# THE HELICOIDAL SURFACES AS BONNET SURFACES

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1 Tδhoku Math. J. 40(1988) THE HELICOIDAL SURFACES AS BONNET SURFACES loannis M. ROUSSOS (Received May ) 1. Introduction. In this paper we deal with the following question: which surfaces in the Euclidean space E s admit a mean-curvaturepreserving isometry which is not an isometry of the whole space? This question has been studied by a series of mathematicians beginning with Bonnet [1] and including Car tan [2] and Chern [3]. These surfaces are special and have been classified into three types: 1. The surfaces of constant mean curvature other than the plane and the sphere; 2. Certain surfaces of nonconstant mean curvature that admit a one-parameter family of geometrically distinct nontrivial isometries; 3. Certain surfaces of nonconstant mean curvature that admit a single nontrivial isometry unique up to an isometry of the whole space. A surface that belongs to one of the above types is called a Bonnet surface. By a nontrivial isometry of a surface we mean an isometry of the surface to another surface or to itself which does not extend to an isometry of the whole space. Two isometries are said to be geometrically distinct if one is not the composition of the other followed by a spaceisometry. A kelicoidal surface in E z is the locus of an appropriately chosen curve under a helίcoίdal motion with pitch in the interval (0 oo). Such a motion is described by a one-parameter group of isometries in E 3. The orbits of this motion (helices) through the initial curve foliate the helicoidal surface. More details can be found in various places in the literature for instance in [4]. The main result of this work states: THEOREM. The helίcoίdal surfaces are necessarily Bonnet surfaces and they represent all three types. REMARKS. 1. The helicoidal surfaces of the third type provide a negative answer to the following conjecture posed by Lawson and Tribuzy [5]: We consider a Riemannian surface Σ and a smooth function H: Σ -> R.

2 486 I. M. ROUSSOS If a nontrivial family of isometric immersions with mean curvature H does not exist then there are at most two noncongruent ones. Then the conjecture states: "In the absence of a nontrivial family the immersion must be unique." (see Final comment 2 in [5].) 2. By the main result in [5] the Bonnet surfaces of the second type cannot be compact. 3. It seems that not all Bonnet surfaces of the third type are helicoidal surfaces since a helicoidal surface is determined by one realvalued function of one variable while the Bonnet surfaces of the third type depend on four functions of one variable ([2]) and therefore have a greater degree of generality. 4. The helicoidal surfaces of the first type have been thoroughly examined in [4] along with their isometric deformation under preservation of the constant mean curvature. Our arguments here lead to the following new interesting geometric characterization of them: A helicoidal surface has constant mean curvature if and only if its principal directions make an angle constant with the orbits. At this point I wish to express my gratitude to my academic advisor Professor William Pohl for his valuable guidance. 2. The Equations of Codazzi. We consider a surface M 2 in E z orientable and sufficiently smooth. We consider a well-defined field of orthonormal frames (x e[ e[ e 3 ) over M 2 such that x e M 2 and e[ e' 2 comprise an orthonormal basis of the tangent space of M 2 at x. Then we have Via = -VH f ( so Vu = 0) 3 ji = Σ Va Λ η s (first structural equation) dvij = Σ Vik Λ yjko (second structural equation) fc=l where 1 ^ i j ^ 3. η z = 0 on M 2 so we have η iz f\y] x + f]^ Λ % 0 Thus by Cartan's lemma we get. V» = a Vi + bη 2 V» = b Vi + &J* Then the mean and Gaussian curvatures of M 2 are

3 HELICOIDAL SURFACES 487 We also have 2 V ' M K = ac - b 2 (Gauss Equation) (GE). dvta = Vn Λ %3 = bdv 2 + cdvλ \ (Codazzi Equations) (CE). dy 2 s V21 Λ )?i3 = αα^2 bdη 1 ) A given Riemannian surface can be realized in E s if the CE and GE are satisfied. We now let e 1 = (cos σ)e[ + (sin σ)e 2 e 2 = (sin σ)e[ + (cos cr)e2 be the principal frame of M 2. For this frame the function b defined by (1) is zero and α c are the principal curvatures. In the sequel we consider M 2 with no umbilic points. We may then assume for the principal curvatures a and c that a > c and we put Working in a manner similar to the one in [3] after putting φ = 2σ and using the above we can show that the CE are equivalent to ( 2 ) dh = Hfl x + H 2 η 2 (thus defining H lf H 2 ) (3) dφ= -(sin Φ)(^Vi - ψv) + (cos Φ)(-ψvi + ^ - *d log J - 2η 12 where * is the Hodge operator whose action on the 1-forms is described by *3?i = 72> *V*= -Vi (* 2== ""I) 3. Some facts about helicoidal surfaces. Every helicoidal surface can be parametrized by (s t) where t: time along orbits from a fixed t = t 0 s: arc-length of curves orthogonal to orbits. Then the curves t = constant are carried along the orbits by the helicoidal motion. They remain orthogonal to the orbits and foliate the surface. So an orthonormal frame {e[ e 2 } is determined along these co-

4 488 I.M. ROUSSOS ordinate curves. Thus The corresponding coframe may be written as Vi = ds V2 = q(s)dt (q depends only on s). Vn = Hence the ^-curves are geodesies and the %-curves (orbits) have geodesic curvature equal to Along each orbit α c μ φ are constant hence they depend on s only. So in this case we get H 2 = 0. Also if we put dj = J 1 Ύ] 1 + J 2^2 we get J 2 = 0 and d log J = (JJJ)7j t. Hence (3) becomes cz^ = -(sin 0)(^7i) + (cos Φ)(ψvl) - y^ - Since d^ = (dφ/ds)ds this implies (4) Finally by direct computation or by well known facts about curves on surfaces and depending on which vector (e[ or e' 2 ) is the major principal axis we get: The space curvature of orbits is either (6 ) {μ 2 + (α(cos 2 σ) + c (sin 2 <τ)) 2 } 1/2 or {μ 2 + (α(sin 2 σ) + c (cos 2 <τ)) 2 } 1/2 and the space torsion of orbits is ±(α c)(smσ)(cosσ). 4. Proof of the Theorem. The Theorem follows from the next two propositions. We consider a helicoidal surface parametrized by the parameters (s t) of Section 3. We have: PROPOSITION 1. For a helicoidal surface the mapping (s t)-+(s t) is a nontrivial isometry which preserves the mean curvature. PROOF. By what is exhibited in Section 3 this mapping is an

5 HELICOIDAL SURFACES 489 isometry which preserves the mean curvature. An isometry is trivial in general if and only if it preserves the mean curvatures and the principal directions. Thus in this case the above mapping is trivial if and only if σ is a multiple of π/2. Then by (6) we get that the orbits are plane curves which is impossible for a helicoidal surface. q.e.d. PROPOSITION 2. A helicoidal surface is a Bonnet surface of the second type if and only if the following relation is satisfied: ldh\ IdHV dh A it - il (cosφ(s)) + d±dlog(\q(s)\) = Q ds\ J I \ J / J ds with H = H(s) nonconstant. Since this relation may be viewed as an ordinary differential equation for the real-valued function which determines the helicoidal surface under the helicoidal motion the existence of such a surface is guaranteed by the local existence theorem for solutions of an ordinary differential equation. REFEREE'S REMARK. The equation in Proposition 2 is equivalent to: J-ifiψ)-(Bin φ( 8 ))-q(8) = constant \ ds ' with H = H(s) nonconstant. Using (4) the equation can be integrated. PROOF. coframe We consider σ σ(s) as in Section 2 and the principal ω 1 = (cos σ(s))ds + (sin σ(s))q(s)dt ω 2 = (sin σ(s))ds + (cos σ(s))q(s)dt. We define H 19 H 2 by putting dh H 1 ω ι + H 2 ω 2. We set a = (HJJ)ω - (HJJ)ω 2 a 2 = (HJJ)ω 1 + (HJJ)ω 2. Chern has shown in [3] that the criterion for the existence of the Bonnet surfaces of the second type is: da x = 0 and da 2 = a x A a 2. Substituting the formulas for ω 19 ω 2 into those of a lf a 2 and using (4) in Section 3 it is a matter of direct computation to verify that: da λ 0 and da 2 = α x Λ a 2 simultaneously if and only if the relation claimed is satisfied. q.e.d.

6 490 I. M. ROUSSOS We conclude this work with the following geometric characterization of the helicoidal surfaces of the first type: PROPOSITION 3. A helicoidal surface has constant mean curvature if and only if its principal directions make an angle constant with the orbits. PROOF. Immediate consequence of (4) and (6) in Section 3. q.e.d. REFERENCES [1] O. BONNET Memoire sur la theorie des surfaces applicables J. c. Polyt. 42 (1867) [2] E. CARTAN Sur les couples de surfaces applicables avec conservation des courbures principales Bull. Sci. Math. 66 (1942) 1-30 or Oeuvres Completes Partie III vol [3] S.-S. CHERN Deformation of surfaces preserving principal curvatures Diff. Geom. and Complex Analysis H. E. Rauch Memorial Volume Springer-Verlag (1985) [ 4 ] M. P. Do CARMO AND M. DAJCZER Helicoidal surfaces with constant mean curvature Tόhoku Math. J. 34 (1982) [5] H.B. LAWSON JR. AND RENATO DE A. TRIBUZY On the mean curvature function for compact surfaces J. of Diff. Geom. 16 (1981) [ 6 ] I. M. Roussos Mean-Curvature-Preserving-Isometries of Surfaces in Ordinary Space Ph. D. Thesis University of Minnesota March UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS MINNEAPOLIS MINNESOTA U.S.A. (NEW ADDRESS) UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS FACULTY COURT SOUTH NUMBER THREE MOBILE ALABAMA U.S.A.

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