Food Safety Supervisor

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1 FSS Manual Food Safety Supervisor Student Manual SITXOHS002A Follow Workplace Hygiene Procedures and SITXFSA001A Implement Food Safety Procedures from the Tourism and Hospitality Training Package SIT07 Australian Training Solutions 602 QVB Chambers, 143 York Street, SYDNEY NSW 2000 TEL: (02) FAX: (02) Australian Training Solutions is a trading name of Wildstar Management Pty Limited ABN: Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 1

2 Course Outline Page No Module Course Content P2. Introduction Welcome Introduction and purpose of course Competency based training and assessment P4-12 MODULE 1 Food poisoning in Australia Legislative Context P13-24 MODULE 2 Food Safety Hazards P25-39 MODULE 3 Implementing the Support Programs for the Food Safety Program P40-47 MODULE 4 Implementing the Food Safety Plan Why is food poisoning on the increase? Summary of the new Food Safety Supervisor Initiative Australian Food Standards Code Standards Food Safety Practices and Standard Food Premises and Equipment Food Safety Program Name and shame list Morning Tea Identifying food safety hazards Microbial contamination Chemical and physical contamination The temperature danger zone NSW Food Authority Local Councils Demonstration and Team Activity (Cross Contamination and Hand Washing assessment) Implementing personal hygiene standards Maintenance of premises and equipment Calibration of thermometers Single use items Storage Cleaning and Sanitising Pest control Waste disposal Staff Training Lunch Food Safety Program objectives HACCP the basis of a Food Safety Program Identifying hazards Establishing control standards and the Food Safety Supervisor Role Monitoring control of hazards and the Food Safety Supervisor Role Establishing corrective action procedures and the FSS Role Establishing documentation and the Food Safety Supervisor Role Implementing a HACCP based food safety plan and the FSS Role P48 The Role of the FSS The role and responsibilities of the food safety supervisor Afternoon Tea P49-56 Attachments Food Standards Codes Course Assessment Course assessment and evaluation Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 2

3 Competency Based Training This is an accredited course. This means that on successful completion of the assessments in this course you will receive a nationally recognised certificate; National Tourism and Hospitality Training Package, SITXOHS002A Follow Workplace Hygiene Procedures and SITXFSA001A Implement Food Safety Procedures. SITXOHS002A Follow Workplace Hygiene Procedures Follow Hygiene Procedures and identify hygiene hazards Report any personal health issues Prevent food and other item contamination Prevent cross contamination by washing hands SITXFSA001A Implement Food Safety Procedures Performance Criteria 1. Implement procedures for food safety. 2. Store food safely. 3. Prepare food safely 4. Provide safe single use items. 5. Maintain a clean environment. 6. Dispose of food safely Course Assessment To ensure you have gained the knowledge and skills needed to achieve this competency standard, during the course you will be asked to complete several assessment tasks which may include:- Demonstration of Food Safety Procedures in a commercial kitchen environment Site Hygiene Audit of a commercial kitchen Food Safety Quiz Written Assessment Course Resources You will be given a copy of: NSW Food Authority Guidelines on the Food Safety Superivsor Scheme The Australian New Zealand Food Standards Code, Standard Food Safety Practices; Standard Food Premises and Equipment : Standard Food safety programs Sample documents from a Food Safety Program Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 3

4 Module 1: Legislative Context What is motivating you to train as a Food Safety Supervisor? What would you like to learn today? Legislative Framework Australian Food Standards Code Chapter 3: Standard Food Safety Practices Standard Premises and Equipment Standard Food Safety Programs The New South Wales Food Act 2003 The NSW Food Act is concerned with the handling and sale of food in NSW. It is controlled by NSW Department of Health and enforced by Area Health Services and local councils. The main objective of the Act is to enure: Food for sale is safe and suitable for human consumption Prevent misleading conduct in connection with the sale of food To provide for the application in NSW of the Food Standards Code FSANZ - Food Standards Australia New Zealand Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 4

5 NSW Food Act 2003 includes Fines:- Employers and employees have a legal obligation to ensure that food hygiene standards are met. Handling food in an unsafe manner - $ Selling food that you know is unsafe - $ Selling food that you should know is unsafe - $ The NSW Food Act 2003: Due Diligence Defence In the FOOD ACT 2003 in Section 26, there is a Defence of Due Diligence. In Sect 26 it explains that it is a defence: if it is proved that the person took all reasonable precautions and exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of the offence by the person or by another person under the person's control if it is proved. Food Safety Inspections Under the NSW Food Act councils are responsible for conducting inspections of food businesses and for issuing fines. This role is undertaken by Environmental Health Officers. Name and Shame List In NSW food businesses which are fined for breaches of the NSW Food Safety Act and the Australian Food Standards Code can be fined and also listed on the NSW Food Authority Name and Shame list on the internet. If an Environmental Health Officer conducts a food inspection and breaches a food business for a breach of the Food Standards Code, they can fine the business ($110 per unit). For more information and a list of food businesses in New South Wales that have been named and shamed, go to; Food Authority - Penalty Notices. Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 5

6 The Food Safety Standards Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) is a Government appointed Authority that works with the Australian and New Zealand government. The Australian Food Safety Standards Code was developed to ensure that all food sold is safe and suitable to eat and to provide useful and consistent food safety legislation in Australia. FOOD STANDARDS AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND ACT SECT 2A Object of Act The object of this Act is to ensure a high standard of public health protection throughout Australia and New Zealand by means of the establishment and operation of a joint body to be known as Food Standards Australia New Zealand to achieve the following goals: 1. a high degree of consumer confidence in the quality and safety of food produced, processed, sold or exported from Australia and New Zealand; 2. an effective, transparent and accountable regulatory framework within which the food industry can work efficiently; 3. the provision of adequate information relating to food to enable consumers to make informed choices; 4. the establishment of common rules for both countries and the promotion of consistency between domestic and international food regulatory measures without reducing the safeguards applying to public health and consumer protection. The NSW Food Authority The New South Wales government started the NSW Food Authority in April They are responsible for working with local governments to put into effect all aspects of the Australian Food Standards Code and the NSW Food Act The NSW Food Authority requires that all food establishments register their business; failure to do so can incur fines of up to $55,000 for single businesses and for corporations, fines of up to $275,000. In NSW some food businesses are required by law a to implement a food safety program based on HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) which identifies and controls food safety risks at all points in the food supply chain. NSW Food Authority in conjunction with NSW Health investigates complaints in regard to food-borne illness and outbreaks. Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 6

7 Local Councils Local councils play an important role with food establishments by inspecting, administering and monitoring the Food Act and Food Standards Code. Food establishments must also register their business with local council so the Environmental Health Officers know where to go to inspect the premises. Under the NSW Food Act 2003 local councils are known as Enforcement Agencies. They employ an Environmental Health Officer who is called an authorised person under the Food Act to inspect food establishments. The powers of an authorised officer under the Act are to: Enter and inspect premises or vehicles Examine food for sale, equipment and open packaging Take samples of food, water and soil to be analysed Examine records or documents that relate to the handling of food Take photographs or visual recordings Take measurements or drawings Ask a person to answer questions or provide information Ask a person their name and address Have the power to order the closure of premises that are unclean or not cleaned in the specific time frame When an Environmental Health Officer inspects your premises and it is found to be unclean, does not comply with the Food Standards Code or a food safety program is not being implemented an Improvement Notice is then issued; you then have 24 hours to comply or longer as specified in the Notice. Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 7

8 Other State and Territory Food Acts ACT Food Act 2001 and the Food Regulation 2002 NT Food Act 2004 and the Food Regulation 2004 QLD Food Act 2006 and the Food Regulation 2006 QLD - web site for name and shame is Food Act Prosecutions SA Food Act 2001 and the Food Regulation 2002 TAS Food Act 2003 and the Food Regulation 2009 VIC Food Act 1984 and the Food Regulation 2005 VIC - web site for name and shame is Department of Health at Food Safety - Register of Convictions WA Food Act 2008 and the Food Regulation 2009 WA - web site for name and shame is Publication of Names of Offenders Useful Web Sites:- Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 8

9 Food Safety Supervisor Scheme In 2010 the NSW Government introduced new legislation to NSW; the NSW Food Act 2003 Food Amendment (Food Safety supervisors) NSW Food Safety Supervisor Scheme The NSW Food Safety Supervisor Scheme 2010 applies to businesses serving food that is ready to eat potentially hazardous and not sold and served in its package. Examples of businesses include: Restaurants Cafes Takeaway shops Caterers Bakeries Pubs Clubs Hotels; and Supermarket hot food sales Each specified business must have a trained Food Safety Supervisor with the following units of competency; either SITXOHS002A: Follow workplace hygiene procedures and SITXFSA001A: Implement food safety procedures from the Hospitality Training Package SIT07 OR SIRRFSA001A: Apply retail food safety practices from the Retail Services Training Package SIR07. Businesses have until 1 October 2011 to appoint their trained FSS and notify the relevant council of their FSS. The FSS must be trained by a Registered Training Organisation (RTO) approved by the Authority. Only approved RTOs, and in certain circumstances the Authority, can issue a Food Safety Supervisor Certificate. The NSW Food Authority has placed information about the approved RTO s on its web site. See Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 9

10 Did you know that in Australia:- Food poisoning makes up to people sick every day and kills up to 630 people; Each Australian has a 22% chance of suffering from poisoning in any one year; Food poisoning causes productivity losses due to absenteeism of $370 million per year and costs Australia up to $2.6 billion per year The most common causes of food poisoning are in order; Salmonella, Clostridium Perfringens; Campylobacter and Listeria monocytogenes; 80% of food poisoning outbreaks occur as a result of food purchased or consumed outside of the home; There is a 0.5% chance of contracting a food-borne illness every time a meal is consumed; There is increasing evidence of the risks associated with minimally processed foods such as fruit juice, fruit salad, salads and sprouts What is food poisoning? Food poisoning is a type of food-borne illness or a disease that is transmitted to people through food. It usually occurs within 1 to 72 hours of eating food contaminated with food poisoning bacteria. There are no warning signs CAN T SMELL FOOD POISONING CAN T TASTE FOOD POISONING CAN T SEE FOOD POISONING Who can get food poisoning? Anyone can, but the symptoms and severity of the illness will vary depending on factors such as risk factors of the person (Children under 5; the elderly; pregnant women and those who are immunecompromised); the type of food poisoning bacteria consumed and the amount of bacteria consumed. hat percentage (%) of your customers are high risk?? Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 10

11 Food Poisoning Food poisoning occurs because food is handled or stored incorrectly. If people have the knowledge and skill to handle food correctly then food poisoning can be avoided. It is estimated that about four million cases of food poisoning occur in Australia every year. The cost is enormous, ranging from the loss of wages, cost of medical cover, increased insurance, product recall, loss of productivity, loss of business and reputation as well as emotional loss,. Can your business afford the cost of food poisoning? Symptoms The symptoms are usually: Nausea Vomiting Fevers Diarrhoea Dehydration Gastroenteritis Abdominal cramps Death There are many reasons why food poisoning can occur: Food-borne pathogens - salmonella Natural toxins honey, shellfish, mushrooms Virus Hepatitis A, Norwalk Chemicals pesticides, detergents Physical contaminates nails or any foreign objects Food spoilage- food that has deteriorated, you see it, smell, taste it and touch it Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 11

12 Food Poisoning Food can become spoiled through transportation, handling and storage. Remember you can not see, smell or taste food that has been contaminated with a food borne bacteria. Food poisoning can also occur when: A food handler touches food without washing their hands Going to the toilet and not washing their hands Food is dropped on the floor Benches or utensils are dirty Coolroom temperature is incorrect Food is left out for too long Food is stored incorrectly Working when ill You practise poor personal hygiene Equipment is dirty Food is not kept at the correct temperature You do not wash your hands when handling garbage FOOD SAFETY HAZARDS 1. Microbial Contamination (bacteria, mould, yeast) 2. Chemical Contamination (spays, insecticides) 3. Physical Contamination (foreign objects) Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 12

13 Module 2: Food Safety Hazards Hazard 1: Microbial Contamination Microbes are everywhere. They can be introduced into foods through cross contamination or can grow to dangerous levels through time and temperature abuses at all stages of the process, from receival through to sale or service. The five main causes of food contamination in Australia by percentage are:- The main type of microbe is BACTERIA Other microbes include moulds, yeasts and fungi, viruses (eg: Hepatitis A) and parasites (eg: Cryptospiridium). How do microbes affect food? Microbes can be:- Pathogenic (ie they can make people sick because of their toxins or spores) Useful (eg penicillin, yoghurt, beer, cheese); OR Spoilage (ie make food go off ) Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 13

14 What do Microbes Need to Grow? Food to eat Some foods are high risk and need to be handled more carefully. These are foods which are moist, high in protein and low in acid. eg. raw and cooked meat, poultry and seafood; eggs and egg products; cooked rice, potatoes and cereals; meat pastes and pate; fish and shell-fish; cottage and cream cheese; milk and milk products; desserts with dairy products; gravies and stuffings Acid / PH Level of Foods For bacteria to thrive they like the ph environment to be neutral, they can t stand anything too acidic or too alkaline Low acid foods spoil easily (ie. they go off ) eg: Dairy, meat, seafood, poultry potato, rice, pasta Time Under the right conditions, Microbes will double every 20 minutes. For example, one bacterium can produce 1 million bacteria in only 3 hours and 20 minutes - enough bacteria to cause food poisoning. Two Hour Four Hour Rule Bacteria double every 20 minutes Food should only be out of refrigeration for 20 minutes UNLESS it is being heated or cooled If food has been held between 5C and 60C for a TOTAL time of up to 2 hours it must be immediately refrigerated If food has been held between 5C and 60C for a TOTAL time of between 2 hours and 4 hours it must be immediately used, served or discarded If food has been held between 5C and 60C for a TOTAL time of more than 4 hours it must be thrown away Temperature Most Microbes multiply fastest in the DANGER ZONE, between 5C and 60C. Oxygen Most Microbes need oxygen to survive (ie th ey are aerobic) Moisture Microbes cannot grow in most dry products, but once moisture is added to dried products they can continue to grow. Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 14

15 The Temperature Danger Zone What temperature practices do you follow in your catering facilities? Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 15

16 The Temperature Danger Zone Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 16

17 Hazard 1: Cross Contamination environment? What examples of potential contamination can be found in a kitchen Cross contamination Cross contamination is a common term used to describe when bacteria or viruses are transferred from one place to another. A common example of this occurs when you do not wash your chopping board after cutting raw chicken and then proceed to chopping vegetables. Can you think of 3 more examples of cross contamination? Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 17

18 Food Poisoning Bacteria Bacteria Source High risk foods Symptoms Campylobacter Intestines and Raw poultry meat, Can take 2 to 7 days for symptoms to faeces of human, sausages, unpasteurised, appear. Diarrhoea, cramping, fever, animals and birds milk and contaminated headache, nausea, paralysis. Can last 5 water days Listeria monocytogenes Found in wet Raw foods, seafood, Can take 8 to 90 days for symptoms to areas of floors, vegetables, cheese, cooked appear. Death, flu like, fever, nausea, vehicles and and processed food. Can diarrhoea, vomiting and miscarriage if people grow in the fridge pregnant. Salmonella Intestines and A range of food from raw Death, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, faeces of people meats, eggs, milk, orange cramps, fever and headaches. Symptoms and animals, juice, peanut butter appear 8-72 hours and can last 1-8 days water, soil sometimes weeks. Escherichia coli Intestines of Raw beef, salami, chicken, Appear hours. Bloody diarrhoea, animals and dairy and vegetables fever, vomiting, kidney failure, death and humans damage to central nervous system Staphylococcus aureus Found on Meat, poultry, cream Appear 1-6 hours. Last about 24 hours. humans- pimples, products, mayonnaise, Nausea, vomiting, cramps, diarrhoea nose, and cuts. custards Animals and poultry Clostridium botulinum Soil, raw meats Canned food, vegetables in oil Symptoms appear hours. Nausea, diarrhoea, death, slow recovery 6 Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 18

19 Preventative Procedures Bacteria Preventative Procedures Campylobacter Wash hands after touching raw meats. Clean cutting boards, surfaces and utensils after handling raw meats. Cook poultry so there is no pink flesh. Do not touch food when ill. Reheat food above 75 C. Keep raw and cooked food separate. Keep food out of the danger zone. Listeria monocytogenes Wash vegetables well. Keep ready to eat foods in the fridge for a short time. Avoid high-risk foods. Cook raw meats thoroughly. Keep raw and cooked food separate. Wash hands well. Do not leave ready to eat in the fridge for too long. Keep out of the danger zone. Salmonella Cook poultry, eggs and meats well. Wash hands. Wash kitchen surfaces and utensils. Take care when handling food for the elderly, the immuno-compromised and children. Keep hot food hot and cold food cold. Common cause of food poisoning. Escherichia coli Cook meats thoroughly. Wash hands, benches and utensils. Wash vegetables. Keep out of the danger zone. Staphylococcus aureus Cover cuts. Wash hands, benches and utensils. Avoid contact with food-use tongs or gloves. Keep cooked food and raw food separate. Keep out of the danger zone. Clostridium botulinum Keep out of the danger zone. Keep hot food hot and cold food cold. Do not use damaged cans. Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 19

20 Bacteria Characteristics Bacteria Campylobacter Characteristics Growth requirements=32 C - 47 C. ph: Easily killed by heat. Microaerophile. Listeria monocytogenes Growth requirements=0 C - 45 C. ph Anaerobe or microaerophillic. Can grow in the fridge. Salmonella Growth requirements=5 C - 46 C. ph Facultative. Destroyed by heat. No spores. Escherichia coli Growth requirements=7 C - 50 C. ph Facultative Staphylococcus aureus Growth requirements=7 C - 48 C. ph Facultative but likes oxygen. Heat resistant toxins. No spores Clostridium botulinum Growth requirements=3.3 C - 45 C. ph: Produces spores that can survive heat. Produces a deadly toxin. Anaerobic. Terms Anaerobic= An organism that is able to grow without oxygen Facultative = To live in both the absence and presence of oxygen Microaerophile= A organism that likes a lower oxygen concentration Spore= A heat resistant non growing structure Toxin= Are formed when bacterial growth is high, the cells change into toxins that can become resistant to heat or cold. Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 20

21 Thawing food When thawing food you should be aware that the items to be thawed should be kept out of the danger zone for as short as time possible. To minimise the growth of bacteria you should thaw foods by: Keeping items in the refrigerator below 5 C- covered, on a tray and on the bottom shelf to avoid cross contamination In a microwave Make sure that foods are completely thawed before cooking- However, single items can sometimes be cooked in the frozen state as they take less time to cook When freezing foods, freeze small amounts as it will take less time to thaw out. Label and date all foods before freezing. Preparing foods Food can be contaminated when food is prepared in an unhygienic manner. It is important to: Use gloves and change them often- also, wash hands Use utensils when not using gloves Not use utensils on raw foods then touch cooked food Keep chemicals away food areas Keep all benches and floors clean- change or wash chopping boards between using raw and cooked food Not mix old and new food together Minimise the time that potentially hazardous foods are kept out of the coolroom do not exceed the safe time limits Use time control for potentially hazardous foods- potentially hazardous foods kept in the danger zone for less than 2 hours should be refrigerated. Between 2 and 4 hours, items to be used straight away, more than 4 hours items to be thrown away Avoid touching ready to eat foods with your hands- bar staff cutting garnishes to place in beverages Handle ice with tongs- not your hands or a glass Wash fruit and vegetables prior to using: wash away dirt and chemicals- wash hard skinned fruit before using Not use items dropped on the floor Not touch the garbage then touch food without washing your hands Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 21

22 Cooking foods When cooking foods it is important to cook foods above 75 C to minimise the growth of food borne bacteria. To check the temperature it is best to use a probe thermometer. Remember cooking does not kill all bacteria that may be present in food items. Cooling foods When cooling potentially hazardous foods you should: Place food into smaller containers- allowing air to circulate Cool food below 5 C quickly Food items to be cooled from 60 C to 21 C within 2 hours and then from 21 C to 5 C within 4 hours Food to be cooled at room temperature till it reaches 60 C then items should be refrigerated- cover food Use a probe thermometer to check the temperature of foods Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 22

23 Reheating Food When reheating potentially hazardous food it is important to reheat correctly. Food not reheated correctly could harbour the bacteria staphylococcus aureus causing your customers to become ill. When reheating food the following requirements are: Food to be held hot should be reheated quickly to above 75 C it should take no more than 2 hours It is also recommended when reheating to check that the internal temperature of the food reaches 75 C Do not reheat potentially hazardous foods previously reheated throw it away If food is to be eaten without delay there is no requirement to reheat the food to a certain temperature Hold hot food at 60 C Food Display Food on display must be protected from the possibility of contamination by: Temperature control cold food under 5 C and hot food above 60 C Packaging Separate serving utensils for each item. If serving utensils are stored in containers of water, the water must be under 5 C or above 60 C and the water be changed at least hourly Physical barriers- if the display unit is not permanent chafing dishes could be used Supervision- so customers do not contaminate food When displaying hot food in a bain-marie, all food must heated beforehand Do not overfill display units Do not place pies and sausage rolls into a pie warmer without heating them first Use a thermometer to check the temperature of the food displayed Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 23

24 Other Microbial Hazards Moulds makes food go off and spoils it. Make sure you always store correctly and rotate your stock regularly to stop it going off and looking like this! these are living microorganisms that cause food to spoil but which rarely cause food poisoning Moulds grow in filaments and are visible They can cause illness especially if someone is allergic to mould Usual symptoms are nausea and vomiting They are destroyed by heat They thrive in high acid foods such as Fruits Tomatoes Jams, pickles Breads Yeast growth causes fermentation True yeast metabolizes sugar, producing alcohol False yeast grows as a dry film on a food surface which have a high sugar/ acid Can also be destroyed by heat Yeast like juices tomatoes Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 24

25 Hazard 2: Chemical Contamination Chemicals can get into food from sources such as : - Farm Premises Equipment Cleaning Pest control Food products People environment? What examples of potential contamination can be found in a kitchen Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 25

26 Hazard 3: Foreign Object Contamination Foreign objects or Physical hazards can enter food and hurt people from sources such as:- People Product Packaging Premises Pests environment? What examples of potential contamination can be found in a kitchen Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 26

27 Module 3: Implementing the Support Programs for a Food Safety Program 1. Personal Hygiene Hand washing procedures and signage Exclusion of staff with specified infections, diseases, skin conditions etc. Uniform and personal grooming standards Personal behaviour standards Use of gloves 2. Supplier Program Written product specifications Verification of the standards that are in place Supplier agreements List of current suppliers Regular review of suppliers 3. Maintenance of Premises and Equipment 4. Storage 5. Product Identification and Traceability Building design and construction Equipment design, installation and construction Storage areas Sanitary facilities Drainage system design Premises and equipment preventative maintenance program Equipment calibration Equipment performance Inspection and record keeping Design, construction and layout Temperature control and emergency mechanisms Cross contamination controls Labelling goods in storage First In First Out stock rotation Records and maintenance schedules Labelling of all products compliant with Food Standards Code All products in storage labelled including; work in progress, decanted food items etc. Supplier agreements on labelling requirements Identification of product, use-by and best-before dates, ingredient lists and %, nutrition information Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 27

28 6. Allergen and Food Sensitivity Procedures Product Allergen Control Summary available for customers identifying listed allergens in the Food Standards Code. These include; dairy, wheat, gluten, seafood, soy, nuts (tree and ground), propolis,. Genetically modified ingredients, egg and egg products etc. 7. Cleaning and Sanitising 8. Pest Control Written cleaning schedule Cleaning standards and procedures Monitoring effectiveness of program Trained staff in using chemicals and understanding MSDS Safe storage and handling of chemicals Performance of cleaning program Exclusion through physical barriers Pest prevention program Safe use of pesticides and rodenticides Reporting procedures 9. Waste Disposal Waste storage Design, construction, layout and location of bins and waste storage areas Waste disposal and removal from premises 10. Staff Training Induction training, ongoing and refresher training outlining roles and responsibilities Documented training plan Training records Accredited training programs 11. Customer Complaints and Food Poisoning Allegations 12. Product Recall Documented procedures for the handling of customer complaints and food poisoning allegations Written complaint records Product labelling and traceability Product recall by suppliers Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 28

29 Personal Hygiene Hygiene is very important to anyone who works in a food establishment. How you handle food, crockery, cutlery, glasses, surfaces, equipment or anything that comes into contact with food can affect the health of your customers. A food handler has a legal responsibility to abide by the NSW Food Act 2003 and the Food Standards Code. Your business depends on customers. If your business loses its reputation through having dirty premises and staff, your customers will not come back. The human body carries bacteria so as a food handler you must minimise the risk of contaminating food by: Preventing your body or clothing from coming into contact with food or food surfaces Where possible, protective clothing should only be worn in food handling areas (avoid wearing uniforms to work and take off aprons when using the toilet) Wearing clean clothing daily and change when they become soiled Not eating over food or surfaces Not smoking or using tobacco in food preparation areas Not urinating or defecating anywhere except in a toilet Avoiding contact with ready-to-eat foods Not spitting, sneezing, coughing or blowing over food or surfaces Keeping open cuts or wounds covered with bandages and waterproof coverings Showering daily Watches, jewellery, etc should not be worn. If your rings cannot be taken off, a glove should be worn Keeping your locker free from dirty clothing or anything that may attract pest and vermin Tying long hair back Wearing hats where provided Keeping nails short, no nail polish and no artificial nails (If this cannot be avoided the food handler may wear gloves and wash well under nails to avoid faeces being trapped) Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 29

30 Use of disposable gloves You are not required to wear gloves when handling food. If you do, they should be thrown out after each continuous task. They should also be removed when going to the toilet, eating, smoking, coughing, sneezing and touching parts of your body. Using clean utensils when handling food is preferred as people tend not change their gloves between uses. Rules for hand washing After using the toilet After touching any part of their body Before handling any ready to eat food and raw food Entering or re-entering your work area After smoking, sneezing, coughing, using a tissue or handkerchief, drinking or eating After handling garbage After handling animals After doing any cleaning Whenever you are likely to contaminate food After handling money Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 30

31 How to wash your hands A food handler must wash their hands for at least 20 seconds in the hand washbasin provided (not in a sink that is used for other purposes) Use soap and warm running water. The water temperature for warm water should be around 40 C, below 22 C is too cold and above 48 C is too hot Dry hands on a single use towel (single use towels are found to be more effective than air dryers as they remove more moisture, a combination of both is acceptable but air dryers should not be used on their own) Do not just wet your finger tips- wash hands thoroughly in between fingers, fingernails and also your wrists (remove jewellery) The Australian Food Standards Code clearly states an employee s responsibilities regarding health when working with food:- Standard 3.2.2: 14 Health of food handlers (1) A food handler who has a symptom that indicates the handler may be suffering from a food-borne disease, or knows he or she is suffering from a food-borne disease, or is a carrier of a food-borne disease, must, if at work (a) Report that he or she is or may be suffering from the disease, or knows that he or she is carrying the disease, to his or her supervisor; (b) Not engage in any handling of food where there is a likelihood of food contamination as a result of the disease; and (c) If continuing to engage in other work on the food premises take all practicable measures to prevent food from being contaminated as a result of the disease. Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 31

32 Employees responsibilities Employees should ensure that they do not contaminate food and follow all workplace hygiene procedures. These are all legal requirements in the Australian Food standards Code:- Following all workplace hygiene procedures as instructed; Using hand wash basins correctly as provided; Practicing good personal hygiene at work and before coming to work; Wear correct and clean uniform; Do not handle food directly with bare hands Reporting all notifiable symptoms and illnesses and conditions to a Supervisor; Reporting all food safety hazards. Employers responsibilities Employers should ensure that staff and other people do not contaminate food by: Providing hand wash basins with warm running water, sanitising soap and paper towel for hand washing Not smoking or spitting in food areas or other areas where smoking is not permitted Putting signs up that say no smoking Restricting people that should not be in food preparation areas Preventing people handling food if they are suffering a food-borne illness Providing hand basins, soap, warm water and single use towels Providing toilets Having an area to store personal items Having separate area for office equipment Having separate area to store chemicals Informing staff of their responsibilities in regard to health and hygiene Ensuring that staff have the skills and knowledge to handle food in a safe manner so as not to contaminate food Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 32

33 Hand Washing Procedures When should you wash hands? How should you wash your hands? Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 33

34 General Standard Procedures for Storage All products must be adequately covered to avoid any risk of contamination. All products must be clearly labelled to ensure stock rotation. A stock rotation system of first in - first out needs to be used All products must be regularly checked for expiry dates and for signs of deterioration. All products must be stored at least 18cm above the floor to allow for ease of access for cleaning and pest inspection and to minimise the likelihood of a pest infestation. All storage areas must be cleaned regularly as per the Cleaning Schedule. All spills and leaks must be cleaned up immediately - when cleaning, care should be taken to ensure that product is not splashed with cleaning liquids. Storage areas and storage shelving must be constructed of suitable materials that can be cleaned easily and will not lead to contamination of food products. Storage areas must have adequate lighting so that staff can clean adequately and safely and are able to read product labels and view the condition of products in storage. Light fittings must be covered to prevent contamination in the event of the light shattering. Storage Standards Standards for the Storage of Perishable Foods in Fridges and Freezers Fresh and perishable foods must be stored in a cool room or refrigerator operating at or below 5 C and frozen foods at -18 C and/or hard frozen Refrigerators and freezers should be fitted with a temperature alarm system to notify when the temperature rises. If there is a breakdown of a cool-room, refrigerator or freezer, the business must immediately contact a suitably qualified refrigeration mechanic. All food must be immediately transferred to an alternate storage area or thrown out. In the event of a refrigeration breakdown, any perishable foods which have risen in temperature to above 5 C must be discarded or used within 2 hours. If a freezer breaks down, any perishable foods which have begun to defrost must be placed in a refrigerator unit and used within 72 hours. Fridges and freezers must not be overloaded. Raw and cooked foods must be stored separately either in a separate cool room or via shelving (raw foods and unwashed vegetables and fruit must be stored below cooked and prepared foods). Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 34

35 Standards for the Storage of Dry Foods in Cupboards and Shelves All dry storage cupboards and shelves must be free from dampness, mould or condensation. All products must be covered to prevent contamination from dust, dirt, insects and other foreign matter. Large bags of product such as flour will either be decanted into a lidded container or the open bag placed directly into a lidded container. All containers used for the storage of food and food related items (ingredients, disposables etc.) should be in good condition and present no risk to contamination. Food will not be stored in old chemical or waste containers. Chemicals must not be stored in food containers or food storage areas. There should be suitable ventilation in place to maintain the quality and freshness of food items. The dry stores area must be maintained to prevent the entry and harborage of pests. Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 35

36 Calibration All businesses must have a working thermometer; All probe thermometers and temperature gauges must be calibrated at least once every month; and Calibrate thermometers using the ice point and boiling water method. Probe Thermometer Calibration Procedure Ice Point Check: Make sure that the thermometer has been at ambient room temperature for at least 10 minutes. Fill a small insulated container (e.g. small foam esky) with crushed ice that has been made from potable water (town drinking water is OK). Add some water to the container, no more than one third the quantity of ice, to start the ice melting. There should be water between the ice pieces but the ice should not be floating. Pour off the excess water. Place the thermometer probe in the centre of the container so that the point of the probe is in contact with the ice and water. The point of the probe should not touch the base of the container. Leave for about 10 minutes to obtain a steady reading and stir. Read the temperature on the thermometer. If: The thermometer is accurate it should read 0oC. The temperature is not at 0 C note the difference in the temperature reading. For example, if the thermometer is 0.5C, then the difference is -0.5C. If the temperature is greater than 1 C or colder than -1 C, the thermometer(s) will be replaced or returned to the manufacturer for servicing. Source: NSW Food Authority Vulnerable Persons Food Safety Scheme Manual Source: NSW Food Authority Vulnerable Persons Food Safety Scheme Manual Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 36

37 Single Use Items Standards for the use of single use items Items intended for single use may include: To protect single use items from contamination and in accordance with the Food Standards Code:- Staff and customers avoid touching inside containers where food is to be placed Straws are placed in a dispenser where the customer cannot touch the ends- a glass is not sufficient Bar staff should avoid touching the ends of the straw when placing in a drink Not to place items on the floor Packaging of the items should protect the items from being contaminated You store items away from chemicals Storage areas clean and free from pests Items should only be used once- can be used again as long food is not placed inside Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 37

38 Cleaning and Sanitising Good Hygiene requires effective, frequent and regular cleaning of premises and equipment. What is the difference between cleaning and sanitising? Cleaning means removing the dirt, stains and food waste you can see on a surface using hot water, detergent and clean rinse water. You can effectively clean by: Removing all traces of food particles from the surface by scraping or rinsing Using warm water between 54 C to 60 C Using detergent Rinsing the detergent off to avoid spoilage Items should look clean and feel clean Sanitising means reducing the number of harmful microbes on a surface to safe levels by reducing the level of protein on the surface of the equipment or utensils You can sanitise by: Using hot water, the temperature should be above 77 C for at least 30 seconds Use of domestic dishwashers, the temperature can range from 65.6 C to above 68 C Use of a commercial dishwasher (effective sanitising depends on design, temperature of inside machine, water pressure and so on) Items should be dry before using, if they are not, there is a risk that microorganisms can remain There is a range of chemical sanitisers available from suppliers that can be used manually or in the dishwasher. It is important to use the correct sanitiser suitable for the task and the right amount. Chemical sanitisers can be used on surfaces, eating and drinking items. Surfaces that are to be sanitised need to be clean for the sanitiser to be effective. Most chemical sanitisers are chlorine based and are left on or rinsed off depending on the type used. Before items or surfaces are used they should be dry either by air drying or using a clean towel. Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 38

39 Example of a Cleaning Roster Please complete 5 more items to be cleaned Item to be cleaned When How By whom Kitchen Floor Daily Sweep, mop, hot water & detergent Kitchen hand Storeroom floor Daily Sweep, mop, hot water & detergent Kitchen hand Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 39

40 Handling of chemicals and equipment Chemicals and equipment used for cleaning should be stored in a separate area away from food areas. Alternatively a cupboard may be used. When handling chemicals you should: Read the instructions Use a mask, gloves and safety glasses when required Do not place food items in chemical containers Use the correct chemical for the job Use MSDS (material safety data sheet) when handling chemicals. These can be obtained from the supplier. When should you clean and sanitise? How should you clean and sanitise? Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 40

41 Pest Control Keeping your premises clean Not storing items on floor which assist in cleaning Keeping your garbage area clean Cleaning your garbage bins daily Using bin liners Keeping windows closed Not leaving food lying around Using traps or chemicals Using a reputable pest controller Waste Disposal How can you protect food from contamination during waste disopsal? Rubbish bins should be clean and a bin liner in place Waste storage area to be separated from processing area and kept clean and tidy at all times Bin liners to be firmly secured before placing into large waste disposal receptacles (skip bins) Do not allow waste to accumulate as it is a perfect breeding ground for pests Used oils and fats should be kept in rigid containers, covered securely when full and placed in bin Oils should never be washed down the plug hole of a sink Grease traps to be serviced regularly by a registered operator, contact local council for approved operators Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 41

42 Module 4: Implementing a Food Safety Program A Food Safety Program aims to:- Prevent Control Eliminate food safety hazards The concept of a Food Safety Program is based on the principles of HACCP (pronounced hass-up ), which stands for: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Where did HACCP come from? HACCP is based on space age technology designed to keep food safe in outer space which is now used on earth to keep us safe. HACCP was first developed by NASA and a company called Pillsbury in the US. Their goal was to produce 100% safe food for astronauts on the first manned flights to space. HACCP is now used as the basis of most international food safety laws and by food companies as the basis of their Food Safety Programs. HACCP is the basis of the Food Safety Standards Code Standard 3.2.1, requiring businesses to implement a food safety program based upon the HACCP concepts. Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 42

43 The seven principles of HACCP There are 7 HACCP principles:- 1 What happens here?/ What can go wrong here? What can I do about it? (Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis) Where can I control hazards? (Principle 2: Identify Critical Control Points - CCPs) How can I control the hazards? (Principle 3: Establish control standards/ critical limits) How can I check the hazard is being controlled? (Principle 4: Monitor control of the CCP) What do I have to do to correct the hazard if the standard was not met? (Principle 5: Establish corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a hazard is not under control) What records do we have to keep? (Principle 6: Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application) How can we make sure the HACCP program is working? (Principle 7: Establish verification procedures to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively) , Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations World Health Organisation, Rome Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 43

44 Step 1: Establish the Scope of the Food Safety Plan HACCP Purpose: HACCP Scope: Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 44

45 Step 2: Identify Critical Control Points The Food safety team draw up a flow diagram which summarises the exact process steps that the food item(s) undergoes, from the time of purchase, through to the time of sale or service. To do this the team will need to develop a flow chart based on their experience and knowledge and then observe the steps at various times of operation. Sample Flow Chart for your business where you can control hazards

46 Step 3: Establish Control Standards Control Standards are defined as procedures which prevent, control or reduce the hazards at Critical Points in the process to an acceptable level. Control Standards must have a critical limit or target, which is the minimum/ maximum standards for controlling a hazard. Control Standards must be measurable, specific, realistic and practical. Examples of Control Standards:- Follow personal hygiene procedures Inspect all goods on receipt Measure the temperature of chilled incoming goods to ensure they are at 2 C - 5 C and are stored within 20 minutes Cook food item to an internal minimum temperature of 75 C Examples of specific Control Standards or Critical Limits in Food Service: Temperature Control Where growth or support of pathogens due to temperature abuse is identified as a hazard, appropriate measures for temperature control must be implemented, monitoring conducted and records of monitoring activity conducted. Limits for temperatures of potentially hazardous food and its frequency of monitoring must comply with the following: Receipt; cold food 5 C; hot food 60 C; frozen food hard frozen (Food Standards Code clause 5). Temperature monitored upon each delivery of potentially hazardous food. Storage; Cold food stored at 5 C; hot food 60 C; frozen food hard frozen. Storage temperatures of potentially hazardous food must be monitored a minimum of once a day. It is advisable to check in the morning and afternoon. Preparation; High risk foods that are ready to eat must be handled using gloves/ tongs etc. high risk foods must not be out of refrigeration for longer than hour during preparation. Cooking/Reheating; product core temperature 75 C (instant) or equivalent validated process. Temperature must be monitored each batch. Cooling; product core temperature cooled from 60 C to 21 C within 2 hours and 21 C to 5 C within a further 4 hours (Food Standards Code clause 7). Temperature must be monitored each batch. Plating/Service; core temperature plating hot food 60 C, plating cold food 5 C or equivalent validated process. Temperature to be monitored each batch or during meal service. Hot/Cold-Holding; core temperature hot food 60 C, cold food 5 C (Food Standards Code clause 8). Temperature must be monitored a minimum of once per meal time and should be taken from different areas (Food Standards Code clause 8). Delivery/Transport; core temperature hot food 60 C, cold food 5 C; frozen food hard frozen. Temperature must be monitored at last meal delivered. Source: Australian Food Standards Code Standard 3.2.2: Food Safety Practices Wildstar Management Pty Limited/4. Courses/4.13 (e) FSS Manual V5 Aug 12 46

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