# IP Next Generation (IPv6)

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1 IP Next Generation (IPv6) Columbus, OH

2 Overview q Limitations of current Internet Protocol (IP) q How many addresses do we need? q IPv6 Addressing q IPv6 header format 2

3 IP Addresses q Example: = : : : = A4:6B:86:05 (32 bits) q Maximum number of address = 2 32 = 4 Billion q Class A Networks: 15 Million nodes q Class B Networks: 64,000 nodes or less q Class C Networks: 254 nodes or less 3

4 IP Address Format q Three all-zero network numbers are reserved q 127 Class A + 16,381 Class B + 2,097,151 Class C networks = 2,113,659 networks total q Class B is most popular. q 20% of Class B were assigned by 7/90 and doubling every 14 months Will exhaust by 3/94 q Question: Estimate how big will you become? Answer: More than 256! Class C is too small. Class B is just right. 4

5 How Many Addresses? q 10 Billion people by 2020 q Each person will be served by more than one computer q Assuming 100 computers per person computers q More addresses may be required since q Multiple interfaces per node q Multiple addresses per interface q Some believe 2 6 to 2 8 addresses per host q Safety margin addresses q IPng Requirements end systems and 10 9 networks. Desirable to networks 7

6 Address Size q H Ratio = log 10 (number of objects)/available bits q 2 n objects with n bits: H-Ratio = log 10 2 = q French telephone moved from 8 to 9 digits at 10 7 households H = 0.26 (assuming 3.3 bits/digit) q US telephone expanded area codes with 10 8 subscribers H = 0.24 q SITA expanded 7-character address at 64k nodes H = 0.14 (assuming 5 bits/char) q Physics/space science net stopped at nodes using 16-bit addresses H = 0.26 q 3 Million Internet hosts currently using 32-bit addresses H = 0.20 A few more years to go 8

7 q 128-bit long. Fixed size IPv6 Addresses q = addresses addresses per sq. m of earth surface q If assigned at the rate of 10 6 /μs, it would take 20 years q Expected to support to addresses ,564 address per sq. m q Allows multiple interfaces per host. q Allows multiple addresses per interface q Allows unicast, multicast, anycast q Allows provider based, site-local, link-local 9

8 Colon-Hex Notation q Dot-Decimal: q Colon-Hex: FEDC:0000:0000:0000:3243:0000:0000:ABCD q Can skip leading zeros of each word q Can skip one sequence of zero words, e.g., FEDC::3243:0000:0000:ABCD ::3243:0000:0000:ABCD q Can leave the last 32 bits in dot-decimal, e.g., :: q Can specify a prefix by /length, e.g., 2345:BA23:7::/40 10

9 Initial IPv6 Prefix Allocation Allocation Prefix Allocation Prefix Reserved Unassigned 101 Unassigned Unassigned 110 NSAP Unassigned 1110 IPX Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned 0001 Unassigned Unassigned 001 Unassigned Provider-based 010 Link-Local Unassigned 011 Site-Local Geographic 100 Multicast

10 Local-Use Addresses q Link Local: Not forwarded outside the link, FE:80::xxx 10 bits n bits 118-n Interface ID Site Local: Not forwarded outside the site, FE:C0::xxx 10 bits n bits m bits 118-n-m bits Subnet ID Interface ID Provides plug and play 12

11 Multicast Addresses 8 bits 4 bits 4 bits 112 bits Flags Scope Group ID T q T = 0 Permanent (well-known) multicast address, 1 Transient q Scope: 1 Node-local, 2 Link-local, 5 Site-local, 8 Organization-local, E Global q Predefined: 1 All nodes, 2 Routers, 1:0 DHCP servers 13

12 Multicast Addresses (Cont) q Example: 43 Network Time Protocol Servers q FF01::43 All NTP servers on this node q FF02::43 All NTP servers on this link q FF05::43 All NTP servers in this site q FF08::43 All NTP servers in this organization q FF0F::43 All NTP servers in the Internet 14

14 Protocol and Header Types Decimal Keyword Header Type HBH Hop-by-hop (IPv6) 1 ICMP Internet Control Message (IPv4) 2 IGMP Internet Group Management (IPv4) 2 ICMP Internet Control Message (IPv6) 3 GGP Gateway-to-Gateway 4 IP IP in IP (IPv4 Encaptulation) 5 ST Stream 6 TCP 17 UDP 29 ISO-TP4 43 RH Routing Header (IPv6) 44 FS Fragmentation Header (IPv6) 45 IDRP Interdomain Routing 51 AH Authentication header (IPv6) 52 ESP Encrypted Security Payload 59 Null No next header 60 ISO-IP CLNP 88 IGRP 89 OSPF Open Shortest Path First 16

15 IPv6 vs IPv4 q 1995 vs 1975 q IPv6 only twice the size of IPv4 header q Only version number has the same position and meaning as in IPv4 q Removed: header length, type of service, identification, flags, fragment offset, header checksum q Datagram length replaced by payload length q Protocol type replaced by next header q Time to live replaced by hop limit q Added: Priority and flow label q All fixed size fields. 17

16 q No optional fields. Replaced by extension headers. q 8-bit hop limit = 255 hops max (Limits looping) q Next Header = 6 (TCP), 17 (UDP), 18

17 Base Header Extension Headers Extension Header 1 Extension Header n q Most extension headers are examined only at destination q Routing: Loose or tight source routing q Fragmentation: All IPv6 routers can carry 536 Byte payload q Authentication q Security Encaptulation: Confidentiality q Hop-by-Hop Option q Destination Options: 19 Data

20 Provider Selection q Possible using routing extension header q Source specified intermediate systems q No preference: H1, H2 q P1 Preferred: H1, P1, H2 q H1 becomes Mobile: H1, PR, P1, H2 P1 H1 PR P2 H2 22

22 Homework q Read Section 16.5 of Stallings q Submit answer to Exercise q Due Date: Next Class 24

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