1 16. PROFILE ON PRODUCTION OF BLACK AND GREEN TEA PROCESSING AND PACKING
2 16-2 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE I. SUMMARY 16-3 II. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION & APPLICATION 16-3 III. MARKET STUDY AND PLANT CAPACITY 16-4 A. MARKET STUDY 16-4 B. PLANT CAPACITY & PRODUCTION PROGRAMME 16-8 IV. MATERIALS AND INPUTS 16-9 A. RAW & AUXILIARY MATERIALS 16-9 B. UTILITIES V. TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING A. TECHNOLOGY B. ENGINEERING VI. MANPOWER & TRAINING REQUIREMENT A. MANPOWER REQUIREMENT B. TRAINING REQUIREMENT VII. FINANCIAL ANLYSIS A. TOTAL INITIAL INVESTMENT COST B. PRODUCTION COST C. FINANCIAL EVALUATION D. ECONOMIC BENEFITS 16-20
3 16-3 I. SUMMARY This profile envisages the establishment of a plant for the processing and packing of black and green tea with a capacity of 100,000 kg per annum. The present demand for the proposed product is estimated at tonnes per annum. The demand is expected to reach at 1, tonnes by the year The plant will create employment opportunities for 28 persons. The total investment requirement is estimated at about Birr 5.36 million, out of which Birr million is required for plant and machinery. The project is financially viable with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 14 % and a net present value (NPV) of Birr 759,660, discounted at 8.5 %. II. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION Tea is a shrub (Camellia Simensis) cultivated from antiquity in China and now in countries like Japan, India, Kenya, Ethiopia, etc. and having lanceolate leaves and fragrant white flowers. Processed black or geen tea is a product prepared and cured from the leaves, leaf buds and internodes of this plant for the market. Tea in general and black and green tea as well are finding wide application both in urban and rural parts of Ethiopia. Tea is consumed both at home and at work places.as urbanization grows, particularly in cities and towns, tea is widely consumed at almost all meals, during break times, at conferences and seminars and at colleges and hospitals.
4 16-4 III. MARKET STUDY AND PLANT CAPACITY A. MARKET STUDY 1. Past Supply and Present Demand The country's requirement for tea has been met through domestic production and imports. Table 3.1 shows the supply of the product from domestic production and imports during During the period under reference, total supply averaged at tonnes, of which tonnes constituted domestic production and the remaining tonnes imports. Thus, on the average, domestic production accounted for 88.8 per cent of the country's requirement for tea. Table 3.1 SUPPLY OF BLACK AND GREEN TEA (TONNES) Year **Domestic *Import Total Production Supply Average Source: *Customs Authority, External Trade Statistics, ** CSA, Statistical Abstract,
5 16-5 Assuming supply was driven by demand, the average annual supply of black and green tea for the period under reference, which constitutes domestic production and imports, is considered as the effective domestic demand for the product for the year Since the consumption of tea is mainly associated with the urban population, the demand for the product is assumed to grow by 4% that corresponds to the annual growth rate of the urban population. The present domestic demand for black and green tea (i.e. for 2007) is, thus, estimated at tonnes. Assuming the average import shown in Table 3.1 represents the current demand for imported tea, the market share of the envisaged plant is estimated at 11.2% of the estimated current domestic demand for the product, i.e tonnes. Although much of the domestic production is meant for domestic consumption, the country also exports black and green tea. The amount of black and green tea exported during is depicted in Table 3.2. Varying from a minimum of tonnes in 1999 to a maximum of tonnes in 2003, exports highly fluctuated during the period under reference. On the average, the country exported tonnes of black and green tea during the reference period. Table 3.2 EXPORTS OF BLACK AND GREEN TEA (TONNES) Year Export Average Source: Customs Authority, External Trade Statistics,
6 16-6 Given the considerable fluctuations in the volume of exports of the product, the average annual export during the period under reference is considered as the effective export demand for black and green tea for the year Taking into account the remarkable growth in exports in to account, a growth rate of 7% is adopted in estimating the export demand for the product. The present export demand for the product (i.e., for 2007) is, therefore, estimated at tonnes. Given the flourishing export sector, the envisaged plant is expected to achieve a volume of export equivalent to 10% of the estimated current export demand for the product, i.e tonnes. Thus, out of the tonnes total of present demand (domestic consumption + export) for the product, the total market share (domestic consumption + export) of the envisaged plant is estimated at tonnes. 2. Projected Demand As stated above, a growth rate of 4% and 7%, respectively, is considered in projecting the domestic and export demand for black and green tea. The projected demand for the product is shown in Table 3.3.
7 16-7 Table 3.3 PROJECTED DEMAND FOR BLACK AND GREEN TEA (TONNES) Year Projected Demand Pricing and Distribution Currently a 100 gm pack of domestically produced tea is retailed at Birr 3. Allowing 15 per cent for wholesale and retail margin, the envisaged plant is expected to sell its product at Birr per kg. The product can get its market outlet through the existing wholesale and retail network that includes department stores, merchandise shops and supermarkets.
8 16-8 B. PLANT CAPACITY AND PRODUCTION PROGRAMME 1. Plant Capacity The market study for black and green tea indicates that the unsatisfied demand for the year 2007 is tonnes, while this figure would grow to tonnes and tonnes by the year 2015 and 2020, respectively. It is proposed that processing of black and green tea will be started at small scale level, and gradually grow to higher capacity when the local and export markets get stronger. Accordingly, a small scale processing and packing plant of 100 tonnes per annum capacity is proposed. The plant will operate single shift of 8 hours a day and for 300 days a year. 2. Production Programme The plant will start operation at low capacity to provide the possibility of skill development on the operation and maintenance of production equipment and establish adequate market outlets. Consequently, the plant will start operation at 65% of the plant capacity during the first year, and then gradually raise production to 75%, 85% and 100% during the second year, third year and fourth year and then after, respectively. Production build-up is shown in Table 3.4 below. Table 3.4 PRODUCTION PROGRAMME Year and above Capacity Utilization (%) Production (tonne)
9 16-9 IV. MATERIALS AND INPUTS A. RAW & AUXILIARY MATERIALS Black and green tea are derived from the camellia sinensis evergreen plant. The green leaf is picked from the plant and is subject to process. Thus, the basic raw material of black and green tea processing is the green leaves derived from the plant. Auxiliary materials required are pp sheets, packing boxes, labels, etc. Annual requirements of raw & auxiliary materials is given in Table 4.1 below. Table 4.1 RAW AND AUXILIARY MATERIALS AND COST AT FULL CAPACITY Sr. Description Qty Cost ( 000 Birr) No. LC FC TC 1 A. Raw Material Green Leaves (tonnes) Sub-total B. Auxiliary Materials 1 PP sheets Reqd Packing paper boxes, labels, etc. Reqd Cartons Reqd Sub Total Total
10 16-10 B. UTILITIES Utilities required are electricity, water and wood. Electricity is used to run production equipment, for lighting bulbs and power sockets. Water is used for drinking and general purposes. Wood is required for generating hot gas used to dry the green tea leaves. Annual requirement of utilities at full capacity production of the plant is given in Table 4.2 below. Table 4.2 ANNUAL REQUIREMENT OF UTILITIES AND COST Sr. Description Qty Cost ( 000 Birr) No. 1 Electricity (kwh) 60, Water (m 3 ) Wood (m 3 ) Total VI. TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING A. TECHNOLOGY 1. Production Process There is a misperception that the different types of tea come from different tea plant. Black, Green and Oolong teas are all derived from the camellia sinensis evergreen plant. The difference comes from how the plant is processed. The common processing unit operations are:
11 16-11 a) WITHERING b) ROLLING c) OXIDATION d) DRYING OR FIRING a) Withering Newly picked leaves are thinly spread to dry during this process. Heated air is forced over the leaves if the climate is not suitable. The main goal of this process is to reduce the water content. By the end of this process, the leaves should be pliable enough to be rolled. b) Rolling From the withering racks, the leaves are now twisted and rolled so that the leaf cells are broken up. Sometimes shaking is done as well. Oils are released with this rolling process that give the tea its distinctive aroma. The leaves can be rolled with machinery or by hand. The juices that are released remain on the leaf; a chemical change will occur shortly. c) Oxidation This is the chemical process where oxygen is absorbed. This process began once the leaf membranes were broken during the rolling process. Oxidation causes the leaves to turn bright copper in color. This process is the main deciding factor whether we have green, Oolong or Black tea.
12 16-12 d) Drying Or Firing In this stage the leaves are dried evenly and thoroughly without burning the leaves. Firing the leaves stops the oxidation process. For the purpose of this study Oolong tea is not considered. However, the processes of producing Black and Green tea are considered separately. Black Tea Processing The Black tea process goes through the most stages described above. Once the leaves are picked, they are left to wither for about a day. After this the leaves are soft enough to be rolled into balls; oils from the leaves are brought to the surface. These aromatic oils aid in the oxidation process, which last for a number of hours until proper smell and color are achieved. Next is firing. This is the process of moving the leaves through hot air chambers to stabilize the leaves and lock in the flavour. The dry heat stops the fermentation process by killing the active enzymes. During this firing, the leaves turn dark and loose all but about 2% of their moisture. If the firing is not done correctly, and the leaves are too dark, the result cup of tea will taste weak. The tea is now ready for packing. It is then dispatched into local and export market. Green Tea Processing The process for making green tea is the shortest. Withering is done first, but this step might be omitted. Rolling the leaves to break the membranes for oxidation is skipped, hence the oxidation process is also skipped. After withering the leaves are pan fired or fired to prevent oxidation from occurring. The last step is to roll the leaves and dry them one last time for its final shape. The green tea leaves usually remain green. The tea is now ready for packing and market.
13 Source of Technology Far East countries like India, China, Japan, etc are well known for processing different kinds of tea. India is particularly known for marketing tea to Africa. Tea processing equipment are widely produced and supplied by several Indian machinery manufacturers. Address of one such manufacturer and supplier is given below. Tea Spares Enterprise 11, Clive Row, 3 rd Floor, Kolkata , India Phone: Website: B. ENGINEERING 1. Machinery and Equipment The list of machinery and equipment required for black and green tea processing is given in Table 5.1 below.
14 16-14 Table 5.1 MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENT AND COST Sr. Description Qty Cost ( 000 Birr) No. LC FC TC 1 Transportation equipment (for tea leaves) Storage bins Racks or troughs (for withering tea leaves) 4 Oven (for oxidation) Frying pan (for green tea) Hot gas generator (complete with burner, Set firing chamber, fan, hood and accessories) 7 Packing machine (complete with tables set and auxiliaries) 8 Tools & Accessories Reqd Sub-Total 2,980 2,980 Freight, Insurance, Customs, Bank charges, materials handling cost Grand Total Land, Building and Civil Works Black and green tea processing plant requires land area that would be used for constructing factory building, building for administration offices, general purpose buildings, warehouses for raw materials and finished products, pathways and land for future expansion. In view of these, the total land area requirement is estimated to be 5000 m 2. Of this, 750 m 2 area will be used for constructing the various buildings indicated above. At the rate of Birr 1.0 per m 2 as lease value, and Birr 1500 per m 2 for building, the total investment on land, building and civil works will be Birr million.
15 PROPOSED LOCATION Location of a plant is determined based on proximity to raw materials, availability of infrastructure and distance to potential market outlets. Moreover, consideration of fair distribution of projects among SNNPRS woredas is taken. Accordingly, Bitta and Benck woredas are identified, from which Bitta woreda is chosen. It is, therefore, suggested that the plant will be located in Bita genet town. VI. MANPOWER AND TRAINING REQUIREMENT A. MANPOWER REQUIREMENT The envisaged plant requires skilled manpower to operate production equipment. Administration manpower is also required to carry out the managerial work of the plant Details of manpower together with monthly wages and annual payments are shown in Table 6.1 below. B. TRAINING REQUIREMENT Machinery operators, technicians and the technologist will have to be trained for a period of two weeks during erection and commissioning. A total of Birr 10,000 is ear marked to execute the training programme.
16 16-16 Table 6.1 MANPOWER REQUIREMENT AND LABOUR COST Sr. No. Job Title Required No. Monthly Salary (Birr) Annual Wages (Birr) A. Administration 1 Plant manager 1 2,000 24,000 2 Secretary ,200 3 Personnel officer 1 1,000 12,000 4 Salesman ,600 5 Store man ,600 6 Accountant ,600 7 Clerk ,800 8 Cashier ,200 9 General services ,000 Sub total 11 93,000 B. Production 1 Production supervisor 1 1,500 18,000 2 Technologist 1 1,200 14,400 3 Skilled workers ,200 4 Laborer ,000 5 Technician ,400 6 Packers ,400 Sub-total ,400 Workers benefit (25% BS) - 52,350 Total ,750
17 16-17 VII. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS The financial analysis of the black and green tea processing and packing project is based on the data presented in the previous chapters and the following assumptions:- Construction period 1 year Source of finance 30 % equity 70 % loan Tax holidays 5 years Bank interest 8.5 % Discount cash flow 8.5 % Accounts receivable 30 days Raw material local 30 days Work in progress 5 days Finished products 30 days Cash in hand 10 days Accounts payable 30 days A. TOTAL INITIAL INVESTMENT COST The total investment cost of the project including working capital is estimated at Birr 5.36 million, of which 27 per cent will be required in foreign currency. The major breakdown of the total initial investment cost is shown in Table 7.1.
18 16-18 Table 7.1 INITIAL INVESTMENT COST Sr. No. Cost Items Total Cost ( 000 Birr) 1 Land lease value Building and Civil Work 1, Plant Machinery and Equipment 3, Office Furniture and Equipment Vehicle Pre-production Expenditure* Working Capital Total Investment cost 5,362.7 Foreign Share 27 * N.B Pre-production expenditure includes interest during construction ( Birr thousand ) training (Birr 10 thousand ) and Birr 90 thousand costs of registration, licensing and formation of the company including legal fees, commissioning expenses, etc. B. PRODUCTION COST The annual production cost at full operation capacity is estimated at Birr 2.1 million (see Table 7.2). The material and utility cost accounts for per cent, while repair and maintenance take 9.98 per cent of the production cost.
19 16-19 Table 7.2 ANNUAL PRODUCTION COST AT FULL CAPACITY ('000 BIRR) Items Cost % Raw Material and Inputs Utilities Maintenance and repair Labour direct Administration Costs Total Operating Costs 1, Depreciation Cost of Finance Total Production Cost 2, C. FINANCIAL EVALUATION 1. Profitability According to the projected income statement, the project will start generating profit in the second year of operation. Important ratios such as profit to total sales, net profit to equity (Return on equity) and net profit plus interest on total investment (return on total investment) show an increasing trend during the life-time of the project. The income statement and the other indicators of profitability show that the project is viable.
20 Break-even Analysis The break-even point of the project including cost of finance when it starts to operate at full capacity ( year ) is estimated by using income statement projection. BE = Fixed Cost = 28 % Sales Variable Cost 3. Pay Back Period The investment cost and income statement projection are used to project the pay-back period. The project s initial investment will be fully recovered within 6 years. 4. Internal Rate of Return and Net Present Value Based on the cash flow statement, the calculated IRR of the project is 14 present value at 8.5 % discount rate is Birr 759,660. % and the net D. ECONOMIC BENEFITS The project can create employment for 28 persons. In addition to supply of the domestic needs, the project will generate Birr 4.46 million in terms of tax revenue. The establishment of such factory will have a foreign exchange saving effect to the country by substituting the current imports.
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