# Measuring the Aggregate Economy

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1 CHAPTER 25 Measuring the Aggregate Economy The government is very keen on amassing statistics... They collect them, add them, raise them to the n th power, take the cube root and prepare wonderful diagrams. But you must never forget that every one of these figures comes in the first instance from the village watchman, who just puts down what he damn pleases. Sir Josiah Stamp (head of Britain s revenue department in the late 19th century) McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Aggregate Accounting Aggregate accounting (or national income accounting) measures total, or aggregate production in the economy as a whole 25-2

3 GDP Gross Domestic Product (GDP): the dollar value of all final goods and services produced within a country s borders in one year GDP is measured in dollars Only measures final goods and services It is the single most used economic measure McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 3

4 GDP Measures Final Output GDP does not measure total transactions in the economy It counts final output, not intermediate goods Final output: goods and services purchased for final use Intermediate goods/products: goods used as an input in the production of some other product 25-4

5 GDP Measures Final Output Counting the sale of both final and intermediate goods would result in double counting and GDP would be artificially higher One way to eliminate double counting is the value added approach Subtract intermediate goods from the value of its sales McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 5

6 What is NOT Counted in GDP Intermediate goods Transfer payments (Social Security) Work of homemakers The underground economy/black market Sale of stocks/bonds Sale of used goods McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 6

7 How GDP is Used 1. To compare to previous years (Is there growth?) 2. To determine if policy changes worked 3. To compare to other countries (Are we better off?) McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 7

8 GDP is a Flow Concept GDP is a flow concept: the amount of total final output a country produces per year, not at one moment in time Wealth accounts are a balance sheet of an economy s assets and liabilities and it is a stock concept (at a particular moment in time) 25-8

9 GDP is a Flow Concept Real wealth is the value of the productive capacity of the assets of an economy measured by the goods and services it can produce now and in the future Nominal wealth is the value of those assets measured at current market prices McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 9

10 Calculating GDP Quantities of goods and services produced are multiplied by their per unit market price to determine a value measure of that good or service (P X Q) This weights the importance of each good by its price The sum of all of these values is GDP 25-10

11 Calculating GDP Assume our economy only produces 3 goods. What is the GDP for our economy? Good Price Quantity Total Shoes \$50 10 \$500 T-shirts \$10 50 \$500 Socks \$6 100 \$600 \$1600 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 11

12 The Components of GDP GDP is divides into four expenditure categories: 1. Consumption (C) is spending by households on goods an services Includes durable and nondurable goods Durable goods are goods that last a long time (washing machines; refrigerators) Nondurable goods are goods that do not last long or are immediately consumed 25-12

13 The Components of GDP Investment (I) is spending for the purpose of additional production (NOT stocks/bonds) Included new capital or machinery purchased by a firm New construction (new grocery store or new homes) Market value of unsold inventory McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 13

14 The Components of GDP 3. Government spending (G) is goods and services that the government buys Such as highways, airports, etc. Does NOT include transfer payments such as Social Security 4. Net exports (X-M or X n ) is spending on exports (X) minus spending on imports (M) McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 14

15 The Components of GDP This gives us the formula: GDP =C + I + G + (X n ) (Note: GDP may also be designated by Y to represent aggregate) 25-15

16 GDP: Expenditures and Income Approach There are two approaches to measuring GDP: 1. Expenditures Approach: add up all the spending on final goods and services produced in a given year This is denoted by GDP = C + I + G + (X n ) McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 16

17 GDP: Expenditures and Income Approach 2. Income Approach add up all the income that resulted from selling all final goods and services produced in a given year GDP = Compensation of employees + Rents + Interest + Proprietors income + Corporate profits (Corporate income taxes + dividends + undistributed corporate profits) + indirect business taxes +depreciation (consumption of fixed capital) + net foreign factor income McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 17

18 Aggregate Income Aggregate income is the total income earned by citizens and firms of a country Aggregate income= Employee compensation + Rents+ Interest + Profits McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 18

19 Aggregate Income Aggregate income consists of: Employee compensation: wages and salaries paid to individuals Rent: income from property received by households 25-19

20 Aggregate Income Interest: interest businesses pay to households that have lent them money Profits: amount left over after compensation to employees, rents, and interest have been paid McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 20

21 Equality of Income and Expenditures Whenever a good or service is produced (output), somebody receives an income for producing it This gives us the aggregate income and production identity Aggregate Income Aggregate Production 25-21

22 Equality of Income and Expenditures This aggregate identity allows us to calculate GDP either by adding up all values of final outputs (C, I, G, X n ) or by adding up the values of all earnings or income McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 22

23 Comparing GDP Among Countries Per capita GDP can be used to compare relative standards of living among various countries (this can be a misleading figure) Purchasing power parity adjusts for relative price differences before making comparisons 25-23

24 Per Capita GDP Per capita real output (real GDP per capita) is real GDP divided by the total population Even if total output is increasing, the population may be growing even faster, so per capita real output may fall Real GDP per capita is the best measure of a nation s standard of living McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 24

25 Real and Nominal GDP Nominal GDP is GDP measured in current prices It does not account for inflation from year to year Considered less accurate McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 25

26 Real and Nominal GDP Real GDP is GDP expressed in constant, or unchanging, dollars Real GDP adjusts for inflation It is the best measure of economic growth More accurate because prices have been adjusted according to a base year McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 26

27 GDP and Inflation GDP figures are affected by inflation If GDP increases due to increases in the price level, then welfare does not increase Changes in welfare over time are best indicated by changes in real GDP, which is nominal GDP adjusted for inflation 25-27

28 Calculating the GDP Deflator A deflator is an adjustment that accounts for inflation and tells us what output would have been with no inflation Economists favor the GDP deflator because it includes a larger number of goods McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 28

29 Calculating the GDP Deflator The GDP deflator measures the prices of all goods (not just the market basket) produced in a nation relative to a base year This is a broader measure compared to the CPI GDP Deflator= Nominal GDP Real GDP X 100 Nominal GDP = Deflator X Real GDP 100 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 29

30 Real and Nominal GDP Nominal GDP is GDP calculated at existing prices Real GDP is nominal GDP adjusted for inflation The price index is used as the GDP deflator Real GDP = Nominal GDP GDP deflator OR X 100 Real GDP= Nominal GDP Price Index in hundredths 25-30

31 Real and Nominal GDP If given the increase in nominal GDP and the inflation rate you can calculate the change in real output % in real GDP= % in nominal output inflation McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 31

32 Net Domestic Product (NDP) Net domestic product is GDP adjusted for depreciation Depreciation is the amount of capital used up in producing that year s GDP NDP measures output available for purchase NDP=GDP Depreciation 25-32

33 GNP Gross National Product (GNP) is the aggregate final output of citizens and businesses of an economy in one year GNP = GDP + Net foreign factor income 25-33

34 GNP Net foreign factor income: we add the foreign income of our citizens and subtract the income of residents who are not citizens McGraw-Hill/Irwin Colander, Economics 34

35 Chapter Summary Aggregate accounting is a set of rules and definitions for measuring economic activity in the aggregate economy GDP is the total market value of all final goods and services produced in an economy in one year GDP is the sum of four expenditures: GDP = C + I + G + (X n ) Intermediate goods can be eliminated from GDP by: Measuring only final sales Measuring only value added 25-35

36 Chapter Summary Net domestic product is GDP less depreciation NDP represents output available for purchase because production used to replace worn-out plant and equipment (depreciation) has been subtracted GDP measures output produced within the borders of a country; GNP measures the economic output produced by the citizens of a country Aggregate income = Compensation of employees + Rent + Interest + Profit 25-36

37 Chapter Summary Aggregate income equals aggregate production because whenever a good is produced somebody receives income for producing it, and profit is key to that equality Because GDP measures only market activities, GDP can be a poor measure of relative living standards among countries To compare income over time, we must adjust for price-level changes. After adjusting for inflation, nominal measures are changed to real measures 25-37

38 Chapter Summary Real GDP = Nominal GDP GDP deflator X 100 GDP has its problems: GDP does not measure economic welfare GDP does not include transactions in the underground economy The price index used to calculate real GDP is problematic Subcategories of GDP are often interdependent 25-38

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