High speed railway principles

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1 High speed railway principles Ignacio Barrón de Angoiti, Director High Speed, International Railway Association (UIC) Professional Conference on High Speed In the World and in the Czech Republic Praha, 14 November 2007 Agenda High Speed Rail principles Some facts & figures about High Speed Impact in traffics High Speed and the environment High Speed Rail is safety The costs of the high speed Concluding remarks 1

2 High Speed Rail principles High Speed Rail: Definitions and requirements High Speed signifies at least 250 km/h Operating at more than 200 km/h requires: - special trains (train sets) - special dedicated lines - in cab signalling Upgraded existing lines and classic trains (locomotive + cars) enable to operate up to about 200 km/h We can also say High Performances 2

3 Understanding High Speed Rail A High Speed Railway is a (very complex) system, comprised by state of the art: - Infrastructure - Station emplacement - Rolling Stock - Operation rules - Signalling systems - Marketing - Maintenance systems - Financing - Management - HS performances for customers - Commercial speed - Total time of travel - Frequency - Reliability - Accessibility - Price - Comfort - Safety - Freedom - 3

4 Some examples of evolution of time travel Rome - Naples Rome - Milano Madrid - Barcelone Madrid - Seville Köln - Frankfurt Paris - Stuttgart Paris - Marseille Paris - Brussels Paris - Amsterdam Time travel (hrs) Before HS After HS HS advantages for Society Offers high capacity of transport - Up to 300,000 passengers per day - Reduce traffic congestion Helps economic development High Speed Rail promotes logical territory structure and helps contain urban sprawl Respects the environment: - Efficient use of land (1/3 motorway) - Energy efficiency (x 9 planes / x 4 cars) 4

5 HS increases capacity Introduces more capacity in the transport system: - New HS line capacity + - Released capacity in classic lines But the capacity of new HS lines is very variable Different concept of HS Many different commercial concepts of HS (including services to customers, marketing, etc.) Many different types of operation (maximum speed, stops, etc.) Different ways to operate classic trains (in particular impact on freight traffic) 5

6 Density of population Concepts: «Corridor» & «Tunnel» Some facts & figures about High Speed 6

7 Some figures about High Speed World network (V > 250 km/h) = km Almost high speed trains set in operation World speed record (in 2007): 574,8 km/h Japan: In 42 years = 4 Billion passengers Up to pass./day in Tokyo-Osaka No fatalities during all this time at V > 200 km/h France: In Nov. 2006, passenger 1,3 Billion in TGV Europe: Korea: Average annual growing traffic 10 % (pass.-km) More than passengers per day (50 % rail traffic) Km/h 700 Evolution of maximum speed on rails Maximum speed in tests Maximum speed in operation

8 Km of High Speed Lines - Expectations in Europe Average: 187 km / year Average: 554 km / year Evolution of total World high speed network km

9 km Evolution of World high speed network Total Asia Europe High Speed Rolling Stock - Situation in the World In June 2007, at the World level, HS train sets in operation (V > 250 km/h): Europe: 800 (1.355 HS train sets if V>200 km/h) Japan: 330 Korea: 50 China: 60 China Taiwan: 30 USA: 20 9

10 Forecasting evolution World high speed train sets High Speed impact on traffics 10

11 Effects in modal split Paris - Brussels (320 km / 1h25min.) All modes Coach Plane Car Train Before Thalys After Thalys Effects in modal split Madrid - Seville (471 km / 2h15 min.) Train / plane Plane Train 33 Before AVE After AVE 11

12 Efect of Low Cost air companies París London (2h 40min.) LCC 7% FSC 22% Eurostar 71% Curve of the rail / air modal split (distances between 300 and 600 km) 100 Rail market share (%) Paris - Brussels 310 km Paris - Lyons 430 km Madrid - Seville 471 km Rome - Bologna 358 km Tokyo - Osaka 515 km % Plane Paris - London 494 km Stockholm - Gotenburg 455 km Paris - Amsterdam 540 km Rome - Milan 560 km 25 % HS 0 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 Rail travel time (hours) 12

13 High Speed Traffic - Evolution in Europe 90,0 80,0 70,0 60,0 50,0 40,0 30,0 20,0 10,0 0,0 Billions PKm 8,9 24,8 37,4 14% 9,3 27,2 42,3 13% 10,2 3,6 30,6 48,6 15% 11,6 4,4 32,2 52,7 8% 13,9 5,1 34,7 59,4 13% 2,4 2,2 15,5 6,8 37,4 65,9 11% ,5 2,4 15,3 7,1 39,9 68,7 4% 2,5 2,4 17,5 7,4 39,6 71,1 3% 2,7 2,4 19,6 7,9 41,5 75,9 7% 2,3 2,3 20,9 8,6 42,7 79,7 4% 3,7 2,5 21,6 8,9 44,0 84 6% CP 0,5 CD 0,1 SBB 0,3 NSB 0,1 NS 0,7 VR 0,3 SNCB 1,0 RENFE SJ DB FS SNCF Total Europe Evolution % High Speed and the environment 13

14 Land occupancy Some ratios on land occupancy in Germany: High speed line Hanover - Würzburg 3,0 ha/km High speed line Mannheim - Stuttgart 4,0 ha/km Average 3,2 ha/km Average motorways 9,3 ha/km Parallel layout with a motorway: Paris - Lyon Paris - Lille Cologne Frankfurt 60 km 135 km 140 km Parallel layouts HS Line Paris Lille (TGV Nord) 14

15 Parallel layouts HS Line Cologne - Frankfurt Comparisons in land occupancy HS Railway Motorway Double track 2 x 3 lanes 25 m 75 m 12 trains per hour & direction cars per hour & direction 666 passengers / train 1,7 passengers / car Capacity = passengers / hour Capacity = passengers / hour 15

16 Energy Efficiency - Passenger Pkm/Kep Source: SNCF, ADEME, kwh = 0,086 Kep ,5 54, HST Fast train Commuter train Regional rain Bus P. car Plane Primary Energy and CO2 Emission , Primary energy in litres of petrol per 100 passengerskm Amount of carbon dioxid emissions per 100 passengers-km HS Trains Private cars Plane 16

17 CO2 emissions In a medium distance corridor ( km) 10 flight per day represents the emission of t. of CO2 per year to the atmosphere 100 Average External Costs Without congestion Passenger Traffic 1995 Euro / 1000 Pkm 87 Upstream process 75 Urban effects Landscape Climate change Air pollution Noise Accidents 25 0 Source: INFRAS/IWW 3/2000 Private car Bus Rail Air 17

18 High Speed Rail is safety Evolution of Railway Safety in EU 2,5 2,33 Passengers killed per 1 billion Passenger-kilometres 2 1,99 1,87 1,5 1 0, ,54 1,63 1,50 1,43 1,09 1,29 1,11 1, ,00 1,18 0,98 0,83 1,24 1,10 0,69 0,65 0,79 High Speed Rail ,65 0,92 Classic railways 0,56 0,47 0,51 0,38 0,40 0, ,70 0,42 0,30 0, ,38 18

19 The costs of High Speed 19

20 Funding/Calculating Costs High Speed requires significant investment, including public funding Consequently, need detailed studies on traffic forecasting, costs and benefits Examine all impacts, positive and negative (including calculating costs of not doing it) Magnitude Costs of HS systems Minimum costs in Europe Construction of 1 km of new HSL: 12 M Maintenance of 1 km of new HSL: / year Cost of an HS train (350 places): 20 M Maintenance of a HS train: 1 M / year (2 / km km / train & year) 20

21 Funding Costs High Speed costs are generally paid with public funds (Japan, Europe, Korea) The trend is to share funds and responsibilities between different public entities (French TGV) In some cases, private funding can be attracted for part of total investment PPP (Spain France link) or BOT (Taiwan) are two possibilities to combine public and private resources: - Private obtains ROI - Public ensures social benefits Key elements to reduce costs Knowledge of High Speed Systems & Elements Definition of max. speed and performances Low Cost High Speed Rail System Standardisation Financing Market procedures 21

22 Concluding remarks Concluding remarks High Speed is an highly beneficial transport system for Society High Speed is a complex system and its conception is not unique; it must be adapted to each case and each country High Speed always needs public funds (at least, public guarantee) 22

23 UIC High Speed activities World Congress in HS ( Eurailspeed ): Next one The Netherlands, Mars 2008 Training in HS Systems : Next one 16 to 21 June 2008 For more information, commentaries and proposals: Iñaki Barrón de Angoiti Director High Speed Union Internationale des Chemins de fer (UIC) 23

24 Thank you very much for your attention 24

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