Chapter 10. Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase

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1 Chapter 10 Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase

2 Chapter 10, Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase Early Development of Greek Society Minoan and Mycenaean Societies The World of the Polis Greece and the Larger World Greek Colonization Conflict with Persia The Macedonians and the Coming of Empire The Hellenistic Empires The Fruits of Trade: Greek Economy and Society Trade and the Integration of the Mediterranean Basin Family and Society The Cultural Life of Classical Greece Rational Thought and Philosophy Popular Religion and Greek Drama Hellenistic Philosophy and Religion

3 Ancient Greece Bronze Age 2 nd millennium B.C.E. Minoan Crete, B.C.E. Mycenaean Greece, B.C.E. Dark Age, B.C.E. Archaic Period, B.C.E. Rise of the Polis Classical Period, B.C.E. High Point of Greek Civilization Hellenistic Period, B.C.E. Alexander the Great, B.C.E.

4 Geography of Greece Mainland Greece Rocky and Mountainous Fertile plains No navigable rivers Limited natural resources Long coastline with many harbors Aegean Islands The Cycladic Islands Crete

5 Bronze Age Greece Heinrich Schliemann, the Trojan War, and the recovery of Bronze Age Greece Mycenaean Greece Minoan Crete King Minos, Queen Pasiphaë, the Minotaur, and the Labyrinth Sir Arthur Evans and the excavation of Knossos Heinrich Schliemann, excavator of Troy and Mycenae Sir Arthur Evans at Knossos

6 Linear A Minoan Crete, c Palaces Major palace: Knossos Control of sea trade Wall Paintings Religion Literate Linear A Undeciphered Peaceful No fortifications B.C.E.

7 Mycenaean Greece, c B.C.E. Palaces Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Thebes, Athens, etc. Fortified citadels Cyclopean masonry Militaristic Warrior Burials Conquest of Minoan Crete Trojan War Agamenmon of Mycenae Literate Linear B Greek Linear B Tablet

8 The End of the Bronze Age Mycenaean citadels destroyed c B.C.E. Invasions? Climate change? Famine? Connection with the end of the Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean (Hittites, Egypt)

9 The Fall of Late Bronze Age Civilizations The 12 th century B.C.E. a period of major changes and disruption throughout the Mediterranean World Mycenaean World Hittites Syria Egypt Philistines (one of the Sea Peoples) Israel Interdependence

10 The Trojan War [Mycenaean] Greeks vs. Troy, c B.C.E. Homer Lived in the 8 th century B.C.E. Iliad Achilles and the Trojan War Odyssey Odysseus voyage home To what era do the stories belong? Homer

11 Dark Age Greece, c Disappearance of Mycenaean Civilization No Writing No Palaces No International trade B.C.E. Depopulation from 12 th to 9 th centuries B.C.E. Collapse of agricultural production More herding, less farming Some Greeks migrate across the Aegean to the west coast of Turkey

12 End of the Dark Ages: Major changes in the 8 th cent. Rise in population B.C.E. Improvements in agriculture Economy shifted from herding to farming Iron replaced bronze Competition for resources Revival of trade Phoenicians trading with Greece Writing re introduced

13 The Rise of the Polis, c. 800 B.C.E. 480 B.C.E. The Polis (plural Poleis) = City State Urban Center Acropolis Agora (market) Poleis varied in size, natural resources, wealth Citizenship Each polis was a community in which all citizens were entitled to participate at some level Each polis functioned as a political, economic, social, and religious unit

14 Governments of the Poleis, Monarchy Typical Bronze Age Government Few monarchies survived in Greece after the Bronze Age Aristocracy aristos = best; cratos = rule Oligarchy oligos = few; archos = power Tyranny c. 800 B.C.E. 480 B.C.E. Democracy

15 Political Changes in the Poleis Changes in society during the Archaic Period led to political change: Wealth From farming, trade Colonization Military Changes

16 Overpopulation Motives: Economic frustration Political frustration New poleis founded throughout the eastern Mediterranean Colony Mother city Trade and commerce Cultural diffusion 1500 Greek city states Greek Colonization, c B.C.E. What aspects of the colonies locations facilitated trade between them and the city-states in Greece?

17 Cultural Changes Resulting from Greek Colonization Alphabet Coinage Art Architecture

18 A New Military System Bronze Age warfare chariots and heavily armed soldiers Early Iron Age warfare cavalry Military Change in the 8 th century: Hoplites Heavily armed infantrymen Shield (hoplon) Helmet, breastplate, leg guards Thrusting spear Sword Phalanx formation 4 to 8 rows deep

19 Outgrowth of the Changes = Political Changes Aristocrats in power Excluded people Poor Middle class The new rich What could those excluded from power do about it? Political tension Refusal to fight to support the polis Support alternative leaders Tyrants

20 Sparta: The Military Ideal Laconia Conquered Messenia, c. 730 B.C.E. Population reduced to slaves Helots Military Service

21 Dual kings The Spartan State Assisted by a council of elders (gerousia) and an assembly of all male citizens (Spartiates) Society Spartiates Perioeci ( those who live around ) Helots Family Life Boys Girls Marriage Wives and Mothers

22 Athens in the Dark Age Governed by aristocrats Tensions in the 7 th century B.C.E. Debt slavery 6 th century emerging democracy Draco, 620 B.C.E. Solon, 594 B.C.E. Athens

23 Athens: The Move to Tyranny Pisistratis, Tyrant of Athens, B.C.E. & B.C.E. Very popular and then Democracy Athens very peaceful and prosperous Succeeded by unpopular sons Hippias and Hipparchus (assassinated in 514 B.C.E.) Hippias forced into exile in 510 B.C.E. The Reforms of Cleisthenes, B.C.E. Weaken the power of localities and regions Council of 500, fifty representatives from each of 10 new tribe Democracy (demos, people, and kratia, power )

24 Full blown Democracy Pericles The Assembly (Ecclesia) All male citizens over 18 participate Responsible for laws, foreign policy, declaring war Council of 500 (introduced by Cleisthenes) 50 men elected by lot from each tribe; Prepared agenda for Assembly Magistrates Chosen by lot Board of 10 Generals (strategoi) Elected by vote Ostracism Law Courts Direct democracy All can participate; All officials paid Mob ocracy

25 Classical Greece Greece in the 5 th century B.C.E. Begins and ends with wars Persian Wars, 490 B.C.E. & B.C.E. Peloponnesian War, B.C.E. The high point of Greek culture (history writing, philosophy, architecture, sculpture, painting, etc.)

26 The Challenge of Persia Ionian Revolt of the Greeks, 499 B.C. 494 B.C.E. Athens helps 1 st Persian War Athens vs. in 490 B.C.E. 2 nd Persian War All Greece vs. in B.C.E.

27 Will Persia Come Back? Athens prepares for Delian League League members pay central treasury Greek states in Ionia liberated from Persian empire Money used to build ships guess where? Athenian imperialism

28 The Peloponnesian War War in Greece B.C.E. 431 B.C.E. Sparta invades Attica Athens invades Peloponnesus by sea (c. 460 c. 400 B.C.E.) The History of the Peloponnesian War

29 The End of the Peloponnesian War Surrender of Athens, B.C.E. Democracy [somewhat] re established Athenians look for a scapegoat and find one But conflict continued between Sparta and other poleis

30 Decline of the Greek States, B.C.E. Sparta Athens Thebes Persia

31 King Philip II, B.C.E.

32 Alexander the Great B.C.E. Tutored by Aristotle King of Macedonia from B.C.E. Greek city states revolt in 335 B.C.E. Crushed by Alexander Thebes burnt to the ground as an example to other poleis Fulfills Philip s dream

33 Alexander s Legacy The Hellenistic Age, B.C.E. Hellas = Greece Hellenic = Greek term used to apply specifically to Greece in the Archaic and Classical Periods Hellenistic = Monarchy Military strength, divine rule Culture Urbanism Art, architecture, language, literature

34 To the Strongest Three main successor states after the death of Alexander Antigonus ( B.C.E.) Macedon and much of Asia Minor Antigonid Dynasty lasts to 146 B.C.E. Seleucus (d. 281 B.C.E.) Syria and Mesopotamia Seleucid Syria lasts to 63 B.C.E. (d. 283 B.C.E.) Egypt Ptolemaic Egypt lasts to 30 B.C.E.

35 The Hellenistic Monarchies How did the Hellenistic Kings stay in power? Military Greek mercenaries Phalanx Elephants Siege machinery Ruling class Greeks and Macedonians of Greek Culture and that of Mesopotamia and Egypt An imperfect mixture Greek the language of business and government Ways of the East persisted Ptolemy II

36 The Social and Cultural Life of Greece The Cultural Life of Classical Greece Rational Thought and Philosophy Popular Religion and Greek Drama Hellenistic Philosophy and Religion

37 Women in Classical Athens The first woman: Pandora Women s life Women engaged in public life only at: Marriage Public funerals Religious Festivals Arranged by fathers when women were still young (as young as 5) Bride in her teens, husband about 30 years old Ceremony; I give this woman for the procreation of legitimate children Prostitution Hetairai, Symposium

38 Daily Life in Classical Athens The citizens of Athens Everyone else: Women Metics (resident aliens) Slaves Domestic slaves vs. state owned slaves

39 The Culture of Classical Greece: Drama Tragedy & Comedy Part of religious festivals Subject matter Myths and Legends from Greece s heroic past Aeschylus Oresteia Sophocles Oedipus Rex (c. 420 B.C.E.) Euripides (Iphigenia at Aulis at MCCC 11/10 11; 11/17 18, 2006) Aristophanes (c B.C.E.) Lysistrata

40 The Culture of Classical Greece: Philosophy Pioneers of Rational Thought What are the elements from which all material things are made? 6 th century B.C.E.: The Philosophers (also known as the Ionian School)

41 The Culture of Classical Greece: Philosophy Thales of Miletus, 6 th century B.C.E. 1 st Greek to predict an eclipse Water the basic element Leucippus and student Democritus, 5 th century B.C.E. The universe is made up of indivisible units =Atoms Hippocrates of Cos, 5 th century B.C.E. Environment and health Father of Medicine The Pre Socratic Philosophers Why are they called philosophers rather than scientists? Lovers of Wisdom

42 Greek Philosophy: Socrates, B.C.E. The Socratic Method Student: Public gadfly, condemned on charges of immorality Forced to drink hemlock Death of Socrates, Jacques Louis David, 1787; Metropolitan Museum, NY

43 Greek Philosophy: Plato, B.C.E. Systematized Socratic thought Dialogues The Academy The Republic What is the ideal government? Parable of the Cave Theory of Forms/Ideas

44 Greek Philosophy: Aristotle, B.C.E. Student of Scientific method Emphasis on empirical findings, reason Golden Mean [everything in moderation] Tutor of Massive impact on western thought

45 Hellenistic Philosophies Epicureans Pleasure, distinct from Hedonists Skeptics Doubted possibility of certainty in anything Stoics Duty, virtue, morality Emphasis on inner peace The Stoa in Athens

46 Greek Religion Polytheism Zeus principal god Festivals Ritual, Sacrifice, Prayer No body of dogma No special class of priests No consolation or promise of life after death Mystery Religions Temple of Apollo, Delphi

47 Hellenistic Religion Fusion with Eastern Gods and Cults Syncretism New Gods and Goddesses Mystery Religions Cult of Isis Initiation Hellenistic Cameo, 2 nd century B.C.E.

48 Culture in the Hellenistic World the center for Literature and Art Philosophy Theater History writing the center for science and medicine

49 Hellenistic Cities Alexandria Greek culture Polis Language Koine Greek Architecture Temples, theaters, baths, gymnasia, etc. Library, Museum Cities spread Hellenistic culture

50 Hellenistic Science With immense resources available Greek rulers were able to support researchers in many fields Library of Alexandria 700,000 scrolls (equivalent to about 50,000 books) Museum of Alexandria Aristarchus of Samos (c B.C.E.) Heliocentric view of the universe Eratosthenes of Cyrene (c B.C.E.) Earth round, circumference of 24,675 miles (actual circumference is 24,860 miles) Euclid (c. 300 B.C.E.) Elements

51 Hellenistic Science Other scientists: Archimedes of Syracuse ( B.C.E.) Archimedes Screw Value of pi Hydrostatics Doctors: Herophilus Erasistratus

52 The Jews in the Hellenistic Period The Jews in the Hellenistic World Judea struggle between Hellenism and Hebrew identity Part of the Ptolemaic and then the Seleucid Kingdom Seleucid King Antiochus IV ( B.C.E.) New policies of intolerance Led to war with Jews led by Judas Maccabaeus, 164 B.C.E. Hanukkah, Festival of Light Jewish Independence (until Roman Conquest in 63 B.C.E.)

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