Nature of the Problem and State of the Field

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1 Nature of the Problem and State of the Field Linda Carpenter, Project Director June 23, 2010 A Program of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment and the Administration on Children, Youth and Families Children s Bureau Office on Child Abuse and Neglect 2 1

2 What is the Nature of the Problem? An Overview of the Challenge Prevalence numbers will show that many more children are affected than the attention we give to this issue The cost over time to treat these children is far greater than the cost of prevention and early identification Our efforts are now fragmented and focused more on pilot projects than systems change 2

3 exposed infants An Overview of the Challenge Of the 74,602,590 children under the age of 18, 11% or 8.3 million live with one or more parent who is dependent on alcohol or illegal drugs Of children entering the child welfare system, 40-80%* are affected by their parents or caretakers substance abuse Prenatal screening studies document 15-20% of newborns prenatally exposed to alcohol, tobacco, or illegal drugs 3

4 c1 Children Living with One or More Substance-Abusing Parent Numbers indicate millions Use During Pregnancy SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, Annual Average Total U.S. Births 2007: 4,317,000 Substance Used (Past Month) 1st Trimester 2nd Trimester 3rd Trimester Any Illicit Drug 7.2% 5.0% 2.8% Alcohol Use 20.7% 7.8% 3.5% Binge Alcohol Use 10.3% 1.9% 1.3% Cigarettes 23.7% 12.9% 13.7% 4

5 Slide 7 c1 New Slide here and copied Previous Slide after since the 9% bullet point is explained in this graph cotero, 5/21/2010

6 Legal Drugs Affect Far More Children PRAMS Colorado data says 2007 rate of alcohol use in LAST 3 months of pregnancy was 11.4% (= 8,072 newborns) PRAMS Colorado data says 2007 rate of tobacco use in last three months was 10.8% (= 7,647 newborns) National estimates of illicit drug use 2.3 % last trimester (= 2,761 newborns) Number of Children Prenatally Exposed to Substances State prevalence studies report 10-12% of infants or mothers test positive for alcohol or illicit drugs at birth Total births = 4,317, % of total births = 474,870 Total child victims under age 1 year = 91,

7 What is the Impact on the Child? Impact on the Child Complex interchange of biological, psychological and sociological events Other issues in parental behavior, competence, and disorders interact which may lead to multiple co-occurring problems for children Children of parents with a substance use disorders are at an increased risk for developmental delays as well as involvement with child welfare services. 12 6

8 Impact on the Child Effects of prenatal exposure and postnatal environment may include: Physical Health Consequences Language Delay / Disorders Behavioral/Emotional Dysregulation/Poor Social Skills Cognition/Learning Disabilities/Delayed School Readiness Executive Dysfunction Motor Delays Attentional Problems Below Average Intellectual Abilities Memory Difficulties Attachment disorders Impact on the Child Research has focused primarily on the impact of illicit it drugs (cocaine & methamphetamine h t more recently), and usually only one drug not poly-drug use as is most often the case. The adverse effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol have been clearly established: Prenatal exposure to alcohol is the most common form of preventable brain damage. 14 7

9 Impact on the Child FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome) rates range from cases per 1,000 live births. Other prenatal alcohol conditions, such as ARND (alcohol-related neuro-developmental disorders) and ARBD (alcohol-related birth defects) are estimated to occur about three times as often. (Fetal Alcohol Surveillance Network (FASSNet), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) It is estimated that approximately 1 out of every 100 people in the US may have FASD. (May and Gossage,Estimating the Prevalence of FAS, 2001) Impact on the Child State prevalence studies report 10-12% of infants or mothers test positive for alcohol or illicit drugs at birth Total births = 4,317, % of total births = 474,870 Total child victims under age 1 year = 91, Where did they all go? 8

10 Most Go Home 75-90% of substance-exposed infants are undetected t d and go home. Why? Many hospitals don t test or don t systematically refer to CPS State law may not require report or referral Tests only detect very recent use 17 Where Are They? They are the children who arrive at kindergarten unready for school They are in special education caseloads They are disproportionately in foster care They are in juvenile justice caseloads They are in residential treatment programs 9

11 What Are We Doing to Address this Issue? Substance Exposed Infants The Spotlight on this Issue is Getting Brighter States assurances of CAPTA compliance New federal attention to home visiting models for high-risk births Expanded Early Head Start funding States have developed and are monitoring their Performance Improvement Plans in response to the Child and Family Services Reviews (CFSRs) Perinatal treatment programs have accomplished a great deal for a small portion of the problem SEN project (C-SIMI) funded from U.S. Children s Bureau 10

12 The Framework: Five Points of Intervention Pre-pregnancy and public awareness Prenatal screening and support Screening at birth Services to infants Services to parents So the birth event is one of several opportunities to make a difference, not the only one 21 States have implemented several pieces of the puzzle: Pre-pregnancy: Ad campaigns Prenatal screening : 4PsPlus screening, other tools (WA) At birth: Model prevalence studies* Infants 0-2: Early screening projects combining Medicaid with mental health and developmental disabilities funding; CAPTA assessments (MA) Preschool 3-5: Head Start models, family treatment models *Available at 11

13 Compiled Tools, Resources and Effective Models SEI Paper- Substance-Exposed Infants: State Responses to the Problem Models Washington State Research Triangle Institute RPG Children's Cluster Miami i Zero to Two Court Strengthening Families Celebrating Families Policy and Practice Framework: Five Points of Intervention 1. Pre pregnancy awareness of substance use effects 2. Prenatal screening and assessment Initiate enhanced prenatal services Child 3. Identification at Birth Parent 4. Ensure infant s safety and respond to infant s needs System Linkages Respond to parents needs 5. Identify and respond to the needs of Infant Child Preschooler Adolescent System Linkages Identify and respond to parents needs 24 12

14 Where Do We Go From Here? Substance Exposed Infants No One Agency: a Classic Services Integration Issue The issue of prenatal exposure does not belong to any one agency, because it demands comprehensive services provided along a continuum of prevention, intervention and treatment at different developmental stages in the life of the child and family No single agency can deliver all of these; an interagency, integrated services effort is critical 26 13

15 What Would a Statewide Interagency Response Look Like? It would compile baseline measures of the current problem across key agencies for the first time including CAPTA reports It would set targets and monitor them in an annual report card format for the first time It would inventory current efforts and spending across agencies (as Oregon has) for the first time It would spotlight and disseminate information on model programs at the local level It would work at all five levels of intervention What Would a Statewide Interagency Response Look Like? It would be coordinated from the Governor's Office or an overhead agency It would include at least the state agencies with these functions: Drug and alcohol treatment Child welfare Maternal and child health Medicaid Mental health Education and special education Developmental disabilities Early childhood care and education 14

16 A Discussion of Underlying Values is Essential A Collaborative Values Inventory can be used to surface some of the important disagreements and different perceptions of the SEI issue, as noted in the attached examples of responses to past CVIs The wide differences in attitudes about practices and policy show the need for intensive i interagency and inter-professional dialogue about these differences In our community, alcohol use during pregnancy is seen as problematic as drug use. 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 34% Strongly Agree 39% Agree 9% 13% 1% Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 3% N/A n = 54 n = 62 n = 15 n = 21 n = 1 n = 5 N =

17 Our community has good methods of identifying substance exposure in prenatal screening. 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 38% 26% 22% 8% 3% 4% Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly N/A Agree Disagree n = 12 n = 60 n = 41 n = 34 n = 5 n = 6 N = 158 Our community has good methods of identifying prenatal exposure at birth. 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% N = % 22% 16% 10% 3% 4% Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly N/A Agree Disagree n = 15 n = 72 n = 34 n = 25 n = 4 n = 6 16

18 Hospitals in my community do a good job of screening newborns affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol. 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 33% 29% 23% 7% 6% 3% Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly N/A Agree Disagree n = 11 n = 50 n = 44 n = 35 n = 4 n = 9 N = 153 Prenatal screening should be mandated as a part of all prenatal care. 60% 50% 48% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 32% 8% 8% 1% 3% Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly N/A Agree Disagree n = 74 n = 49 n = 13 n = 12 n = 2 n = 4 N =

19 Screening for alcohol and drugs at birth should be required by law. 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 39% 27% 14% 13% 4% 3% Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly N/A Agree Disagree n = 59 n = 42 n = 21 n = 20 n = 6 n = 5 N = % 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 8% Our community has good methods for further assessing and providing appropriate services to newborns who are prenatally exposed. 45% 23% 17% 5% 3% Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly N/A Agree Disagree n = 13 n = 69 n = 36 n = 26 n = 7 n = 4 N =

20 Seek Opportunities for Advancing Policy and Leveraging Change Health Care Reform using Medicaid funding of births (41% and rising) to leverage screening CFSR review II spotlight on the child welfare system s SEI reunification outcomes Federal treatment information system changes 37 Seek Opportunities for Advancing Policy and Leveraging Change Monitoring of child and family service state plans, IDEA Part C and CAPTA CAPTA reauthorization to include alcohol Ensure SENs are high priority for Home Visiting models 38 19

21 It is time to call the question Will there be a going to scale discussion? The Ethical Argument: How can we not respond when we know the impact on a child? The Fiscal Argument: How can we not respond when we know the costs of a lifetime of care? National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare How do I access technical assistance? Visit the NCSACW website for resources and products at Complete the contact form on the website us at 40 20

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