The development of biogas in Sweden and Denmark

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1 The development of biogas in Sweden and Denmark M. Murto*, M. Svensson**, K. Christensson* and I. Angelidaki** * Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE Lund, Sweden ( ** Institute of Environment & Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark ( er.dtu.dk; Abstract The development in the biogas field in Sweden and Denmark has been different from each other. In Sweden the biogas technology has mainly been used at wastewater treatment plants digesting sewage sludge. However, today there is a focus on co-digestion plants. The biogas production was 3.67 PJ the year The biogas is mainly used for heating, however, the biogas is increasingly used as vehicle fuel and Sweden is in the fore-front in this field. In Denmark centralised biogas plants has been built to digest mainly manure and the experience is well established. The biogas produced at centralised and farm-scale biogas plants in Denmark corresponds to 3.7 PJ per year and it is mainly used for combined heat and power generation. The total biogas potential is far from being fully exploited and the future potential is to be found in agricultural feedstocks. There are a lot of experiences to be shared between the two countries to advance the development of biogas. Keywords agriculture; biogas; digestion; manure; potential; vehicle fuel INTRODUCTION Traditionally anaerobic digestion has been considered as a treatment technology for waste but it has changed to be viewed as a method for production of renewable energy and combating climate change. The potential in biogas systems is considerable at regional level due to its positive economic, environmental and social impacts. Regional energy systems allow individuals, organisations and communities to establish a secure, local energy supply. Jobs and businesses are generated along with the biogas establishment. The biogas systems promote the use of locally available resources and organic wastes (Savola, 2006). The biogas field is expanding therefore a comparison of the experiences in Sweden and Denmark has been made. The present situation and future possibilities are discussed. BIOGAS IN SWEDEN Present situation In Sweden the total biogas production was 220 million Nm 3 the year 2005 and this corresponds to an energy content of 3.67 PJ. There are totally 233 biogas plants including landfill gas extraction units. The production type and number of plants are shown in Table 1. The main part of the biogas is produced at 139 biogas plants digesting sewage sludge at wastewater treatment plants (Jarvis and Svensson, 2007). Biogas production from landfills has decreased and is expected to decrease further since a law prohibiting landfilling of organic waste was introduced The biogas production at co-digestion plants has increased and was estimated to be 0.59 PJ in At these plants manure is co-digested with various kinds of organic waste. In the farm-based biogas plants and various pilot plants mostly agricultural feedstocks are treated. In a survey of the use of the biogas it was found that 33% was used for heating, 21% for internal heating at WWTP, 12 % was used as vehicle fuel, 9% was flared off, 3% was used for electricity production and 2% was injected into the natural gas network. Information about the use of 20% of the biogas produced was missing (Jarvis and Svensson, 2007).

2 Table 1. Biogas production, type and number of plants in Sweden (Jarvis and Svensson, 2007; SBGF, 2007). Production type Number of plants Biogas production (PJ) Wastewater treatment Industrial wastewaters Co-digestion Landfills Farm-based Total Sweden is in the forefront in the use of biogas as a vehicle fuel. Biogas was used as vehicle fuel corresponding to an energy amount of PJ. Biogas contributed to 43% of the gas vehicle fuel 2005 (Persson, 2006). In Sweden there are public gas filling stations and 23 bus gas filling stations. The location of vehicle fuel gas stations in the south of Sweden is shown in Figure 1 (Jarvis, 2006). There are more than 8000 gas vehicles of which around 930 are buses and distribution trucks. The use of gas vehicles is expanding; the increase was 25% and 49% 2004 and 2005 respectively (Jarvis 2006). The expansion of biogas in the transport sector has many causes. Above all municipalities and industry discover that it is possible to earn money on a product that they earlier could not see a market for. The transport sector also looks for that a bigger part of the vehicle fuel should be renewable. Furthermore, the gas companies take more responsibility for biogas and even get engaged in the production of biogas. The consumers also demand to have renewable energy and are putting a pressure on the gas companies to supply more renewable energy. Biogas used as vehicle fuel is exempted from tax. For owners of a biogas car incentives are for instance 20-30% lower cost of the fuel compared to petrol, 40% reduction of valuation tax and free parking in some cities (Persson, 2006). The biogas has to be cleaned and upgraded to be able to be used as vehicle fuel or to be injected into the natural gas grid. The most common upgrading techniques used in Sweden are water absorption and pressure swing adsorption (Jönsson, 2005). The cost for upgrading biogas is approximately per kwh cleaned gas (Persson, 2006). The net energy yield for producing biogas vehicle fuel from agricultural feedstocks is beneficial. A study has reported that for vehicle fuel production the net energy yield per hectare agricultural land for biogas is 55 GJ when wheat including straw is used as raw material. If ethanol is produced instead, the drank is used as fodder and the straw is plowed down in the soil the net energy yield per hectare and year is 20 GJ. Even biogas produced from ley crops gives a net yield of 36 GJ vehicle fuel/hectare and year (Börjesson, 2004). Figure 1. Gas stations in south of Sweden 2005 (Fordonsgas, 2006).

3 During 2005, ton of biodigestate was produced from biogas plants of which 98% was recycled back to the agricultural land. The remaining part was dewatered and/or after-composted. The compost produced at the plants was mainly used as fertilizer or in soil mixtures (RVF, 2005). The digestate can be certified in Sweden. This will ensure the user that the product is of good quality. If the digestate has this label the customer s reliability for the product increases and the sales prospects improves. The certified product is labelled Certifierad Återvinning (Certified Reuse). The inspecting organisation for the certification system is SP, Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut (Swedish National Testing and Research Institute). The marking permit is given after verification that the product fulfills the requirements contained in a standard. The certification put a demand on the whole chain of management from the incoming of the waste to end-use of the digestate. There are seven certified biogas plants in Sweden (Helsingborg, Kalmar, Kristianstad, Laholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Vänersborg) (Månsson, 2006). Future potential In Sweden, the biogas potential has been estimated to be around 50 PJ/year (Linné et al., 2005; Nordberg et al., 1998) where the large potential is found in agricultural feedstocks, see Table 2 (Linné et al., 2005; Nordberg et al., 1998; Lantz et al., 2007). The biogas potential from animal manure is estimated to be 9.2 PJ/year (Lantz, 2007; Linné et al., 2005). There is an increased interest in using dedicated energy crops for biogas production. If energy crops were to be grown on farmland that is present being used for export crops and as set-aside land, up to ha could be made available for dedicated energy crops (Herland, 2005). Linné et al. (2005) has estimated the potential of energy crop for biogas production to be 26 PJ/year assuming that ha was used with various kinds of crop. Table 2. Future biogas potential in Sweden. Potential (PJ) Sewage sludge 3.6 Household and 3.4 restaurant waste Industrial organic 3.3 waste Garden and park 1.7 waste Manure 9.2 Crop residues 3.5 Energy crops 26 Total 50.7 Incentives and barriers The Swedish government has given investment subsidies to a number of municipally defined and run projects, which have environmental aims. The goal of the projects has mainly been to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases at local level (Lantz, 2007). Here, both investment subsidies for fullscale biogas plants and vehicle gas filling stations have been given. In Sweden there are energy- and CO 2 taxes on fossil fuel from which renewable fuels, including biogas are exempted. There is also a transport biofuels directive in Sweden that sets a 5.75% target for transport biofuels by 2010 to promote the use of biofuels. There are some incentives to encourage the farmer to grow energy crops. Within EU the cultivation of energy crops is granted a subsidy of maximum 45 /ha, if the crop is grown on non-set-aside land. It is also allowed to grow energy crops on set-aside land which

4 can give the farmer an extra income. A reduced market price of food crops favours the production of energy crops (Lantz, 2007). BIOGAS IN DENMARK Present situation In Denmark there are at present 22 centralised plants and over 60 farm-scale plants, see Figure 2. Mainly manure and organic waste is digested and is a well established technology in Denmark. The current biogas production in Denmark is corresponding to 3.7 PJ per year (Table 3). However, less than 2.5 PJ is coming from manure and industrial waste. Approximately 80% manure, mainly as slurry, is co-digested with 20% organic wastes from food industries and municipalities. A few plants co-digest sewage sludge or the organic fraction of source-separated household waste, as well. High strength organic waste has until now been a pre-requisite for the economically performance of the biogas plants and the limited availability of this type of organic waste has led to import of this kind of waste from other countries. The produced biogas is mainly used for combined heat and power generation, and the digested biomass is used as a fertiliser at farms. The biogas is used for combined heat and electricity production in Denmark. The electricity is sold to the grid, while the heat production either is used for district heating or for heating of a farm. The sales price of electricity is fixed at 6.50 /kwh for ten years where after it is reduced to 4.40 /kwh for the next ten years. Figure 2. Existing and planned biogas plants in Denmark. (Round existing plants (blue colour, farm scale, red colour centralised plants); square planned plants. Future potential In the future energy crops might be an alternative which can increase the amount of potential biomass significantly. The use of energy crops is very limited in Denmark, with only two farmscale plants using energy crops at the moment. Rapeseed production for biodiesel is by far the most dominant crop cultivated for energy production. Incentives and barriers More than 60 farm-scale biogas plants were built from 1980 up to now, most of them co-digesting animal manure. However, only a few new centralised plants have been established since 1998 and the development of farm-scale plants have slowed down. According to Raven and Gregersen (2005) several factors have been important for the successful implementation of biogas in Denmark. The

5 Danish government has stimulated interaction and learning between industry, farmers, municipalities and the energy sector. A network and a long-term stimulation enabled a continuous development of biogas plants without interruptions until the late 1990s. Beneficial circumstances contributed to the biogas development. This includes policies for decentralised CHP, the existence of district heating systems, the implementation of energy taxes in the late 1980s and the preference of Danish farmers to cooperate in small communities. The current setback is mainly caused by a shift in energy and environmental policies and limited availability of organic waste (Raven and Gregersen, 2005). All the plants received investments grants, ranging from 20-40% in the late 1980s to 20% until 2001, but today there are no grants for new plants in Denmark. Table 3. Potential and realised energy in biomass in Denmark (Tafdrup, 2006). Biomass Potential Realised 2004 (PJ) (PJ) Animal manure Sewage sludge Industrial waste, Danish Industrial waste, import Meat and bone meel Household waste Garden waste Landfill gas Total COOPERATION TO PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT IN THE BIOGAS FIELD To promote the development in the biogas area the BiogasÖresund project has been created. BiogasÖresund is a platform for promotion and development of production and use of biogas in the Öresund region (east of Denmark and south of Sweden). In each country the experiences in this field are of a different nature, therefore an effort has been done to increase the collaboration and knowledge exchange at various levels. There are many lessons to be learnt from each country s experiences. A network has been created for matchmaking, knowledge exchange and cooperation within the field of biogas in the Öresund region. The activities are coordinated by a twofold secretariat at the Department of Biotechnology, Lund University and the Institute of Environment & Resources, Technical University of Denmark. The tasks are to mediate and coordinate different activities such as contact making, knowledge exchange and matchmaking of projects between participants in the network. Furthermore, workshops and seminars are arranged in different topics for knowledge exchange. Universities, companies, municipalities, and organisations participate in the network. This far four workshops and seminars have been arranged. The seminars make it possible for the people in the network to meet and exchange experiences. The use of biogas as vehicle fuel in Sweden has been discussed and it was found that the energy prices and different subsidiaries has promote the development in Sweden whereas this has not been possible in Denmark. The role of energy crops in agricultural biogas production and applied biogas research in the Nordic countries has also been highlighted. The activity in this field is high and the future looks promising. CONCLUSIONS The development in the biogas field in Sweden and Denmark has been different from each other. There is a lot of information to be shared between both countries to advance the development of

6 production and use of biogas. However, the promotion of biogas systems is to a large extent impacted by different policies in different areas such as agricultural-, environmental- and wastehandling practices. In Sweden these are beneficial for the biogas development whereas in Denmark the development has stagenated. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The financial support from EU Interreg IIIA programme is gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES Börjesson, Energianalys av drivmedel från spannmål och vall. Rapport nr 54. Report from the Danish Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Economics (1999). Centralised Biogas Plants - Integrated Energy Production, Waste Treatment and Nutrient Redistribution Facilities. Ed. Johannes Christensen. Fordonsgas (2006). (accessed 18 June 2006). Herland E. (2005). LRFs energiscenario till år 2020 (The federations of Swedish farmers energy scenario for the year 2020). Report from the Federation of Swedish Farmers. Jarvis Å. (2006). Biogas i Sverige, årsjubileum för biogas till fordon (Biogas in Sweden, year celebration about biogas as vehicle fuel). Report for the Swedish Biogas Association. Jarvis Å. and Svensson K. (2007). Produktion och användning av biogas år 2005 (Production and use of biogas the year 2005). Report by the Swedish Energy Agency. Jönsson O. (2005). Biogas as vehicle fuel. (accessed 6 June 2007). Lantz M., Svensson M., Björnsson L. and Börjesson, P. (2007). The prospects for an expansion of biogas systems in Sweden - Incentives, barriers and potentials. Energy Policy 35 (3), Linné M., Jönsson O. and Rietz J. (2005). Litteraturstudie Sammanställning och analys av potentialen för produktion av förnyelsebar metan (biogas och SNG) i Sverige (An literature study Gathering and analyse of the potential production of renewable methane (biogas and SNG) in Sweden). Report, Biomil Ltd. and the Swedish Gas Centre. Månsson L. (2006). Certifieringsregler för biogödsel (Certification rules for biofertilisers). Report from SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute. Nordberg Å., Lindberg A., Gruvberger C., Lilja T. and Edström M. (1998). Biogaspotential och framtida anläggningar i Sverige (Biogas potential and future biogas plants in Sweden). Report nr 17 (Recycle and Waste). Swedish Institute of Agricultural Engineering in co-operation with VBB Viak, a SWECO company. Persson M. (2007) Biogas - a renewable fuel for the transport sector for the present and the future. Article from the Swedish Gas Centre. Raven R. P. J. M. and Gregersen K. H. (2005). Biogas plants in Denmark: successes and setbacks. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 (1): RVF, (2005). Användning av biogödsel (The use of biomanure). Report nr. 2005:10 within the BUS-project. RVF, The Swedish Association of Waste Management, Malmö, Sweden. Savola H. (2006). Biogas systems in Finland and Sweden: Impact of government policies on the diffusion of anaerobic digestion technology. Master thesis, The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. SBGF (2007). Biogasintroduktion (Biogas introduction). (accessed 22 June 2007). Tafdrup S. (2006). Spreadsheet with biomass calculations. Danish Ministry of Energy.

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