Diversity Snapshot GLBT

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2 Diversity Snapshot GLBT (gay, lesbian, bi-sexual, trans) We are fabulous! We are gay, lesbian, bi-sexual, trans and two-spirited. We are parents, grandparents, professionals, workers and students. We are part of every aspect of our city, contributing every day even if you may not know it. 1. Who we are Respectful language Trans people Contributions we make Barriers and inequities ) Heterosexism and homophobia ) Transphobia ) Coming out and being outed ) Harassment, bullying, violence, and hate crimes ) Discrimination ) Workplace ) Invisibility ) Safe spaces ) Access to services and facilities ) Sexism, racism, and conservatism We envision a GLBT-friendly city What can I do? Council mandates and legislation What s happening in Ottawa Relevant practices in other cities Sources Definitions Acknowledgments This document is one of 11 Diversity Snapshots that serve as background information to aid the City of Ottawa and its partners in implementing the Equity and Inclusion Lens. To access, visit Ozone or contact us at A City for Everyone 2

3 1. Who we are We are fabulous! We are part of every aspect of our city, contributing every day even if you may not know it. Some of us are working people, parents, grandparents or youth. Some of us identify as women, as men, as both, and some of us identify as neither. Some of us are Aboriginal and may identify as two-spirit. As two-spirit people, we like to define ourselves and we don t want to give up any aspect of who we are to do that. (2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations 2008) The common statistics say one in ten people are attracted to people of the same sex. However, the percentage or number of GLBT people in Ottawa is difficult to determine, partly because people s sexuality evolves over time or people self-identify differently. But importantly, this is because we are careful when we self-identify as GLBT in public (coming out) for reasons of safety and for fear of being alienated from our families, friends, workplaces, or losing a child due to homophobia and transphobia (See Barriers). In this document, we use the acronym GLBT as in the City of Ottawa s Equity and Diversity Policy. However, we recognize the ongoing lively debates about definitions within the GLBT communities terms and their meanings change over time, or vary across cultures or generations. RESPECTFUL LANGUAGE You may have come across the variations of GLBTTTIQQ (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, two-spirited, intersex, queer, questioning), such as LGBT or GLBTTQ. Language is important to us because it is about our sense of respect for each other, and we do not necessarily all want to be lumped together. This reflects our diversity and efforts to celebrate many forms of sexual orientation and gender identities as part of human diversity. We welcome you to use the terms in this document but also to be aware of the changing, dynamic debates around language, and that some people may prefer one expression to another. If you are not sure, ask: How would you like to be addressed? A City for Everyone 3

4 TRANS PEOPLE Trans people have existed in many societies throughout history, though the term transgender is used increasingly in North America in recent years. In this document, trans or transgender is used as an umbrella term to describe a wide range of identities and experiences (See Definitions). In the broadest sense, a trans person is someone who does not fit into society s assigned gender categories. One trans person may feel that she or he is in the wrong body, identifying mentally and emotionally with the opposite gender, while another person may be comfortable identifying with both genders and yet another person may transcend or not buy into conventional gender categories of man/woman. People who describe themselves as trans may not feel, look, dress or behave in ways expected of women and men in a given culture. Not all trans people seek sex reassignment surgery (transsexual). The key is to respect people s selfidentity, preference and privacy, and not to apply one definition or label to every trans person. For example, use a gender pronoun consistent with a person s stated preference ( he, she ). If you don t know their preference, ask. (Trans Alliance Society 2002; 2003). Working with trans people What can I do? 3 Be discrete and professional. 3 Address them in the gender that they are presenting in. 3 Use gender-appropriate pronouns and names they go by. (If they are dressed as a woman then use female ones, as a man use male ones.) 3 Protect the person s privacy from others or don t out them without their explicit permission. (Don t tell others that they are about to meet a trans person.) 3 Make sure you know how they want to be addressed on the phone just in case their partner, family or roommates do not know about their gender identity. 3 Create a list of local sources that can be used. (OPS 2005) Gender identity is different from sexual orientation. Sexual orientation refers to emotional and sexual desires for others, whereas gender identity refers to the experience of who we are as a woman, man, both or neither. Trans people are straight, bisexual, lesbian or gay just like anyone else. (See Definitions) A City for Everyone 4

5 2. Contributions we make We have contributed to making Ottawa a vibrant city and continue to do so through everything from charities, to food services, to media, to politics, to businesses. Health care: The gay community played an essential role in advancing HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B research (Falk 1989) as well as safer-sex programs. Harm-reduction programs such as public education to reduce stigma, anti-bullying policies in schools, and patient-controlled medical care delivery have benefited the broader population such as cancer and Alzheimer patients. Arts and culture: As artists, we enrich the arts and culture scene in the nation s capital. Transgress at the Ottawa Writers Festival and Inside Out Ottawa- Gatineau LGBT Film Festival are among many events that celebrate the GLBT artists creativity, while providing a venue for questioning conventional ideas about sex, gender and sexuality. Capital Pride brings together GLBT people from Ottawa, Gatineau, Montreal and Toronto, and surrounding smaller cities and rural communities. It creates a safe space for GLBT people and those of us who are not able to be out in our day-to-day lives. The Pride festival empowers us to celebrate being who we are, and welcomes straight and non-trans people to join the celebration. QUICK FACTS Capital Pride attracts about 50,000 tourists annually. Canada s first Hate Crimes Section was established in Ottawa in 1993, following the strong mobilization of the GLBT community. Ottawa Police Services Liaison Committee for the GLBT Communities was one of the first of its kind in Canada. It is now adopted as a model elsewhere. Ottawa s GLBT community contributed to the creation of the AIDS Committee of Ottawa. Abiwin Co-op in Centretown was created as a nonprofit, GLBTfriendly housing for gay and straight people. (OPS 2009; Capital Pride 2008) Human rights: Canada s first gay and lesbian demonstration was held in Ottawa in 1971 (with a simultaneous one in Vancouver), led by Ottawa s community leaders. (York University 2003) We also contributed to the creation of the human rights monument next to City Hall. As lesbian women, we helped create women s shelters and sexual assault support services, challenged male privilege both in the GLBT community and the broader society, and presented wider possibilities for women s roles. A City for Everyone 5

6 3. Barriers and inequities 1) Heterosexism and homophobia Almost all barriers GLBT people face come from the assumption that everyone is straight (heterosexism) and dislike of homosexual people (homophobia) in society. GLBT people encounter these barriers in their families, friends circles, social and public spaces, schools and workplaces. These affect them in different communities they are part of such as seniors programs, youth camp, immigrant groups, disabilities communities, or neighbourhood associations. Most GLBT people also have to deal with their own internalized homophobia instilled since birth. This has great impact on their psychological well-being, physical safety, economic security, sense of belonging, and their human and COMING OUT civic rights as fully contributing members of society. 2) Transphobia Transphobia is the dislike or fear of trans people, or those who do not fit into the conventional idea of gender (i.e. the notion that everyone is only either a woman or a man). Often there is confusion between transphobia and homophobia. Trans people become the target of homophobia even if they are actually straight; and gay, lesbian and bi people become the target of transphobia even if they are not trans. Sexism and gender stereotypes also contribute to transphobia. For instance, a male-to-female trans woman who does not fit the typical feminine look, voice or characteristics may face negative reactions from people who are not used to trans women. Many people do not understand why someone has a need to live as a different gender or to have a transsexual surgery. Gender is an important part of a person s identity. This is felt acutely when one s gender identity does not match with the one society assigned at birth, or when it does not fit with society s norm. (CAWU; Trans Alliance Society (See Definitions) 3) Coming out and being outed GLBT people constantly make the careful decision whether or not to come out, and to whom, in almost every social interaction they encounter: on the phone, in the store or at a job interview. This is because homophobia or transphobia is so prevalent Recognizing that one is attracted to the same sex, or that one has their own gender identity, and starts to be open about it with other people. It can be a slow or fast process depending on their circumstances. Outing The public disclosure of another person s sexual orientation without that person s permission or knowledge. Outing is very disrespectful and is potentially dangerous to the outed person. Ottawa GLBT residents who are not out to their: Children s teachers (73 per cent) Own teachers (69 per cent) Members of their place of worship (55 per cent) Co-workers (53 per cent) Friendly acquaintances (49 per cent) Boss/supervisor (47 per cent) Other relatives (44 per cent) Spiritual leader (43 per cent) (2SP1N 2008) (PTS 2001) A City for Everyone 6

7 in our society. When they decide not to come out in a given situation, there is still the fear of being outed and the potential homophobic reactions. Being out has very real safety implications, extending to social, emotional and physical consequences. People who are out may face negative judgement from others, gay bashing, or jeopardize their relationships with families and close friends. Some experience faith-based discrimination from their own religious or spiritual circles, or face workplace harassment. GLBT people may encounter homophobic comments and behaviours even when others are not aware that they identify as GLBT. Some people develop low self-esteem and depression as a result. This concern over being out can prevent someone from seeking proper medical care or reporting an abusive partner to police. For example, about 20 per cent of GLBT people in Ottawa, especially youth (56 per cent), are not out to their doctors (PTS 2001). 4) Discrimination Prejudices often manifest in discrimination in many aspects of everyday life. They can make it difficult for GLBT people to buy houses or rent apartments with their spouses or partners, or for GLBT parents to find appropriate child care or schooling for their children. Senior GLBT couples may not have had home ownership, marriage, employee benefits, pension plans, or life insurance policy with their partners, because historically the legal and social barriers had been much more challenging throughout most of their lives. When GLBT people have serious health problems, often their partners are prevented from receiving the private health information of the patient or making critical decisions for their partner. Often these rights are restricted to the patient s biological or extended family members. Some people may be forced to leave their spiritual or cultural community due to homophobia in the group, or pass as straight or non-trans in order to remain in the community. 5) Harassment, bullying and hate crimes Homophobic feelings can escalate to harassment, bullying, violence and hate crimes. This can happen in schools, on the street, at community gatherings and workplaces, etc., and are often hard to distinguish from one another. The incident rate, types and severity of violence used against GLBT people are much higher than other nonbias crimes (disproportionate harm). For example, one in six cases of bullying in school related to homophobia require hospitalization. However, it is often underreported, partly due to the victim s and the witnesses fear of retaliation, or fear of stigmatization on the basis of homophobia or transphobia. (Justice Canada 1995) Higher rates of bullying, suicide and school dropouts of GLBT youth are consequences of homophobic attitudes among their peers and in wider society. For many teenagers, even being perceived to be GLBT, or being friends with GLBT people, could make them a target of haterelated bullying. Lack of support available to GLBT youth who are discovering or defining their sexual and gender identity (e.g., services, peers or role models) adds to the barriers they face. A City for Everyone 7

8 Such harassment and hate crimes also affect the other members of the GLBT community, as anyone in the community could be targeted based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. 6) Workplace GLBT people often experience barriers due to the lack of a safe work environment. Attitudinal barriers and prejudices about GLBT people have impact on everyday workplace interactions, job interviews and hiring practices of staff and volunteers. Lack of outreach to recruit and retain qualified workers and volunteers who identify as GLBT, or lack of clear messages to welcome GLBT people in the workplace can leave GLBT people feel unwelcome or made invisible. Lack of awareness about trans people can also be a barrier to employment. For example, interviewers may not know how to interview a trans candidate respectfully and fairly. This could prevent the candidate from getting the job, even if she or he is well qualified for the position. Lack of clear policies regarding inclusion are also employment barriers (Trans Alliance Society 2002). 7) Invisibility The invisibility of queer lives or not being part of everyday life of the city is a reflection of heterosexism and homophobia in society. A common heterosexist notion is that a family is made up of a dad (male), mom (female) and children. This ignores the realities and needs of families with two dads or two moms, GLBT couples, or grandparents who identify as GLBT. The experience of bisexual people is that they often become invisible as they are seen only as straight (if dating someone of the opposite sex) or gay/lesbian (if their partner is the same sex). Because of their invisibility in society, GLBT individuals often have to go out of their way to find access to basic services that are safe and appropriate to their situations. However, homophobia and transphobia add to the fear of being out (e.g., fear of a negative reaction from service providers, or damaging personal or social relationships), and the cycle of invisibility and lack of access to services continues. GLBT people with disabilities further experience invisibility, as people with disabilities are often assumed not to have sexuality or romantic desires. 8) Safe spaces Prejudices against GLBT people affect how they can behave or who they can be, as well as their safety in public spaces. Everyday acts like holding hands on the street, dancing with a boyfriend at a club, or kissing one s spouse good-bye on the bus, can be a barrier for GLBT people, for these could trigger negative reactions or harassment by strangers. Homophobia reduces their access to safe public spaces to meet partners and develop healthy relationships. For trans people, safe and inclusive public spaces are often very limited: bathrooms, gyms, sports games, emergency shelters or sexual assault support services are commonly organized for women only or men only. In rural areas, GLBT people may not feel safe to come out in their neighbourhoods, and GLBT communities and GLBT-friendly services may not be visible or available. A City for Everyone 8

9 Aboriginal two-spirit people may not identify with the Euro-Canadian GLBT culture and groups, or their two-spirit identity may not be accepted in their home community, where imposed homophobia via colonization still has impact (2SP1N 1998). Visible-minority GLBT people or GLBT immigrants may experience difficulty finding a welcoming space that accepts both aspects of their identity as GLBT and their cultural backgrounds. Access to safe, GLBT-friendly spaces that can be used and enjoyed by all GLBT, trans, straight and non-trans people alike is important for creating an inclusive city. 9) Access to services and facilities Many GLBT community members are not getting the help they need, such as help with social isolation, depression, suicide ideation, substance abuse and safety concerns related to homophobia and transphobia (PTS 2001). GLBT cultural competency may not be incorporated into public health programs, school curricula or workplace cultures. Commercial services, religious ceremonies or family laws may not operate to include GLBT people. Many GLBT youth are expelled from their family homes after coming out to their parents. However, an adult shelter can be intimidating for youth, and a youth shelter may not be GLBT-friendly and many find themselves homeless. Finding GLBT-related services in French is an added challenge for GLBT Francophones in Ottawa, including French-speaking immigrants who identify as GLBT. Gender-specific facilities often do not accommodate trans people. Even going to a washroom in the office or a changing room at a pool is a barrier, for the facility is not physically available or attitudinal barriers make it unwelcoming and unsafe. Some trans women may use the public washroom to change into feminine clothes or touch up their makeup in public washrooms, especially if they are not out in their home. However, other people may tell them that they are in the wrong bathroom, making assumptions about their gender identity and in some cases, wrongly reporting them for harassment. WHY PRIDE? Most people grow up being taught to be ashamed of at least some aspect of ourselves and our lives. That s especially true for LGBT people, and all those who aren t part of the dominant culture. Throwing off this shame and learning to be proud is at the heart of pride movements. (CAWU) A City for Everyone 9

10 10) Sexism, racism and conservatism GLBT people experience many barriers and isms besides heterosexism, homophobia and transphobia. Sexism affects many lesbian and bi-women, as well as trans people who don t fit the gender stereotypes. Women-only spaces in shelters or gender violence support groups may exclude trans women, even though they share the experience of gender-based discrimination. Two-spirit and visible-minority GLBT people may experience added feelings of marginalization, rejection or exclusion due to racism and racial prejudice within the GLBT community and in broader society, and may experience homophobia in their respective cultural communities as well as in mainstream society. Similarly, conservative beliefs related to heterosexual norms in certain religious groups can also alienate GLBT people from their religious and spiritual communities. Sometimes I ll be in a gay group, but they re not racially sensitive. So that is uncomfortable. And it can be uncomfortable to be in an African-American group where they make rude remarks about gay people. And I think, gosh we re really all in this together. It s the same: racism, sexism, homophobia, all the same thing. (Youthline) A City for Everyone 10

11 4. We envision a GLBT-friendly city The City incorporates GLBT-inclusive language and approaches in everyday City business. GLBT communities are visibly or symbolically included in all civic initiatives and events in the city. GLBT people feel safe and welcomed in the workplace, at a community centre, a store or City Hall. There are no assumptions that exclude GLBT people or compulsion to out us in public. GLBT individuals can access and receive services, without complication or worrying about potential homophobic or transphobic encounters. (e.g., health care, marriage services, housing, using changing rooms, etc.). When GLBT people experience homophobia or transphobia, clear and efficient processes can help us access the services we are seeking. Information on GLBT issues is visible and easily accessible through the City website and mainstream services. Programs and services have clearly relevant outcomes to GLBT communities. Health centres can provide dignified, nonjudgemental services to GLBT individuals and address specific GLBT health issues. Police are there to protect us, not harass us. Equitable hiring and career development practices are in place and implemented. The cure for homophobia is discovered. WHAT CAN I DO? 3 Develop awareness about the diversity, issues and service needs of the GLBT community. 3 Build knowledge of GLBT stakeholders in the community. (e.g., PTS, Capital Extra, To Be, Lambda) 3 Understand the negative impact of homophobia, heterosexism and transphobia. 3 Place Positive Space stickers on office doors or storefronts. Actively indicate GLBT people are welcome and safe being who they are. 3 Avoid viewing straight or nontrans culture as the norm. 3 Use a broader definition of women or men that includes gay or lesbian, bi, and trans people for a gender-specific space or program. 3 Object when I see or hear something that I think is homophobic or transphobic (joke, insult), even though it may be unpopular. 3 Know it s okay to ask if I m not sure what to say or do. 3 And, if I identify as GLBT, I know that my knowledge and experience can enrich the city. (CCHRC & PTS 2006) A City for Everyone 11

12 5. Council mandates and legislation City of Ottawa Equity and Diversity Policy Ontario Human Rights Code (Provincial) Prohibited grounds of discrimination includes sexual orientation and sex (gender identity is covered under sex ) Employment Equity Act (Federal) City of Ottawa provides annual status report on GLBT City employees. 6. What s happening in Ottawa City of Ottawa Equity and Diversity Advisory Committee (EDAC) Works with the City on policies and programs affecting women, Aboriginal persons, members of visibleminority groups, and GLBT individuals and on the elimination of discrimination based on race, religion, gender and sexual orientation. City of Ottawa Equity and Diversity Award Program Recognizes individuals or teams who have demonstrated a clear commitment to making the City an inclusive workforce of individuals in all designated groups and creating a culture of respect and diversity. Ottawa Police Service Liaison Committee for the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender (GLBT) Communities Community-based crime prevention work by the GLBT community, police and criminal justice system representatives. Pink Triangle Services (PTS) Nonprofit agency providing peer support, educational, research and advocacy services for all gay, lesbian, bisexual, trans, two-spirit and queer (GLBTTQ) persons in the National Capital Region. Capital Xtra Ottawa s gay, lesbian and trans media/newspaper. Minwaashin Lodge - Aboriginal Women s Support Centre: Services for Aboriginal women including a Two-Spirit women s program. Gender Mosaic of Ottawa Support services for trans people and their partners. Around the Rainbow Support for GLBT families and allies in child care, preschools, schools and the community. Carleton GLBTQ Centre for Sexual and Gender Diversity Pride Centre of the Student Federation of University of Ottawa L Association des pères gais de l Outaouais French-speaking discussion and support group where members can discuss the experiences of gay fatherhood. List of GLBT-related organizations: Capital Xtra 7. Relevant practices in other cities Toronto 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations Toronto Sherbourne Health Centre Toronto Asian Community AIDS Services Toronto FrancoQueer offers HIV/AIDS services to French-speaking GLBT people, including Francophone immigrants. A City for Everyone 12

13 Ontario Ministry of Education Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy. Recognizing Ontario s growing diversity as a strength, the Strategy addresses barriers related to sexism, racism, homophobia and other forms of discrimination in Ontario schools, which may prevent students from reaching their full potential. See also: Guidelines for Policy Development and Implementation. International Day Against Homophobia May 17 National Coming Out Day Oct 11 Safe and Positive Space for LGBTQ Newcomers Initiative Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) See: Technical Report: Assessment of Feasibility of a Community Centre for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Residents of Ottawa 8. Sources 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations Two Spirit Women 2nd Edition. O Brien-Teengs Doe, Doris We Are Part of a Tradition A Guide on Two-Spirited People for First Nations Communities. Gilbert Deschamps. Canadian Auto Workers Union. To our allies: Everything you ever wanted to know about Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Trans issues Well, maybe not everything. Capital Pride Capital Pride The Capital s Most Colourful Celebration. Coalition of Community Health and Resource Centres of Ottawa and Pink Triangle Services Enhancing GLBT Cultural Competence Project. Falk L.A. and WA Verick Contributions of the international gay community to AIDS research. International Conference on AIDS, Committee for A Nobel Endeavor. Chicago, Illinois. Justice Canada Disproportionate harm: Hate Crimes in Canada An Analysis of Recent Statistics. Roberts, Julian V. Lesbian Bi Gay Trans Youthline. Identity Queer Youth of Colour. Minwaashin Lodge Two Spirit Services. Ontario Human Rights Commission Towards a Commission Policy on Gender Identity Discussion Paper. Pink Triangle Services Ottawa-Carleton GLBT Wellness Project A Survey of the GLBT Population of Ottawa. The Ottawa Police Service Helping make Ottawa a hate-free city GLBT Liaison Committee notes. Trans Alliance Society Trans Youth information for transgender youth, their service providers, friends and allies Trans Inclusion Policy Manual. York University. Stand together Out of the Closet. A City for Everyone 13

14 9. Definitions Bisexual / bi An individual who is attracted to both males and females, though the degree of attraction to either sex may vary from person to person. Gay A man who is attracted to other men. The term is also used loosely to refer to someone who identifies as gay, lesbian or bisexual. Lesbian A woman who is attracted to other women. The term dyke has been proudly reclaimed by lesbians and used interchangeably as lesbian. (CAWU) Heterosexism The view that heterosexuality is normal and all other orientations as deviant. It includes the assumption that everyone is and should be heterosexual (attracted to someone of the opposite sex only), unless known to be otherwise; and that nonheterosexuals are unnatural or abnormal (Trans Alliance Society 2002). Homophobia The irrational hatred and/or fear of feeling love for members of one s own sex, and therefore the hatred of those feelings in others. It is the personal forms of heterosexism, ranging from rejection and derogatory comments, to harassment, to physical violence (gay bashing), to silencing ( as long as they don t talk about it ), to denial of human rights to GLBT people (Trans Alliance Society 2002; CAWU). Biphobia The irrational hatred and/or fear of those people who love and have intimate relationships with people of both sexes. The discrimination that bisexual people face is different from those of lesbians and gays. Bisexuality is often seen as a phase or process of experimentation only, thus a person can be only gay or heterosexual but never both. Bisexual people are often pressured to choose a sexuality. Biphobia comes from heterosexist as well as gay and lesbian communities (2SP1N 1998). Gender identity An internally felt sense of gender, or intrinsic sense of manhood or womanhood. It refers to the self-image or belief a person has about their gender as being female, male, both or something altogether different. Gender identity answers the question, Do I experience and understand myself as male, female or something else? Gender identity does not always match the gender assigned at birth, and is different from sexual orientation (Trans Alliance Society 2002; OHRC 1999). Queer Historically been used as a pejorative term for those with a same-sex orientation, referring to an unnatural, abnormal, and sexually deviant status. This word has been proudly reclaimed and altered by lesbians, gay men and bisexual people to represent all those who diverge from conventional heterosexuality. Today many gay, lesbian and bisexual groups are using queer as a more encompassing, more inclusive, and less cumbersome term (than GLBT or LGBTTTIQ) that includes trans people. However, some people in the GLBT community, in particular older people, still feel they are discriminatory and hateful. People should be extremely careful about using the word queer, unless you yourself are part of the community (CAWU; Trans Alliance Society 2002). A City for Everyone 14

15 Questioning A person who has not yet defined his or her sexual orientation and may be open to sexual experiences with individuals of same sex. Sexual orientation Who we are romantically attracted to and want to be sexually intimate with. While popular belief holds we are either solely attracted to men, or solely attracted to women, studies show that most people are not at one extreme end of this scale, but occupy some position in between (CAWU; OHRC 1999). Transgender / Trans A broadly used umbrella term that refers to all individuals who cross the socially constructed line of masculinity or femininity. Trans includes people who reject, or who are not comfortable with, in whole or in part, their birth-assigned gender identities. It includes diverse groups of people: pre-operative, post-operative, and non-operative transsexual people; male and female cross-dressers, transvestites, drag queens or drag kings ; intersex individuals; and men and women regardless of sexual orientation, whose appearance or characteristics are seen as atypical. Bigender refers to people who identify as both male and female and are comfortable being both. Often bigender people will spend some time presenting in one gender and sometimes in the other. Pangender is having mixed gender identity, not identifying as one static gender (CAWU; OPS 2005; OHRC 1999; Trans Alliance Society 2003). Transition or gender reorientation Moving from-birth assigned sex to the life of one s felt gender (living according to gender identity, not biology). The process includes the adoption of the felt gender role, passing as the opposite sex among strangers, using an opposite-sex name, obtaining new personal identity documents that reflect the person s felt gender and/ or new name, and working in the opposite-sex role. This may or may not include making physical changes through hormones or sex reassignment surgery (CAWU; Trans Alliance Society 2002; OHRC 1999). Transphobia The irrational fear and loathing of people who transgress conventional gender and sex rules in the binary system (man-woman; male-female; masculine-feminine). Its expression can be covert and subtle, or blatantly hateful and violent. Like other forms of discrimination, transphobia is often invisible to those who are not its targets (Trans Alliance Society 2002). Two-spirit(ed) A cultural term used to describe Aboriginal people who may also identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning. The term Two-Spirit acknowledges the gender inclusiveness of traditional Aboriginal cultures and some describe it as a balance of male and female spirit. Prior to colonization, most Aboriginal nations understood gender beyond male or female, and those who were Two-Spirited held special roles within their community, such as mediators, teachers and visionaries. Today, the Two-Spirit movement is working towards reclaiming cultural teachings and restoring a place of honour for all Two-Spirited people (Minwaashin Lodge 2009). A City for Everyone 15

16 10. Acknowledgements The Equity and Inclusion Lens is the product of a collaborative partnership between the community and the City of Ottawa. This partnership was coordinated by the Diversity and Employment Equity Unit of the City of Ottawa and the City for All Women Initiative (CAWI). City staff and community leaders contributed their knowledge and insights in the creation of this Diversity Snapshot: Contributors: Elena Abel Minwaashin Lodge, Aboriginal Women s Support Centre Joyce Drouin Ottawa Police Services Lois Emburg City of Ottawa Sulaimon Giwa Kevin Hatt City of Ottawa Equity and Diversity Advisory Committee (EDAC) Yumi Kotani City for All Women Initiative (CAWI) David Pepper Ottawa Police Services Marion Pollack Canadian Union of Postal Workers Maria Cristina Serje City of Ottawa Nicole Soucy City for All Women Initiative (CAWI) All this was made possible thanks to a partnership grant between Status of Women Canada and the City of Ottawa which funded the City for All Women Initiative (CAWI) to engage in this important work. A City for Everyone 16

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