millions) Non-working Working Total budget cuts 9,340 3,946 5,394 Percentage budget cuts 42% 58% Total spending review cuts 6,549 2,005 4,543 Percentage spending review cuts 31% 69% Total cuts 15,889 5,952 9,937 Percentage cuts 37% 63%
25 Social Fund o Crisis Loans and Community Care Grants - abolished some additional funding for local Social Services Dept but no new powers or duties. o Budgeting Loans replaced by preaward payments o Maternity Grants not paid if another child under 16 is in household.
26 Universal Credit (Oct 2013 for new claims; for existing claims) o 2b additional cost initially o No losers at point of change o Brings together major means-tested benefits for working age people (IS/JSA/ESA/HB) plus tax credits. o Not included - Council tax benefit/ N.I.benefits/DLA(PIP)/AA/pensions. o Basic allowance plus amounts for children, disability, housing and caring. o Single rate of withdrawal when person enters work (65%)
27 Universal Credit o HB may remain for some types of supported accommodation. o Pension Credit to include housing costs o Single payment of UC - tenant to pay own rent o Real time exchange of info between HMRC and DWP as pay changes, UC changes automatically (in theory) o Who will receive it? o Future of direct payments? o What about firewalls in case of sanctions etc?
28 Marginal Effective Tax Rates Typical METR in 2010/11 is 70% (31p tax and NI + 39p in Tax Credit withdrawal) METR CURRENT UNIVERSAL CREDIT 80% % % Under 60% In Budget 2010, tax credit withdrawal raised to 41p so typical METR rises to 72% from April Under Universal Credit, norm rises to 76p (31p tax + 65% taper)
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