LUMBAR LAMINECTOMY AND DISCECTOMY. Basic Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior View Lumbar Spine

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1 Lumbar Relating to the loins or the section of the back and sides between the ribs and the pelvis. In the spinal column, the last five vertebrae (from superior to inferior, L1-L5) Laminectomy Surgical removal of part or all of the posterior vertebral elements Discectomy The removal of all or part of an intervertebral disc Basic Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior View Lumbar Spine L1 Transverse Process Spinous Process L2 Facet Joint Lamina L3 L4 L5 Sacrum 31

2 Basic Anatomical Landmarks: Lumbar Spine Lumbar Spine Posterior View Vertebral Body, Endplate and Disc Anterior View Vertebral Body Lateral View Lumbar Vertebrae Superior View 32

3 Basic Anatomical Landmarks The posterior elements of the spine lie under these muscles. Superficial and Intermediate Layers of the Back Deep Muscles of the Back 33

4 Approach/Patient Positioning The patient is positioned in the prone position with abdomen free and spine flexed to aid in Intraoperative exposure. Anesthesia Station Microscope Fluoro Fluoro Monitors 34

5 Techniques 1. Standard Microdiscectomy 2. Transmuscular Microdiscectomy - (Minimally Invasive) 3. Intermuscular Discectomy Essentially all three of these procedures are intended to serve the same purpose: to remove all or part of the intervertebral disc. The differentiating factor between the procedures is the approach taken to create an exposure of the disc to be excised. All three involve a skin incision, resection of the subcutaneous tissue (fat), fascia, muscle and a laminectomy. 35

6 Technique: Standard Microdiscectomy The removal of all or part of an intervertebral disc. This technique involves stripping the muscles from the spinous process through a small skin incision followed by a laminectomy and then discectomy. Skin Spinous Process Lamina (Removal of this portion of bone is a laminectomy) Subcutaneous Tissue Fascia (thin membrane surrounding each muscle) Muscle Fascia Disc 36

7 Technique: Transmuscular (Muscle Splitting) The skin incision is made slightly off midline. The intramuscular approach enables the surgeon to access the spine in a less invasive fashion than a midline incision. It s considered minimally invasive because it preserves the posterior musculature of the spine. Incision Created for a Transmuscular Approach Muscle still attached to the Spinous Process Spinous Process Incision Site 37

8 Technique: Transmuscular (Muscle Splitting) This approach utilizes a technique of muscle splitting to access the spine. Essentially, a needle is inserted at the operative site and a series of tubular dilators are advanced over it to create an exposure large enough to perform the procedure through the appropriate size tube. 20-Gauge Needle Tubular Dilators 38

9 Technique: Transmuscular Discectomy Discectomy Performed through a Tube 39

10 Technique: Intermuscular/Paramedian Discectomy Intermuscular Microdiscectomy The removal of all or part of an intervertebral disc through a Wiltse incision Wiltse Incision Approach in which the surgeon dissects between the fascial planes of the longisimus and multifidus muscles 40

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