Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science GRADE 7 DICHOTOMOUS KEYS AND CLASSIFICATION

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1 The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are available by using the Search Standards feature located on GeorgiaStandards.Org. Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science GRADE 7 DICHOTOMOUS KEYS AND CLASSIFICATION Standards (Content and Characteristics): Content Standards: S7L1. Students will investigate the diversity of living organisms and how they can be compared scientifically. a. Demonstrate the process for the development of a dichotomous key. b. Classify organisms based on physical characteristics using a dichotomous key of the six kingdom system (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals). Habits of Mind: S7CS2. Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratories and field investigations. a. Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus. b. Demonstrate appropriate techniques in laboratory situations. c. Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations. S7CS3. Students will have the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and following scientific explanations. d. Draw conclusions based on analyzed data. S7CS4. Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating equipment and materials in scientific investigations. c. Learn and use on a regular basis standard safety practices for scientific investigations. S7CS6. Students will communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly. a. Organize scientific information using appropriate simple tables, charts, and graphs, and identify relationships they reveal. JULY 2008 Page 1 of 4

2 Georgia Performance Standards Framework for SCIENCE GRADE 7 Enduring Understandings: Differences and similarities exist within the structures and functions among the six kingdoms. Dichotomous keys are made of paired and opposite statements that allow the reader to identify an organism. Essential Questions: How can we use a dichotomous to classify various specimens from the six kingdoms? ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES Outcome / Performance Expectations: General Teacher Instructions: Students will observe specimens of the six kingdoms and classify them by using a dichotomous key. I. Teaching and Learning Strategy: Dichotomous Keys and Classification 1. Set up approximately 30 stations in the room. 2. Each station should have one example specimen from the six kingdoms. 3. Students will need to take out their field notebook, journal, etc. 4. They can title their paper, Using a Dichotomous Key to Classify 5. Give each student a kingdoms dichotomous key. 6. Inform students to work in groups of two. 7. Instruct the groups to visit as many stations as possible, using the dichotomous key to classify the organism to kingdom. Many specimens can also be classified out to phylum and class. II. Assessment 1. Distribute and grade the dichotomous key assessment to determine learning outcomes for students. JULY 2008 Page 2 of 4

3 Georgia Performance Standards Framework for SCIENCE GRADE 7 Materials Needed: A kingdoms dichotomous key for each student or group of students. Dichotomous key assessment for each student The following shows example specimens that can be set out in this investigation. Specimens can be collected by students for homework or obtained from teacher/department collections. Specimens may range from living, dead, or preserved. If 3-D samples are not available, then images from magazines or the internet could be used. I. Archaebacteria Obtain images from the internet to display II. Eubacteria Set up a microscope with prepared slides of eubacteria Set up a microsope with a wet mount of yogurt to view bacteria cultures. A simple Internet search provides procedures for preparing a slide. Obtain images from the internet to display III. Protists Set up microscopes with slides of prepared protists Set up microscopes with slides or real protists (obtain elodea from the pet store and let the elodea sit for several days in water; the water will be full of protists). Obtain images from the internet to display IV. Fungi Set out mushrooms collected by students or from the grocery store Set out shelf fungi collected by yourself or by students Set out yeast obtained from the grocery store Set out moldy food items JULY 2008 Page 3 of 4

4 Georgia Performance Standards Framework for SCIENCE GRADE 7 V. Plants Set out various plant examples (mosses, ferns, a flowering plant, a cone-bearing plant, etc.) VI. Animals Set out examples of various invertebrates Set out examples of various vertebrates Safety Precautions: Task with Student Directions: 1. Inform students to handle all specimens with care. 2. Inform students to use the microscopes with care. I. Teaching Activity: Classifying Specimens of the Six Kingdoms 1. Set up your field notebooks, journals, etc. with the title, Using a Dichotomous Key to Classify. 2. With a partner, visit the stations in the room. 3. Use the kingdoms dichotomous key to classify the specimen out to kingdom. Key the specimen out to phylum and class if the key allows this. 4. Record the common name of the specimen on your paper as well as the specimen s classification levels. JULY 2008 Page 4 of 4

5 Back Kingdoms Dichotomous Key 1. A. unicellular B. multicellular 2. A. prokaryotic B. eukaryotic 3. A. autotrophic/producer B. heterotrophic/consumer 4. A. no cell wall B. cell wall 5. A. lives in extreme, harsh environment B. lives in milder environment 1. A. heterotrophic B. autotrophic 2. A. moves with cilia B. moves with pseudopods Kingdom Go to 5 Kingdom Protista Plantae Go to 4 Animalia Fungi Archaebacteria Eubacteria Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi 1. A. produces a mushroom shaped fruiting body B. does not produce a mushroom shaped fruiting Body 2. A. produces a shelf-like fruiting body B. produces a stalk-like fruiting body 1. A. Produces spores B. Does not produces spores 2. A. Spores are located on the underside of leaf-like organs B. Spores are located in a capsule at the top of a stalk 3. A. Produces flowers B. Produces cones Common name=euglena Common name=paramecium Common name=amoeba Kingdom Plantae mushroom fungus shelf fungus mold Phylum Pterophyta Phylum Bryophyta Phylum Angiospermae Phylum Gymnospermae

6 Kingdom Animalia 1. A. has a nerve cord or backbone B. does not have a nerve cord or backbone 2. A. feeds young milk with mammary glands B. does not feed young with milk 3. A. is asymmetrical B. is symmetrical 4. A. has canine teeth B. has no canine teeth 5. A. body covered with feathers B. body not covered with feathers 6. A. has an exoskeleton B. does not have an exoskeleton 7. A. has flat molars B. has sharp, pointy molars 8. A. body covered with dry scales B. body not covered with dry scales 9. A. body has six legs B. body does not have six legs 10. A. has tube feet B. does not have tube feet 11. A. leads a double life; gills as larvae and lungs as an adult B. does not lead a double life 12. A. body has eight legs B. body has more than eight legs 13. A. has stinging tentacles B. does not have stinging tentacles 14. A. has a bony skeleton B. has a cartilaginous skeleton 15. A. Has a tube-like body B. Does not have a tube-like body 16. A. Has a mantle B. Does not have a mantle 17. A. Has tentacles with suction cups B. Does not have tentacles 18. A. Has two shells B. Has one shell Phylum Chordata: Class Mammalia: Go to 4 Go to 5 Phylum Porifera Go to 6 Got to 7 Order Herbivora Class Aves (Birds) Go to 8 Phylum Arthropoda: Go to 9 Go to 10 Order omnivore Order carnivora Class Reptilia (Reptiles) Go to 11 Class Insecta (Insects) Go to 12 Phylum Echinodermata Go to 13 Class Amphibia Go to 14 Class Arachnida Class Crustacea Phylum Cnidaria Go to 15 Class Bony fish Class Cartilagenous fish Phylum worms Go to 16 Go to 17 Phylum molluska Dead end Class Cephalopoda Go to 18 Class Bivalves Class Univalves

7 Dichotomous Key / Classification Activity for the Six Kingdoms Back 1. A. unicellular B. multicellular 2. A. prokaryotic B. eukaryotic 3. A. autotrophic/producer B. heterotrophic/consumer 4. A. no cell wall B. cell wall 5. A. lives in extreme, harsh environment B. lives in milder environment Go to 5 Protista Plantae Go to 4 Animalia Fungi Archaebacteria Eubacteria DIRECTIONS: Use the dichotomous key above to classify each of the following organisms into the appropriate kingdom. Write the kingdom name on the line. 1. This rather soft, low-lying organism spends its day taking nutrients from a rotten log through its hyphae. It continues to undergo cell division and grow larger. 2. This organism spends its day roaming through the forest in search of food. Its hunting techniques require use of its keen sense of smell and hearing. 3. This very small, thin organism spends its day using its flagellum to propel itself through pond water. If sunlight is available, it can make its own food. 4. This tiny organism spends its day reproducing rapidly (about once every 20 minutes), often inside the bodies of other organisms. Its genetic material is not contained inside a nucleus. 5. This organism spends its day in hot gases and molten rock deep within the earth. This type of tiny organism existed billions of years ago. 6. This organism spends its day taking in carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen through its stomata. It never eats but can grow many meters tall. 7. This organism spends its day moving through water or soil by using pseudopods which may surround food and take the food inside its cell membrane. 8. This organism spends its day attached a hard underwater surface. Water currents flowing through it provide the organism with food and oxygen and remove its wastes. It has no organs, but some of its cells have specialized jobs. BONUS: Besides classifying the kingdom, can you determine specifically what each organism is? Write your answers in the spaces below. Be prepared to defend your answers. If you have extra time, create an organism description of your own!

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