1 How Emotional/ Psychological Trauma Affects the Body
2 Objectives: Define trauma What is the relationship between physical health and PTSD? Identify how trauma is assessed/screened How can family members help? Evidence based treatment options
4 What is Trauma?
5 Individual trauma results from an event, series of events, or set of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or threatening and that can have lasting adverse effects on the individual s functioning and physical, social, emotional well-being.
6 The three main types of trauma: 1. Acute 2. Chronic 3. Complex
7 Acute trauma results from a single incident.
8 An accident An act of violence A natural disaster A loved one s passing Physical or sexual assault
9 Chronic trauma is repeated and prolonged
10 Domestic violence Combat for military personnel A build up of multiple traumas throughout one s life
11 Complex trauma is exposure to varied and multiple traumatic events, often of an invasive, interpersonal nature.
12 Concentration camps Prisoner of War camps Prostitution brothels Long-term domestic violence Long-term child physical abuse Long-term child sexual abuse Organized child exploitation rings
13 Emotional Symptoms of Trauma Shock, denial, or disbelief Anger, irritability, mood swings Guilt, shame, self-blame Feeling sad or hopeless Confusion, difficulty concentrating Anxiety and fear Withdrawing from others Feeling disconnected or numb
14 Physical Symptoms of Trauma Insomnia or nightmares Being startled easily Racing heartbeat Aches and pains Fatigue Difficulty concentrating Edginess and agitation Muscle tension
15 Other common symptoms Feeling suicidal Self harm and self-destructive tendencies Feeling distrustful and suspicious/blaming others Guilt, Shame, embarrassment or self blame Misuse of alcohol/drugs/gambling and/or food Exhaustion Seeking out high-risk/dangerous pursuits Physical aches and pains Over-reactions to minor situations Fear of being alone and fear of being in crowds
16 HOW IS TRAUMA ASSESSED/SCREENED?
17 LIFE EVENT CHECKLIST A brief, 17-item, self-report measure designed to screen for potentially traumatic events in a respondent's lifetime. The LEC assesses exposure to 16 events known to potentially result in PTSD or distress and includes one item assessing any other extraordinarily stressful event not captured in the first 16 items.
18 The US Department of Veterans Affairs maintains an up-todate list of assessment tools and measures for PTSD. One of the preferred self-report measure is the recentlyupdated PCL-5, and the CAPS-5 remains the gold standard interview measure for PTSD. Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) Download from va.gov Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS: Bremner, Mazure, Putnam) Download CADSS from Dr Bremner's website Childhood Traumatic Events Scale (Pennebaker & Susman, 1988) Download CTES from Dr Pennebaker's website Trauma Response Checklist Download from whatisptsd.com PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) Download from va.gov
19 Measure availability: Information on measures is available to everyone. However, the assessment tools themselves can only be distributed to qualified mental health professionals and researchers. We maintain measures developed by affiliated staff of the National Center for PTSD.
20 What is the relationship between physical health and PTSD?
21 Many people are already familiar with the fact that emotional stress can lead to stomachaches, irritable bowel syndrome, and headaches, but might not know that it can also cause other physical complaints and even chronic pain.
22 One logical reason for this: studies have found that the more anxious and stressed people are, the more tense and constricted their muscles are, over time causing the muscles to become fatigued and inefficient.
23 Following a traumatic event, or repeated trauma, people react in different ways, experiencing a wide range of physical and emotional reactions. There is no right or wrong way to think, feel, or respond to trauma, so don t judge your own reactions or those of other people.
24 Your responses are NORMAL reactions to ABNORMAL events.
25 Existing research has not been able to determine conclusively that PTSD causes poor health. Thus, caution is warranted in making a causal interpretation of what is presented here. It may be the case that something associated with PTSD is actually the cause of greater health problems.
26 Summarily, the ultimate goal is to ask What happened to you? Versus What is wrong with you?
27 How can family members help?
28 PTSD makes communication difficult.
29 The more you appreciate things from the PTSD perspective the more helpful and supportive you can be. Now is the time for empathy, compassion and patience.
30 We need you to be clearheaded, pulled together and informed. Gently remind us and offer opportunities to engage in an identity outside of trauma and PTSD. Believe in us; our true selves still exist, even if they are momentarily buried. Be patient with us; we often cannot stop the anger, tears or other disruptive behaviors that are so difficult for you to endure. Keep reaching out, even when your words don t seem to reach us. You never know when we will think of something you said and it will comfort, guide, soothe or inspire us. Honor our struggle to make peace with events. Do not rush us. Trying to speed our recovery will only make us cling to it more. Alleviate our stress by giving us a safe space in which we can find support. Continue to approach us. We need you to!
31 Don t give up, we re doing our best.
33 Evidence based treatment options
34 Psychotherapy is a broad field that covers a whole range of treatment techniques, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy
35 COGNITVE PROCESSING THERAPY Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is a manualized 12-session treatment approach that can be administered in a group or individual setting.
36 EXPOSURE THERAPY Exposure therapy for PTSD asks clients to directly describe and explore traumarelated memories, objects, emotions, or places. Intense emotions are evoked (e.g., sadness, anxiety) but eventually decrease, desensitizing clients through repeated encounters with traumatic material.
37 EYE MOVEMENT DESENSITIZATION AND REPROCESSING EMDR (Shapiro, 2001) is one of the most widely used therapies for trauma and PTSD. The treatment protocols of EMDR have evolved into sophisticated paradigms requiring training and, preferably, clinical supervision. EMDR draws on a variety of theoretical frameworks, including psychoneurology, CBT, information processing, and nonverbal representation of traumatic memories.
38 NARRATIVE THERAPY Narrative therapy is an emerging approach to understanding human growth and change; it is founded on the premise that individuals are the experts on their own lives and can access their existing intrapsychic and interpersonal resources to reduce the impact of problems in their lives.
39 CITATIONS Herman, J. (1997). Trauma and recovery: The aftermath of violence from domestic abuse to political terror. New York: Basic Books. Ford, J. D. (1999). Disorders of extreme stress following war-zone military trauma: Associated features of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or comorbid but distinct syndromes? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, van der Kolk, B. (2005). Developmental trauma disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 35(5), Roth, S., Newman, E., Pelcovitz, D., van der Kolk, B., & Mandel, F. S. (1997). Complex PTSD in victims exposed to sexual and physical abuse: Results from the DSM-IV field trial for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10, PTSD UK-TOMORROW CAN BE A NEW DAY PSYCHOLOGY TOOLS.NET PTSDUK.ORG Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 57. HHS Publication No. (SMA) Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Resick & Schnicke, 1992,1993
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