NATO s relations with the states of the former. Soviet Union

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "NATO s relations with the states of the former. Soviet Union"

Transcription

1 1 NATO s relations with the states of the former Soviet Union CIOR, February 4 th, 2013, Isabelle Facon, FRS (Paris) This presentation will deal with the relations between NATO on the one hand, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, the three South Caucasus states, the five Central Asian republics on the other hand. There is a wide range of cooperation schemes among the 12 countries concerned, two of them having almost no cooperation with NATO (Belarus and Turkmenistan), one being a candidate to NATO membership Georgia 1. Indeed, joining NATO is not an option for most of these states marks the 20 th birthday of NATO s Partnership for Peace (PfP), which was born in January 1994, and has been for most of these states the centerpiece of their cooperation with the Alliance. The spirit of this endeavor is that each partner nation determines its own level of participation, key axes of which are: to stimulate defense and security sector reform in the partner countries, including democratization aspects; to improve transparency practices in setting defense plans and budgets; to conduct training and military education initiatives; to prepare some units interoperable enough with NATO forces to be able to interact with them in NATO-led operations. Several countries in the area have signed Individual Partnership Action Plans (IPAPs) with NATO, IPAP being the most advanced form of cooperation for NATO partners, whereby the two sides agree on a detailed program of security sector reform Georgia (the first to do so, in 2004), Azerbaijan, Armenia (2005), Kazakhstan (2006), Moldova (2006). 1 Ukraine opted for a non bloc status in 2010.

2 2 Contents of cooperation In general cooperation has remained relatively limited. The pattern and the context of cooperation have evolved over the years. Initially it was more about establishing political ties with countries that were completely new on the world map and in the process of building up defense and security sectors of their own from scratch. It appeared all the more necessary to establish political and security dialogue with these states that the situation in the whole area was very unpredictable and many security challenges needed to be tackled there. By that time, there was also strong hope to use the Partnership for Peace as an instrument for encouraging the expansion of liberal, democratic values. Later on, a phase of consolidation came the partnership policy has grown more specific, focused on meeting the needs of a more global NATO, increasingly oriented towards fighting threats outside the Euro-Atlantic area are but undermining its security. For their part, the partner states have consolidated their foreign and security policies and know better what they want and do not want to do in their cooperation with NATO. The more idealistic goal of spreading NATO values has become less prominent as NATO has expected its partners to be able to contribute to its operations, primarily in Afghanistan, which has in recent years become the main determinant of the cooperation between NATO and its Central Asian and Caucasian partners. All three South Caucasian states and three out of the five Central Asian states (but Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) take part in the PARP (Planning and Review Process) a PfP tool which is supposed to provide a structured basis to identify a partner s forces and capabilities that could be usefully made available to NATO for multinational training, exercises and, ultimately, operations. Several of these countries have been contributors to NATO operations (although often with small numbers of troops). Armenia has provided troops for the peacekeeping mission in

3 3 Kosovo and sent soldiers to Afghanistan; KAZBAT, the peacekeeping battalion that Kazakhstan has built up with NATO assistance 2, has deployed in Iraq for a demining mission. Astana even considered sending troops to Afghanistan. General Secretary Rasmussen last January thanked Azerbaijani president Alyev for his country s sending troops to Afghanistan; Azerbaijan was the first state in the former Soviet Union to contribute troops to KFOR. Georgia also participated to KFOR and to ISAF and is now set to contribute to the NRF. Ukrainian troops have participated in KFOR as well, and the Ukrainian navy has contributed ships to operation Active Endeavour in the Mediterranean Sea. The Afghanistan operation has been a key issue in NATO s developing relations with Central Asian states and to a lesser extent with the South Caucasian countries in recent years. One may remember that the first visit of a NATO Secretary General in the South Caucasus did not happen before 2004 (NATO entered the Afghan stage in 2003); in addition, it was also only in 2004 that NATO decided to appoint a Special Representative for the Caucasus and Central Asia. NATO has strengthened its political and military ties to these countries; in this perspective, the ties that had been established since 1994 in the PfP framework have certainly helped. Many countries of the former Soviet Union have provided various forms of assistance that have been more or less important to NATO s operations in Afghanistan. No central Asian republic has sent troops to Afghanistan, but South Caucasian states have. Over-flight and transit lines have been set up in the framework of the Northern Distribution Network. Several states have contributed to the training of the Afghan security forces. Central Asian republics have opened access to military bases and facilities on their territory to a number of NATO members (United States, Germany, France) 2 It is supposed to become a brigade but the process is rather slow.

4 4 Special role of certain NATO members in developing the partnerships Depending on their foreign policy agenda and motivated by their geopolitical ambitions or/and affinities, some NATO member states have been instrumental in ensuring a tangible NATO footprint in the security sector of the partner countries. For example Turkey has been willing to help the Caucasian and Central Asian states in order to sustain the idea that it has a special influence in these areas which are in its neighborhood and for most Central Asian republics and Azerbaijan with states with which it shares a common cultural, linguistic and historical background. Turkey modernized the Georgian Marneuli air base and was very active in helping to establish the Georgian Military Academy. It has multifaceted military and security cooperation with Azerbaijan, and has contributed to train and equip the armed forces of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizstan. Poland and the Baltic states, which have always promoted the Euro-Atlantic course of Kyiv and Tbilisi, have been especially active in helping the rapprochement between NATO on the one hand, Ukraine and Georgia on the other hand, and have been very present in PfP initiatives towards these two countries. The United States has helped Kazakhstan build up its KazBat, previously mentioned in this paper. How do these NATO partners assess the benefits / pros & conses of the relationship? After stressing that cooperation has in recent years been largely geared towards meeting the requirements of NATO in its various operations, one may wonder what the benefits for the partner countries are. In the first place, most of them feel they are located in a very vulnerable security landscape. For them the possibility to consult with NATO on issues of common concern appears (terrorism, border security ) important. Secondly, most of these states lack

5 5 experience in military affairs and resources in building up their military infrastructure and capabilities, therefore they appreciate the free training that they receive in taking part in PfP programs and exercises; the possibility PfP offers to get acquainted with modern military practices, procedures, conceptual approaches; the participation in NATO training and education courses If we take the example of Armenia: since this country signed an IPAP in 2005 there has been an acceleration of its cooperation with NATO, which has been extended to the drafting of its military doctrine, cooperation in military education, the modernization of communication and control systems, but also human resources management, training professional sergeants The partner states have also appreciated some initiatives which have made a difference in their security landscape and in which they benefited by NATO technical and financial assistance. This is the case, in particular, of the trust fund projects which have been in existence since 2000 and have allowed for the destruction of mines, surplus ammunition, small arms, military systems (Tajikistan, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan ). From another perspective, it should be noted that participating in the Northern Distribution Network has been a substantial source of revenues for the states involved 3 A key point to keep in mind is that cooperation and relations with NATO have been a foreign policy resource for many of the partner states. All these states, as newcomers in international relations, have considered that partnership with NATO can only increase their visibility on the world stage. Some of them Kazakhstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, in particular have been pursuing a multivector foreign policy in order to increase their margins for maneuver in relation with Russia. Having a constant partnership with NATO is a contribution to this strategy. When Georgia (and, in the not so distant past, Ukraine) contributes troops to NATO operations, it does it primarily out of a desire to promote its case as a candidate. When Azerbaijani president proclaims, as Alyev did last January, that Azerbaijani-NATO relations 3 The DoD said it makes about $500 million in payments annually to the Central Asian republics participating in the NDN.

6 6 have been elevated to the level of strategic partnership, it is partly an answer to increasing Russian pressure in recent months, partly a way to tell Armenia, which has just decided to join the Russian-dominated customs union, that its foreign and security policy is much less constrained and under pressure than Yerevan s. Constraints and limitations But again, overall, cooperation between NATO and former Soviet Union countries has remained quite limited. A first limitation is tied to the fact that NATO/FSU relations have been overshadowed by the Russia factor. Russia itself has quite a comprehensive cooperation agenda with NATO. It is often forgotten that Russia was involved in NATO s peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and in Kosovo; it has also participated to the transit of NATO freight through Russian territory for the ISAF mission and to the training of Afghan security forces; counter-terrorism cooperation, anti-piracy, air trafficking security, Afghanistan, search and rescue at sea are all parts of the Russia-NATO cooperation agenda under the auspices of the NATO-Russian Council Cooperation with Russia is seen as useful by a number of NATO members. But this relationship is highly politicized and one of the major contention bones has been, precisely, NATO s role in the FSU. This area indeed has become a field of competition between Russia and NATO (and the EU, as the current Ukrainian crisis has revealed). The Georgia war came as a very painful symptom of such competition. The US is now paying less attention but under the Bush administration, the US government advised some of these countries (not only Georgia and Ukraine) to declare an interest in joining NATO i (despite the opposition of some NATO members). This has contributed to make Russia even more anxious about NATO s open doors policy. Georgia has paid a high price for it in 2008: with what the EU called a disproportionate military reaction and its subsequent decision to recognize South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states,

7 7 Russia demonstrated that there are limits to NATO s enlargement in the post-soviet space (a few months before, NATO members declared, at the Bucharest summit in April 2008, that Georgia would join NATO in the future). Now it seems clear that despite the wording on Georgia s potential membership being retained in official documents, there is no appetite for that. In all likelihood, consensus would be difficult to obtain, since France, Germany and Italy are quite skeptical about the idea (Paris and Berlin blocked granting the MAP to Georgia in 2008). NATO feels that, with countries that are CSTO members, such as Armenia and Kazakhstan, CSTO membership complicates their cooperation with NATO and constrains their political integration with the Alliance. Besides, one reason why NATO does not want to establish formal cooperation with CSTO, which, in addition, it sees as non-democratic and ineffective, is that it sees it as a tool for Russia to assert its sphere of influence in the post- Soviet space. At the same time, the absence of any NATO-CSTO connection will continue to weigh negatively on CSTO members cooperation with NATO. Another problem is that NATO has a credibility problem. It has made clear it does not want a role in solving the frozen conflicts in the region, which is undermining its authority in the eyes of the countries, for which these conflicts are at the core of their security interests. The absence of a strong reaction on NATO s part during the Georgia war has only strengthened this vision. Partners see that NATO is in Afghanistan, far from its traditional zone of responsibility, and has not been able or willing to play a part in post-soviet unresolved conflicts. For them, it is clear that it means that NATO does not want to take responsibility for the security of the region. Another important limitation is the values gap between NATO members and most of these countries. Of course, pragmatism and the need to work with partners to tackle urgent security challenges have often made this stake secondary. For example, focused as it has been on the logistical and other needs related to its Afghanistan operation, NATO has reduced the

8 8 insistence on its normative agenda in recent years. Azerbaijan is not the most democratic state on the world stage but a number of NATO members see this country s energy resources as potentially helpful in Europe s effort to become less dependent on Russian energy. It seems it has made the Alliance more patient with this player, which has already signed several IPAPs. However, the authoritarian character of most of these states is an invisible barrier to more serious cooperation if only because their leaders will always be cautious in developing ties with an organization which they tend to see as a tool of Western regime change policy (this is typically the case for Azerbaijan). NATO, in addition, will always be distrustful because of the opportunistic nature of such regimes, which can make them unreliable in their foreign policy priorities (and their cooperation unstable). To conclude, the most pressing question is certainly about the possible evolution of these relationships after the end of the ISAF operation, which has prevented NATO, in recent years, from devoting sufficient attention to the role of partners outside the Afghanistan context. At its Lisbon summit in 2010, NATO emphasized the need to make the partnership policy more efficient and more functional. But here, NATO has some homework to do because the realization of this ambition has been hampered by disagreements among NATO members about the direction, forms and goals of the partnership policy. This reflects, by the way, the Alliance s vivid internal debate about the transformation of NATO and of its core functions i Ahto Lobjakas, «NATO Lacks the Stomach for South Caucasus Fight», Caucasus Analytical Digest, 05/09, p. 3.

Prospects for the NATO Warsaw Summit Testimony before the U.S. Helsinki Commission By Hans Binnendijk June 23, 2016

Prospects for the NATO Warsaw Summit Testimony before the U.S. Helsinki Commission By Hans Binnendijk June 23, 2016 Prospects for the NATO Warsaw Summit Testimony before the U.S. Helsinki Commission By Hans Binnendijk June 23, 2016 NATO is anything but obsolete. It is needed more now than at any point since the end

More information

FINANCING AND PLACE OF THE BULGARIAN ARMY IN THE OPERATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT

FINANCING AND PLACE OF THE BULGARIAN ARMY IN THE OPERATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT Management and Economics 307 FINANCING AND PLACE OF THE BULGARIAN ARMY IN THE OPERATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT Elitsa PETROVA elitsasd@abv.bg Nikolay NICHEV National Military University, Veliko

More information

INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN *

INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN * INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN * In this exclusive interview with TPQ, the Honorable Secretary General provides an overview of the major developments of the past two years in Turkey s neighborhood,

More information

partner organizations in Patient Safety and patient-centered healthcare European and Asian countries

partner organizations in Patient Safety and patient-centered healthcare European and Asian countries Initiative aims to carry out exchange meetings and consolidate efforts of partner organizations in Patient Safety and patient-centered healthcare principles implementation in Eastern European and Asian

More information

The Foreign Policy of Ukraine

The Foreign Policy of Ukraine The Foreign Policy of Ukraine One Year After the Orange Revolution PONARS Policy Memo No. 372 Volodymyr Dubovyk Odessa National University December 2005 It has been a year since the Orange Revolution in

More information

From Blind Love to Strategic Alliance?

From Blind Love to Strategic Alliance? From Blind Love to Strategic Alliance? BALTIC-GEORGIAN RELATIONS REVISITED PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 201 June 2012 Kornely Kakachia Tbilisi State University Since the restoration of independence,

More information

I am grateful for this opportunity to address the UN Security Council.

I am grateful for this opportunity to address the UN Security Council. Mr. President Excellencies, I am grateful for this opportunity to address the UN Security Council. The point that I wish to make today is simply put. The UN and the OSCE, as the largest and most inclusive

More information

EU Global Strategy: Role and Engagement of Eastern Partners in European Security. Conference Report March 2016 Vilnius, Lithuania

EU Global Strategy: Role and Engagement of Eastern Partners in European Security. Conference Report March 2016 Vilnius, Lithuania EU Global Strategy: Role and Engagement of Eastern Partners in European Security Conference Report March 2016 Vilnius, Lithuania The International Security Experts Conference EU Global Strategy: Role and

More information

The Espoo regime. And why it is relevant for river basins, including that of the Mekong River Basin (MRB)?

The Espoo regime. And why it is relevant for river basins, including that of the Mekong River Basin (MRB)? The Espoo regime And why it is relevant for river basins, including that of the Mekong River Basin (MRB)? Story line What is the Espoo regime? The way the Espoo regime promotes holistic views on developing

More information

UNDERSTANDING NATO THE ORIGINS OF THE ALLIANCE

UNDERSTANDING NATO THE ORIGINS OF THE ALLIANCE UNDERSTANDING NATO THE ORIGINS OF THE ALLIANCE In the aftermath of the Second World War, East and West Europe found themselves separated by the ideological and political divisions of the Cold War. Eastern

More information

North Atlantic Council. 1 st Topic: NATO s Enlargement Process

North Atlantic Council. 1 st Topic: NATO s Enlargement Process North Atlantic Council 1 st Topic: NATO s Enlargement Process TOPIC AREA A: NATO s Enlargement Process TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Introduction 3 Past NATO enlargements 4 The Enlargement Process 7 The current

More information

The profile of NEETs and policy measures in ETF Partner Countries

The profile of NEETs and policy measures in ETF Partner Countries The profile of NEETs and policy measures in ETF Partner Countries Keeping Young People in Employment, Education and/or Training: Common challenges - Shared Solutions MADLEN SERBAN, ETF DIRECTOR Bucharest,

More information

Comprehensive report on the NATO/EAPC policy on the implementation of UNSCR 1325 on women, peace and security and related resolutions

Comprehensive report on the NATO/EAPC policy on the implementation of UNSCR 1325 on women, peace and security and related resolutions NATO Comprehensive report on the NATO/EAPC policy on the implementation of UNSCR 1325 on women, peace and security and related resolutions 1. Background 1.1. Adopted by the United Nations in October 2000,

More information

At the same time, the Ministers agreed that all sides need to fully respect the ceasefire and provide the Organization for Security and Cooperation

At the same time, the Ministers agreed that all sides need to fully respect the ceasefire and provide the Organization for Security and Cooperation Joint Communique of the Weimar Triangle Foreign Ministers Frank-Walter Steinmeier (Germany), Laurent Fabius (France), and Grzegorz Schetyna (Poland) Wrocław, April 3, 2015 The Foreign Ministers of the

More information

Active Engagement, Modern Defence

Active Engagement, Modern Defence Strategic Concept For the Defence and Security of The Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Adopted by Heads of State and Government in Lisbon Active Engagement, Modern Defence Preface We,

More information

NATO-Enlargement After the Riga Summit

NATO-Enlargement After the Riga Summit Nr. 32/2006 November 2006 NATO-Enlargement After the Riga Summit Karl-Heinz Kamp Although the subject of NATO enlargement will not take central stage at the NATO Riga summit, the membership question remains

More information

Jürgen Menner is University education in Mathematics

Jürgen Menner is University education in Mathematics 142 Jürgen Menner is University education in Mathematics (MSc) and Electrical Engineering (MSc). Officer of the Army Maintenance Corps. German and Brazilian general staff officer s training. Assistant

More information

Russia: Speaker of the House Threatens to Destroy the World with Secret "Tsunami-WMD"

Russia: Speaker of the House Threatens to Destroy the World with Secret Tsunami-WMD http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahfzbqyr2fs Russia: Speaker of the House Threatens to Destroy the World with Secret "Tsunami-WMD" This is an interview that Speaker Zhyrinovsky gave to TV station in Georgia.

More information

U.S. POLICY IN THE BLACK SEA REGION

U.S. POLICY IN THE BLACK SEA REGION U.S. POLICY IN THE BLACK SEA REGION From the U.S. point of view, NATO is and will remain the premier provider of security for the Euro-Atlantic region, which includes the Black Sea. Far from seeking to

More information

ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT IN COOPERATIVE SECURITY: A MORE EFFICIENT AND FLEXIBLE PARTNERSHIP POLICY

ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT IN COOPERATIVE SECURITY: A MORE EFFICIENT AND FLEXIBLE PARTNERSHIP POLICY I. Introduction ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT IN COOPERATIVE SECURITY: A MORE EFFICIENT AND FLEXIBLE PARTNERSHIP POLICY 1. Over the past two decades, NATO has reached out to partners to help build cooperative security

More information

National Security Concept of Georgia. Introduction

National Security Concept of Georgia. Introduction National Security Concept of Georgia Georgia s citizens firm will is to establish a democratic social order, economic freedom, a Rule of Law- based social state, to secure universally recognized human

More information

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON CFE INTRODUCTION

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON CFE INTRODUCTION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON CFE INTRODUCTION President Putin s speech of 26 April 2007 and subsequent statements of Russian officials have focused attention on the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces

More information

EFFECTS OF FINLAND'S POSSIBLE NATO MEMBERSHIP. 21 December 2007

EFFECTS OF FINLAND'S POSSIBLE NATO MEMBERSHIP. 21 December 2007 EFFECTS OF FINLAND'S POSSIBLE NATO MEMBERSHIP 21 December 2007 Translation from Finnish into English EFFECTS OF FINLAND'S POSSIBLE NATO MEMBERSHIP Ambassador Antti Sierla 21 December 2007 2 Contents 1.

More information

Does NATO s Article V Genuinely Protect Its Members?

Does NATO s Article V Genuinely Protect Its Members? Does NATO s Article V Genuinely Protect Its Members? NATO has been the most successful alliance of history. We repeat this truth quite frequently, especially now that we celebrate 60 years of its successful

More information

The Double Democratic Deficit Parliamentary Accountability and the Use of Force under International Auspices

The Double Democratic Deficit Parliamentary Accountability and the Use of Force under International Auspices The Double Democratic Deficit Parliamentary Accountability and the Use of Force under International Auspices Hans Born, Senior Fellow, DCAF Geneva Brussels, 29 April 2004 Presentation given at the Book

More information

Active Engagement, Modern Defence - Strategic Concept for the Defence and Security of the Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1010

Active Engagement, Modern Defence - Strategic Concept for the Defence and Security of the Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1010 1 Modern security environment contains a broad and evolving set of challenges to the security of NATO s territory and populations. In order to assure their security, the Alliance must and will continue

More information

ROAD TO NATO: SHARING INTEGRATION AND MEMBERSHIP EXPERIENCE ECONOMIC NATO

ROAD TO NATO: SHARING INTEGRATION AND MEMBERSHIP EXPERIENCE ECONOMIC NATO ROAD TO NATO: SHARING INTEGRATION AND MEMBERSHIP EXPERIENCE ECONOMIC NATO ROAD TO NATO: SHARING INTEGRATION AND MEMBERSHIP EXPERIENCE ECONOMIC NATO The NATO Week 2014, held in Tbilisi in the week of April

More information

Kazakhstan : NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR INVESTMENTS

Kazakhstan : NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR INVESTMENTS Kazakhstan : NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR INVESTMENTS Agenda I. Why Kazakhstan is attractive for investors? II. Investing in Kazakhstan III. Contact details Why Kazakhstan is attractive for investors 1. Natural

More information

Dr.Karoly Gruber (Szechenyi Istvan University of Gyor, Hungary): The European Union, Central Europe and Russia: Cooperation and/or containment?

Dr.Karoly Gruber (Szechenyi Istvan University of Gyor, Hungary): The European Union, Central Europe and Russia: Cooperation and/or containment? Dr.Karoly Gruber (Szechenyi Istvan University of Gyor, Hungary): The European Union, Central Europe and Russia: Cooperation and/or containment? Perspectives on Political Transformation in Central and Eastern

More information

Helsinki Additional Meeting of the CSCE Council. 24 March 1992. Summary of Conclusions

Helsinki Additional Meeting of the CSCE Council. 24 March 1992. Summary of Conclusions CSCE FIRST ADDITIONAL MEETING OF THE COUNCIL HELSINKI 1992 Helsinki Additional Meeting of the CSCE Council 24 March 1992 Summary of Conclusions I. 1. The Council of the CSCE held its First Additional Meeting

More information

Home Security: Russia s Challenges

Home Security: Russia s Challenges Home Security: Russia s Challenges A Russian Perspective Andrei Fedorov * Home security: Russia s challenges Home security and the struggle against terrorism is one of the most crucial issues for the Russian

More information

Chicago Summit Declaration

Chicago Summit Declaration Chicago Summit Declaration Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Chicago on 20 May 2012 Press Release (2012) 062 Issued on 20 May. 2012

More information

Women s Employability in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

Women s Employability in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Women s Employability in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Outi Kärkkäinen, European Training Foundation (ETF) Local employment, skills and entrepreneurship strategies in the Mediterranean: developing

More information

The OSCE Chairmanship: Development of an Institution 1

The OSCE Chairmanship: Development of an Institution 1 Piotr Switalski The OSCE Chairmanship: Development of an Institution 1 Political Executive as the OSCE's Distinctive Feature The institution of the Chairmanship constitutes a central element of the OSCE's

More information

Ukraine Document Based Question (DBQ) Central Question: What is happening in Ukraine?

Ukraine Document Based Question (DBQ) Central Question: What is happening in Ukraine? Ukraine Document Based Question (DBQ) Central Question: What is happening in Ukraine? Map of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during the Cold War: Located in Eastern Europe, Ukraine became a part of

More information

International Relations Networking of the Austrian Armed Forces

International Relations Networking of the Austrian Armed Forces International Relations Networking of the Austrian Armed Forces Address given by General Roland ERTL Chief of General Staff, Austrian Armed Forces Ladies and Gentlemen, distinguished guests, The Austrian

More information

The Future of the ENP

The Future of the ENP Open Europe Programme Warsaw, June 2015 The Future of the ENP Some remarks and recommendations Grzegorz Gromadzki (Stefan Batory Foundation) Bastian Sendhardt (Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Representation

More information

Chicago Summit Declaration

Chicago Summit Declaration Chicago Summit Declaration Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Chicago on 20 May 2012 Press Release (2012) 062 Issued on 20 May. 2012

More information

National Qualifications Frameworks and Recognition of Prior Learning. Michael Graham, European Training Foundation, Zagreb 6 December 2012

National Qualifications Frameworks and Recognition of Prior Learning. Michael Graham, European Training Foundation, Zagreb 6 December 2012 National Qualifications Frameworks and Recognition of Prior Learning Michael Graham, European Training Foundation, Zagreb 6 December 2012 Themes The EU and validation National Qualifications Frameworks(NQFs)

More information

Masters in Middle East, Caucasus and Central Asian Security Studies

Masters in Middle East, Caucasus and Central Asian Security Studies International Relations - MECCASS - MLitt & MPhil - 2016/7 - December 2016 Masters in Middle East, Caucasus and Central Asian Security Studies Also Postgraduate Diploma and MPhil Taught Element, and PG

More information

WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION COUNCa OF MINISTERS BONN, 19 JUNE 1992. PETERSBERG DECLARA non

WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION COUNCa OF MINISTERS BONN, 19 JUNE 1992. PETERSBERG DECLARA non WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION COUNCa OF MINISTERS BONN, 19 JUNE 1992 PETERSBERG DECLARA non I. ON WEU AND EUROPEAN SECURITY Developments in the security situation in Europe, disannament and anns control 1. Ministers

More information

EU Strategies and Programmes in Central Asia to Support the Implementation of EU Central Asia Action Plan on Drugs

EU Strategies and Programmes in Central Asia to Support the Implementation of EU Central Asia Action Plan on Drugs EU Strategies and Programmes in Central Asia to Support the Implementation of EU Central Asia Action Plan on Drugs 08 April, 2013, Berlin Dobromir Hristov, Task Manager EU Delegation to the Kyrgyz Republic

More information

After the Astana Summit: More Questions than Answers December 17, 2010

After the Astana Summit: More Questions than Answers December 17, 2010 Policy Brief Number Nine After the Astana Summit: More Questions than Answers December 17, 2010 The OSCE Astana Summit on December 1-2, 2010 concluded with an important Commemorative Declaration outlining

More information

The European Security Strategy Austrian Perspective

The European Security Strategy Austrian Perspective Erich Reiter and Johann Frank The European Security Strategy Austrian Perspective The following essay gives the Austrian view on the ESS from a security political perspective and analyses the needs and

More information

NATO IN THE 21 st CENTURY KEYNOTE SPEECH BY THE DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY GENERAL FOR AIR DEFENCE AND AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT

NATO IN THE 21 st CENTURY KEYNOTE SPEECH BY THE DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY GENERAL FOR AIR DEFENCE AND AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT NATO IN THE 21 st CENTURY KEYNOTE SPEECH BY THE DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY GENERAL FOR AIR DEFENCE AND AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT GLOBAL ATM FORUM FOR CIVIL-MILITARY COOPERATION MONTREAL, OCTOBER 2009 Ladies

More information

Delegations will find attached the conclusions adopted by the European Council at the above meeting.

Delegations will find attached the conclusions adopted by the European Council at the above meeting. European Council Brussels, 20 March 2015 (OR. en) EUCO 11/15 CO EUR 1 CONCL 1 COVER NOTE From: General Secretariat of the Council To: Delegations Subject: European Council meeting (19 and 20 March 2015)

More information

The EU-Russia relations and the Eastern Partnership

The EU-Russia relations and the Eastern Partnership Sebastian Schäffer, M.A. Presentation résumé for the conference The European Neighbourhood Policy: Aims and Impact Panel: EU/Russia relations and the ENP The EU-Russia relations and the Eastern Partnership

More information

The Kozmetsky Center of St. Edward s University will host a forum entitled:

The Kozmetsky Center of St. Edward s University will host a forum entitled: Kozmetsky Center of Excellence The Kozmetsky Center of St. Edward s University will host a forum entitled: International Policy & Academic Perspectives on the Impact of the Ukrainian Conflict: A New Cold

More information

Lisbon and the Evolution of NATO s New Partnership Policy

Lisbon and the Evolution of NATO s New Partnership Policy Lisbon and the Evolution of NATO s New Partnership Policy Abstract Rebecca R. MOORE * Key Words NATO s 2010 Strategic Concept identifies cooperative security as one of three essential core tasks to be

More information

Policy on Migration and Diasporas in Georgia

Policy on Migration and Diasporas in Georgia CARIM East Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration Co-financed by the European Union Policy on Migration and Diasporas in Georgia Natia Chelidze CARIM-East Explanatory Note 12/33 Socio-Political

More information

National Security Concept of Georgia

National Security Concept of Georgia National Security Concept of Georgia It is the strong will of the citizens of Georgia to establish democratic order, economic freedom, a social state governed by the rule of law, to ensure universal human

More information

"The European Union's Security Architecture and its role to strengthen Peace and Security"

The European Union's Security Architecture and its role to strengthen Peace and Security Chairman EU Military Committee General Patrick de Rousiers at the 29 th Asia Pacific Round Table in Kuala Lumpur 02 June 2015 "The European Union's Security Architecture and its role to strengthen Peace

More information

Turkey and Russia: economic convergence but political divergence

Turkey and Russia: economic convergence but political divergence Position Paper Turkey and Russia: economic convergence but political divergence Al Jazeera Center for Studies 7 May 2013 Al Jazeera Centre for Studies Tel: +974-40158384 jcforstudies@aljazeera.net http://studies.aljazeera.n

More information

D3 - FINAL REPORT SCENARIOS, TRAFFIC FORECASTS AND ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC FLOWS INCLUDING COUNTRIES NEIGHBOURING THE EUROPEAN UNION

D3 - FINAL REPORT SCENARIOS, TRAFFIC FORECASTS AND ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC FLOWS INCLUDING COUNTRIES NEIGHBOURING THE EUROPEAN UNION D3 - FINAL REPORT SCENARIOS, TRAFFIC FORECASTS AND ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC FLOWS INCLUDING COUNTRIES NEIGHBOURING THE EUROPEAN UNION Submitted to: European Commission Submitted by: NEA Transport research and

More information

On the 25th of April of 1974, it began, in Lisbon, what years later Samuel

On the 25th of April of 1974, it began, in Lisbon, what years later Samuel Honorary doctorate for Radoslaw Sikorsky Nova University of Lisbon 25th of March of 2015 Nuno Severiano Teixeira On the 25th of April of 1974, it began, in Lisbon, what years later Samuel Huntington would

More information

ESTABLISHING A NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF NATIONAL SECURITY AND DEFENCE SECTOR REFORM

ESTABLISHING A NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF NATIONAL SECURITY AND DEFENCE SECTOR REFORM Information & Security: An International Journal Valentyn Petrov, vol.31, 2014, 73-77 http://dx.doi.org/10.11610/isij.3104 ESTABLISHING A NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF NATIONAL SECURITY

More information

Wine production PART 1. CHART 26: Area of vineyards and production of wine, share of world total (2010)

Wine production PART 1. CHART 26: Area of vineyards and production of wine, share of world total (2010) PART 1 production The region produced 16.7 million of wine in 2010, which was 64 percent of total global wine production. With 4.5 million hectares of its land covered by vineyards, the region is home

More information

Eurocentrum Praha 4 th October 2007. A stronger Europe for a better world is the motto of the current Portuguese Presidency.

Eurocentrum Praha 4 th October 2007. A stronger Europe for a better world is the motto of the current Portuguese Presidency. Eurocentrum Praha 4 th October 2007 Portuguese Presidency of the European Union A stronger Europe for a better world A stronger Europe for a better world is the motto of the current Portuguese Presidency.

More information

AFGHANISTAN: FRANCE IS ALSO IN THE SOUTH

AFGHANISTAN: FRANCE IS ALSO IN THE SOUTH FRENCH EMBASSY IN CANADA? Ottawa, June 2008 AFGHANISTAN: FRANCE IS ALSO IN THE SOUTH "France will maintain its forces in Afghanistan. Our country wishes to adapt the role of its forces to make them more

More information

Revista Relaciones Internacionales Nº 39 (Segmento Digital) Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales (IRI) Segundo semestre de 2010

Revista Relaciones Internacionales Nº 39 (Segmento Digital) Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales (IRI) Segundo semestre de 2010 NATO Declaration by the Heads of State and Government of the Nations contributing to the UN-mandated, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan Introduction We, the nations

More information

MINISTRY OF NATIONAL DEFENCE BUDGETARY DEPARTMENT. BASIC INFORMATION ON THE MoND BUDGET FOR 2016

MINISTRY OF NATIONAL DEFENCE BUDGETARY DEPARTMENT. BASIC INFORMATION ON THE MoND BUDGET FOR 2016 MINISTRY OF NATIONAL DEFENCE BUDGETARY DEPARTMENT BASIC INFORMATION ON THE MoND BUDGET FOR 2016 Warsaw, February 2016 Basic Macroeconomic Indicators 2016 National budget 2016 Defence budget 2016 2,00%

More information

Budapest Process A Silk Routes Partnership for Migration

Budapest Process A Silk Routes Partnership for Migration Budapest Process A Silk Routes Partnership for Migration Fethi Etem, Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs 22 May 2013, Lima Presentation 1. What is the Budapest Process? 2. The Istanbul Ministerial Declaration

More information

THE NATO-EU STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP

THE NATO-EU STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP 8 THE NATO-EU STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP THE NATO-EU STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP 3 KEY INFORMATION NATO and the EU share common strategic interests. In a spirit of complementarity, both organisations consult and

More information

MINISTERIAL COMMEMORATIVE DECLARATION ON THE SEVENTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR

MINISTERIAL COMMEMORATIVE DECLARATION ON THE SEVENTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR MC.DOC/7/14/Corr.1 1 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Ministerial Council Basel 2014 Second day of the Twenty-First Meeting MC(21) Journal No. 2, Agenda item 7 MINISTERIAL COMMEMORATIVE

More information

TEMPLATE FOR PRE-DEPLOYMENT GENDER TRAINING

TEMPLATE FOR PRE-DEPLOYMENT GENDER TRAINING GENDER TRAINING & EDUCATION TEMPLATE FOR PRE-DEPLOYMENT GENDER TRAINING Topics and learning objectives Version 2010 TEMPLATE FOR PRE-DEPLOYMENT GENDER TRAINING Topics and learning objectives TABLE OF

More information

ASTANA COMMEMORATIVE DECLARATION TOWARDS A SECURITY COMMUNITY

ASTANA COMMEMORATIVE DECLARATION TOWARDS A SECURITY COMMUNITY SUM.DOC/1/10/Corr.1* Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Summit Meeting Astana 2010 Original: ENGLISH Second day of the Astana Summit Meeting SUM(10) Journal No. 2, Agenda item 4 ASTANA

More information

Capacity Building in the New Member States and Accession Countries on Further Climate Change Action Post-2012

Capacity Building in the New Member States and Accession Countries on Further Climate Change Action Post-2012 Capacity Building in the New Member States and Accession Countries on Further Climate Change Action Post-2012 (Service Contract N o 070402/2004/395810/MAR/C2) 29 November 2007 Almost all New Members States

More information

DEFENCE REFORM IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA A LONG WAY TOWARDS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE

DEFENCE REFORM IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA A LONG WAY TOWARDS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE Bernd Papenkort DEFENCE REFORM IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA A LONG WAY TOWARDS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE A. The Current Situation of Defence Structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina The current structure and composition

More information

Wider Europe Initiative. Framework Programme for Finland s Development Policy Implementation Plan for 2009 2013

Wider Europe Initiative. Framework Programme for Finland s Development Policy Implementation Plan for 2009 2013 Wider Europe Initiative Framework Programme for Finland s Development Policy Implementation Plan for 2009 2013 MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS June 2009 CONTENTS: Wider Europe Initiative 3 Priorities of the

More information

Looking to the Warsaw Summit: NATO s role in coping with regional challenges

Looking to the Warsaw Summit: NATO s role in coping with regional challenges NATO International School of Azerbaijan 133 Bashir Safaroghlu, SAT Plaza, 6th floor Baku, AZ 1009, Azerbaijan Phone/Fax: +(994 12) 596 60 89 Email: info@nisa.az ; URL: www.nisa.az NISA Summer Session:

More information

Germany: Report on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security (RES 69/28),

Germany: Report on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security (RES 69/28), Germany: Report on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security (RES 69/28), General appreciation of the issues of information security Information

More information

ENTREPRENEURIAL COMMUNITIES INITIATIVE. Call for applications for participation

ENTREPRENEURIAL COMMUNITIES INITIATIVE. Call for applications for participation ENTREPRENEURIAL COMMUNITIES INITIATIVE Call for applications for participation Entrepreneurial Communities Initiative 02 CALL FOR APPLICATIONS FOR PARTICIPATION: ENTREPRENEURIAL COMMUNITIES INITIATIVE

More information

Foreign A id and Foreign Investment

Foreign A id and Foreign Investment 13 Foreign A id and Foreign Investment Financial flows to developing countries take two main forms aid that comes from foreign governments, often called official development assistance, and investment

More information

International Challenges for Regional Security in Central and Eastern Europe Poland, the EU and Protracted Conflicts

International Challenges for Regional Security in Central and Eastern Europe Poland, the EU and Protracted Conflicts International Challenges for Regional Security in Central and Eastern Europe Poland, the EU and Protracted Conflicts Paweł Świeżak Department of Strategic Analyses, National Security Bureau. Transformation

More information

NATO s Role in the Post-Modern European Security Environment, Cooperative Security and the Experience of the Baltic Sea Region

NATO s Role in the Post-Modern European Security Environment, Cooperative Security and the Experience of the Baltic Sea Region NATO s Role in the Post-Modern European Security Environment, Cooperative Security and the Experience of the Baltic Sea Region By Holger Mölder Introduction In 1991-1992, the European security environment

More information

Post World War II. Communism and the Cold War

Post World War II. Communism and the Cold War Post World War II Communism and the Cold War Post World War II What is the COLD WAR? Longest Era of American History: 1946-1990 Clash of ideology that never led to a direct war between the United States

More information

Summary. Senior Officials Meeting of the Heart of Asia -Istanbul Process. 27 September 2015, New York

Summary. Senior Officials Meeting of the Heart of Asia -Istanbul Process. 27 September 2015, New York Summary Senior Officials Meeting of the Heart of Asia -Istanbul Process 27 September 2015, New York The 12 th Senior Officials Meeting of the Heart of Asia-Istanbul Process was held on 27 September 2015

More information

The Return of the Pan-European Security Question

The Return of the Pan-European Security Question The Return of the Pan-European Security Question Marc Perrin de Brichambaut * The author writes in a personal capacity Introduction Since the end of the Cold War, security trends in Europe have been dominated

More information

THE PRAGUE SUMMIT AND NATO S TRANSFORMATION

THE PRAGUE SUMMIT AND NATO S TRANSFORMATION THE PRAGUE SUMMIT AND NATO S TRANSFORMATION A READER S GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE 3 I THE SUMMIT DECISIONS 9 II KEY ISSUES 19 New members: Expanding the zone of security 20 New capabilities: Adapting

More information

Team of Training Center Patriot

Team of Training Center Patriot Team of Training Center Patriot Patriot Training center is a team of military professionals who are instructors from the USA, Israel, Georgia and Ukraine. Combat experience of the team members: Deployments

More information

The countries security services do not take part in the military policy formation process.

The countries security services do not take part in the military policy formation process. Bakhtiyar Kamilov FORMATION OF CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEMS OF ENSURING NATIONAL SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIAN STATES - UZBEKISTAN, KAZAKHSTAN, KYRGYZSTAN, TAJIKISTAN AND TURKMENISTAN Today, the regional

More information

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe L I S B O N S U M M I T 1996 LISBON DOCUMENT 1996 LISBON 1996 DOC.S/1/96 3 December 1996 Original: ENGLISH 2 Table of Contents Page I. LISBON DOCUMENT

More information

Foreign Affairs and National Security

Foreign Affairs and National Security Foreign Affairs and National Security Objectives: TLW understand and explain the following questions as it relates to the Foreign affairs of the American Government What is foreign policy? What is the

More information

Russian National Security Policy in 2000

Russian National Security Policy in 2000 Russian National Security Policy in 2000 Celeste A. January 2000 PONARS Policy Memo 102 Harvard University Although signing a decree granting the new National Security Concept the status of law in January

More information

Curriculum Vitae. 2006-2014 Professor, Army War College, Department of National Security and Strategy

Curriculum Vitae. 2006-2014 Professor, Army War College, Department of National Security and Strategy Curriculum Vitae Charles W. Van Bebber Colonel, U.S. Army 21 Prickly Pear Drive, Carlisle, PA 17013 e-mail: vanbebber@comcast.net or charles.w.vanbebber.mil@mail.mil Phone: 717-245-9521 Cell: 781-354-3785

More information

Guidelines for Applicants: Advanced Training Course

Guidelines for Applicants: Advanced Training Course Emerging Security Challenges Division Guidelines for Applicants: Advanced Training Course Introduction The NATO (SPS) seeks to enhance cooperation and dialogue with all partners through civil science and

More information

Serbia and NATO: Cosmic Justice and Consequences

Serbia and NATO: Cosmic Justice and Consequences Serbia and NATO: Cosmic Justice and Consequences Cynics claim that there was a symbolic value to the fact that on March 18, just six days before the 16 th anniversary of the bombing of FR Yugoslavia, Ivica

More information

EU support mechanisms TWINNING AND TAIEX IN POLAND

EU support mechanisms TWINNING AND TAIEX IN POLAND Ministry of Foreign Affaires Department for Implementation of Development Programmes EU support mechanisms TWINNING AND TAIEX IN POLAND Ministry of Foreign Affaires Department for Implementation of Development

More information

A Decade of Partnership and Cooperation. in Russia-EU relations. Iris Kempe, Hanna Smith. Perceptions, Perspectives and Progress -

A Decade of Partnership and Cooperation. in Russia-EU relations. Iris Kempe, Hanna Smith. Perceptions, Perspectives and Progress - Iris Kempe, Hanna Smith A Decade of Partnership and Cooperation in Russia-EU relations Perceptions, Perspectives and Progress - Possibilities for the Next Decade This paper was produced as the strategy

More information

Terms of Reference: Consultancy Firm. Selection #1019083

Terms of Reference: Consultancy Firm. Selection #1019083 Terms of Reference: Consultancy Firm Selection #1019083 Support for Broadband Competitiveness Program in Eastern Europe, South Caucasus and Central Asia (ECA) Trust Fund: TF071399 Creating Sustainable

More information

Joint Declaration. On the Establishment of the Regional Co-operation Council (RCC)

Joint Declaration. On the Establishment of the Regional Co-operation Council (RCC) Joint Declaration On the Establishment of the Regional Co-operation Council (RCC) Representatives of the Participating States of the South East European Co-operation Process (SEECP), the United Nations

More information

TURKISH CONTRACTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

TURKISH CONTRACTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET Brief overview TURKISH CONTRACTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET Construction plays a crucial role in Turkey s economic development, accounting for 5.9% of GDP and employing some 1.8 million people. When

More information

The Situation of Military Personnel in Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain

The Situation of Military Personnel in Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain The Situation of Military Personnel in Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain Content Introduction of EUROMIL Fundamental Rights for Military Personnel Added value of military unions/associations Situation

More information

REPUBLIC OF SERBIA DEFENCE STRATEGY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

REPUBLIC OF SERBIA DEFENCE STRATEGY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA REPUBLIC OF SERBIA DEFENCE STRATEGY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA Belgrade, October 2009 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 3 1. SECURITY ENVIRONMENT... 4 1.1. Global environment... 4 1.2. Regional environment... 5

More information

Security Council. United Nations S/2008/434

Security Council. United Nations S/2008/434 United Nations S/2008/434 Security Council Distr.: General 3 July 2008 Original: English Special report of the Secretary-General pursuant to Security Council resolution 1806 (2008) on the United Nations

More information

Map #1: Answer Key. Bosnia Croatia Greece Kosovo (you have to draw in this border) Macedonia Montenegro Serbia Slovenia Crete (Greece)

Map #1: Answer Key. Bosnia Croatia Greece Kosovo (you have to draw in this border) Macedonia Montenegro Serbia Slovenia Crete (Greece) Map #1: Answer Key Map #1: Answer Key Directions: Find all of these countries on the answer key and check them off as you go. Since borders are constantly changing, there are few countries missing from

More information

The Baltic States and NATO Membership

The Baltic States and NATO Membership T E S T I M O N Y R The Baltic States and NATO Membership F. Stephen Larrabee CT-204 April 2003 Testimony presented to the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations on April 3, 2003 The RAND

More information

The challenges of the military-medical service in the 21 st century, focusing on the support of NATO s medical transformation

The challenges of the military-medical service in the 21 st century, focusing on the support of NATO s medical transformation ZRÍNYI MIKLÓS NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY KOSSUTH LAJOS FACULTY OF MILITARY SCIENCE Military Science PhD School Col. István Kopcsó M.D. The challenges of the military-medical service in the 21 st century,

More information

HUNGARIAN DEFENCE FORCES. The All-Volunteer Professional HDF

HUNGARIAN DEFENCE FORCES. The All-Volunteer Professional HDF HUNGARIAN DEFENCE FORCES The All-Volunteer Professional HDF Introduction Hungary is a member of NATO, the most powerful political and military alliance. Substantial changes have taken place in the world

More information

East African Community

East African Community 1 East African Community STATEMENT BY AMB. DR. RICHARD SEZIBERA, SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY AT THE OFFICIAL OPENING CEREMONY OF THE 6 TH EAC MILITARY GAMES AND CULTURAL EVENTS ON 7

More information