# IP Next Generation (IPv6)

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1 IP Next Generation (IPv6) Columbus, OH

2 Overview q Limitations of current Internet Protocol (IP) q How many addresses do we need? q IPv6 Addressing q IPv6 header format q IPv6 features 18-2

3 IP Addresses q Example: = : : : = A4:6B:86:05 (32 bits) q Maximum number of address = 2 32 = 4 Billion q Class A Networks: 15 Million nodes q Class B Networks: 64,000 nodes or less q Class C Networks: 250 nodes or less 18-3

4 IP Address q Class A: 0Network Local bits q Class B: 10 Network Local bits q Class C: 110 Network Local bits q Class D: 1110 Host Group (Multicast) 4 28 bits q Local = Subnet + Host (Variable length) Router Router Subnet 18-4

5 IP Address Format q Three all-zero network numbers are reserved q 127 Class A + 16,381 Class B + 2,097,151 Class C networks = 2,113,659 networks total q Class B is most popular. q 20% of Class B were assigned by 7/90 and doubling every 14 months Will exhaust by 3/94 q Question: Estimate how big will you become? Answer: More than 256! Class C is too small. Class B is just right. 18-5

6 How Many Addresses? q 10 Billion people by 2020 q Each person will be served by more than one computer q Assuming 100 computers per person computers q More addresses may be required since q Multiple interfaces per node q Multiple addresses per interface q Some believe 2 6 to 2 8 addresses per host q Safety margin addresses q IPng Requirements end systems and 10 9 networks. Desirable to networks 18-8

7 Address Size q H Ratio = log 10 (number of objects)/available bits q 2 n objects with n bits: H-Ratio = log 10 2 = q French telephone moved from 8 to 9 digits at 10 7 households H = 0.26 (assuming 3.3 bits/digit) q US telephone expanded area codes with 10 8 subscribers H = 0.24 q SITA expanded 7-character address at 64k nodes H = 0.14 (assuming 5 bits/char) q Physics/space science net stopped at nodes using 16-bit addresses H = 0.26 q 3 Million Internet hosts currently using 32-bit addresses H = 0.20 A few more years to go 18-9

8 q 128-bit long. Fixed size IPv6 Addresses q = addresses addresses per sq. m of earth surface q If assigned at the rate of 10 6 /μs, it would take 20 years q Expected to support to addresses ,564 address per sq. m q Allows multiple interfaces per host. q Allows multiple addresses per interface q Allows unicast, multicast, anycast q Allows provider based, site-local, link-local q 85% of the space is unassigned 18-10

9 Colon-Hex Notation q Dot-Decimal: q Colon-Hex: FEDC:0000:0000:0000:3243:0000:0000:ABCD q Can skip leading zeros of each word q Can skip one sequence of zero words, e.g., FEDC::3243:0000:0000:ABCD ::3243:0000:0000:ABCD q Can leave the last 32 bits in dot-decimal, e.g., :: q Can specify a prefix by /length, e.g., 2345:BA23:7::/

10 Initial IPv6 Prefix Allocation Allocation Prefix Allocation Prefix Reserved Unassigned 101 Unassigned Unassigned 110 NSAP Unassigned 1110 IPX Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned 0001 Unassigned Unassigned 001 Unassigned Provider-based 010 Link-Local Unassigned 011 Site-Local Geographic 100 Multicast

11 Local-Use Addresses q Link Local: Not forwarded outside the link, FE:80::xxx 10 bits n bits 118-n Interface ID Site Local: Not forwarded outside the site, FE:C0::xxx 10 bits n bits m bits 118-n-m bits Subnet ID Interface ID Provides plug and play 18-13

12 Multicast Addresses 8 bits 4 bits 4 bits 112 bits Flags Scope Group ID T q T = 0 Permanent (well-known) multicast address, 1 Transient q Scope: 1 Node-local, 2 Link-local, 5 Site-local, 8 Organization-local, E Global q Predefined: 1 All nodes, 2 Routers, 1:0 DHCP servers 18-14

13 Multicast Addresses (Cont) q Example: 43 Network Time Protocol Servers q FF01::43 All NTP servers on this node q FF02::43 All NTP servers on this link q FF05::43 All NTP servers in this site q FF08::43 All NTP servers in this organization q FF0F::43 All NTP servers in the Internet 18-15

15 Protocol and Header Types Decimal Keyword Header Type HBH Hop-by-hop (IPv6) 1 ICMP Internet Control Message (IPv4) 2 IGMP Internet Group Management (IPv4) 2 ICMP Internet Control Message (IPv6) 3 GGP Gateway-to-Gateway 4 IP IP in IP (IPv4 Encaptulation) 5 ST Stream 6 TCP 17 UDP 29 ISO-TP4 43 RH Routing Header (IPv6) 44 FS Fragmentation Header (IPv6) 45 IDRP Interdomain Routing 51 AH Authentication header (IPv6) 52 ESP Encrypted Security Payload 59 Null No next header 60 ISO-IP CLNP 88 IGRP 89 OSPF Open Shortest Path First 18-17

16 IPv6 vs IPv4 q 1995 vs 1975 q IPv6 only twice the size of IPv4 header q Only version number has the same position and meaning as in IPv4 q Removed: header length, type of service, identification, flags, fragment offset, header checksum q Datagram length replaced by payload length q Protocol type replaced by next header q Time to live replaced by hop limit q Added: Priority and flow label q All fixed size fields

17 q No optional fields. Replaced by extension headers. q 8-bit hop limit = 255 hops max (Limits looping) q Next Header = 6 (TCP), 17 (UDP), 18-19

18 Base Header Extension Headers Extension Header 1 Extension Header n q Most extension headers are examined only at destination q Routing: Loose or tight source routing q Fragmentation: All IPv6 routers can carry 536 Byte payload q Authentication q Security Encaptulation: Confidentiality q Hop-by-Hop Option q Destination Options: Data

21 Provider Selection q Possible using routing extension header q Source specified intermediate systems q No preference: H1, H2 q P1 Preferred: H1, P1, H2 q H1 becomes Mobile: H1, PR, P1, H2 P1 H1 PR P2 H

22 q Larger addresses q Flexible header format q Improved options IPv6 Features q Support for resource allocation q Provision for protocol extension q Built-in Security: Both authentication and confidentiality 18-24

23 Address Autoconfiguration q Allows plug and play q BOOTP and DHCP are used in IPv4 q DHCPng will be used with IPv6 q Two Methods: Stateless and Stateful q Stateless: q A system uses link-local address as source and multicasts to "All routers on this link" q Router replies and provides all the needed prefix info 18-27

24 Address Autoconfiguration (Cont) q All prefixes have a associated lifetime q System can use link-local address permanently if no router q Stateful: q Problem w stateless: Anyone can connect q Routers ask the new system to go DHCP server (by setting managed configuration bit) q System multicasts to "All DHCP servers" q DHCP server assigns an address 18-28

25 Transition Mechanisms q Dual-IP Hosts, Routers, Name servers q Tunneling IPv6 over IPv4 q Hosts and Routers can be gradually upgraded to IPv6 q It is better (though not required) to upgrade routers before upgrading hosts Internet Dual Application TCP IPv4 IPv6 Ethernet IPv4

26 Application Issues q Most application protocols will have to be upgraded: FTP, SMTP, Telnet, Rlogin q 27 of 51 Full Internet standards, 6 of 20 draft standards, 25 of 130 proposed standards will be revised for IPv6 q No checksum checksum at upper layer is mandatory, even in UDP q non-ietf standards: X-Open, Kerberos,... will be updated q Should be able to request and receive new DNS records 18-30

27 Implementations q 4.4-lite BSD by US Naval Research Laboratory q UNIX, OPEN-VMS by DEC q DOS/WINDOWS by FTP Software q HP-UX SICS (Swedish Institute of Comp. Science) q Linux q NetBSD by INRIA Rocquencourt q Solaris 2 by Sun q Streams by Mentat 18-31

28 Summary q IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses q Allows provider-based, site-local, link-local, multicast, anycast addresses q Fixed header size. Extension headers instead of options. Extension headers for provider selection, security q Allows auto-configuration q Dual-IP router and host implementations for transition 18-32

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