# FLOWSTAR-Energy Validation NoordZee Wind Farm

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1 FLOWSTAR-Energy Validation NoordZee Wind Farm Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants (CERC) Ltd January 26 Introduction FLOWSTAR-Energy 5. NoordZee is an offshore wind farm in Denmark. A FLOWSTAR-Energy model of the wind farm was compared with measurements of the power deficit for each turbine. 2 Input Data 2. Study Area The NoordZee wind farm is an offshore wind farm consisting of 36 V9 VESTAS 9m, 3MW wind turbines. Each turbine has diameter 9m and hub height 7m. The turbine layout is an irregular grid, with 4 SE-NW columns containing an unequal number of turbines. The spacing between turbines in each column is 7D (where D is the turbine diameter), apart from an D spacing between turbines 4 and 5 in columns 2, 3 and 4. The wind farm layout is shown in Figure. The turbine power and thrust curves are given in Figure 2. Figure Layout of wind turbines in the NoordZee wind farm. Distance unit is metres; (,) is the location of turbine wt. Arrow shows the wind direction case for which turbine measurements are available. /6

2 FLOWSTAR-Energy Validation Ct Cp Power (kw) Wind speed (m/s) Figure 2 Power output (kw). Power coefficient C p and thrust coefficient C T as a function of inflow wind speed for the V9 VESTAS 3MW turbines installed at the NoordZee wind farm. The measurement data available for the wind farm are mean power output at each turbine for one wind direction case, 39±2.5 degrees, for three hub height wind speed cases: 6, 8 andm/s. 2.2 Model setup The inputs to FLOWSTAR-Energy were as follows: 36 turbine sources, locations as shown in Figure Turbine height 7m Turbine diameter 9m C p as a function of wind speed (see Figure 2) C T as a function of wind speed (see Figure 2) Output receptors at each turbine location at hub height 3 flow cases: U=6, 8 and m/s Wind direction 39 degrees, no wind direction averaging Boundary layer height 8m, ground heat flux W/m 2, i.e. neutral conditions Surface roughness.m Output is power deficit at each receptor (i.e. turbine location) for each flow case, with reference to the power output available from the upstream flow. 3 Results Below are graphs of observed and modelled normalised power at each turbine for each of the three flow cases. The observed value for each turbine in a particular column is the power produced by that turbine divided by the power produced by the upstream turbine in that column (turbine for columns and 2, turbine 2 for column 3 and turbine 3 for column 4). The same is true for the modelled values, but because the model assumes spatially-uniform upstream flow the power produced by the upstream turbines is the same. 2/6

3 Power deficit (with reference to turbine wt) Power deficit (with reference to turbine wt) FLOWSTAR-Energy Validation : FC6; Vhub=6m/s; Wind direction 39+/-2.5 deg Observed : FC6; Vhub=6m/s; Wind direction 39+/-2.5 deg Modelled.2.2 Col # Col # Figure 3 U = 6 m/s: Observed (left) and modelled (right) normalised power at each turbine. 3/6

4 Power deficit (with reference to turbine wt) Power deficit (with reference to turbine wt) FLOWSTAR-Energy Validation : FC8; Vhub=8m/s; Wind direction 39+/-2.5 deg Observed : FC8; Vhub=8m/s; Wind direction 39+/-2.5 deg Modelled.2.2 Col # Col # Figure 4 U = 8 m/s: Observed (left) and modelled (right) normalised power at each turbine. 4/6

5 Power deficit (with reference to turbine wt) Power deficit (with reference to turbine wt) FLOWSTAR-Energy Validation : FC; Vhub=m/s; Wind direction 39+/-2.5 deg Observed : FC; Vhub=m/s; Wind direction 39+/-2.5 deg Modelled.2.2 Col # Col # Figure 5 U = m/s: Observed (left) and modelled (right) normalised power at each turbine. 5/6

6 FLOWSTAR-Energy Validation 4 Discussion The model generally agrees well with observations; in particular it captures well the increase in production between turbines 4 and 5 in columns 2, 3 and 4 due to the larger spacing between turbines 4 and 5 in these columns. For the 6 and 8 m/s flow cases the model captures well the sharp decline in power production between the first and second turbines in each column, and then the more gradual reduction in power production through the wind farm due to the effect of the wakes. However for the m/s flow case the observations show the same sharp reduction in power production between the first and second turbines in each column, but then an unexplained gradual increase through the wind farm, which is not simulated by the model. 5 Acknowledgements CERC is very grateful to Kurt Schaldemose Hansen of DTU s Wind Energy department for providing the measured data and wind farm specification presented in this report during the course of the EU s FP6 TOPFARM project, in which CERC and DTU were both partners. 6/6

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