# Question 2: How do you solve a linear programming problem with a graph?

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1 Question 2: How do you solve a linear programming problem with a graph? Now that we have several linear programming problems, let s look at how we can solve them using the graph of the system of inequalities. The linear programming problem for the craft brewery was found to be Maximize P 100x 80x subject to x x 50, x 85.25x 4,000, x 10.85x 1,000,000 x 0, x 0

2 The shaded region corresponds to all of the possible combinations of pale ale and porter that satisfy the constraints. Since the solution to the maximization of profit must come from this region, it is called the feasible region. This means that the ordered pairs in the shaded region are feasible solutions for the linear programming problem. To solve the linear programming problem, we need to find which combination of x 1 and x 2 lead to the greatest profit. We could pick possible combination from the graph and calculate the profit at each location on the graph, but this would be extremely time consuming. Instead we ll pick a value for the profit and find all of the ordered pairs on the graph that match that profit.

3 Allows the student to change the isoprofit line to several levels and to see the changes on the graph. Suppose we start with a profit of \$3,000,000. Substitute this value into the objective function to yield the equation 3,000, x 80x. If we graph this line on the same graph as the system of inequalities, we get the dashed line labeled P 3,000,000. A line on which the profit is constant is called an isoprofit line. The prefix iso- means same so that an isoprofit line has the same profit along it. Along the isoprofit line P 3,000,000, every combination of pale ale and porter leads to a profit of \$3,000,000. The isoprofit lines P 4,000,000 and P 5, 000, 000 can be graphed in the same manner and are pictured in Figure 2. Figure 2 - Several levels of profit at \$3,000,000, \$4,000,000 and \$5,000,000.

4 As profit increases, the isoprofit lines move farther to the right. Higher profit levels lead to similar lines that are farther and farther from the origin. Eventually the isoprofit line is outside of the feasible region. For equally spaced profit levels we get equally spaced parallel lines on the graph. Notice that the P 5,000,000 is completely outside the shaded region. This means that no combination of pale ale and porter will satisfy the inequalities and earn a profit of \$5,000,000. There is an isoprofit line, P 4, 706,564, that will just graze the feasible region. This isoprofit line will touch where the border for the capacity constraint and the border of the hops constraint intersect. Points where the borders for the constraints cross are called corner points of the feasible region. Figure 3 - The optimal production level for the craft brewery rounded to one decimal place. The isoprofit for this level is also graphed.

5 If the profit is any higher than this level, the isoprofit line no longer contains any ordered pairs from the feasible region. This means that this profit level is the maximum profit and it occurs at the corner point where 35,328.2 barrels of pale ale and 14,671.8 barrels of porter are produced. Two of the constraint borders intersect at the corner point corresponding to the optimal solution. These constraints, the constraints for capacity and hops, are said to be binding constraints. The malt constraint does not intersect the corner point that maximizes profit so it is a nonbinding constraint. For resources corresponding to binding constraints, all of the resources are used. In this case, all of the capacity and hops are used to produce the optimal amounts of beer. However, all of the malt is not used which is why the malt constraint is not binding at the optimal solution.

6 The fact that the optimal solution occurs at a corner point of the feasible region suggests the following insight. The optimal solution to a linear programming will occur at a corner point to the feasible region or along a line connecting two adjacent corner points of the feasible region. If a feasible region is bounded, there will always be an optimal solution. Unbounded feasible regions may or may not have an optimal solution.

7 We can use this insight to develop the following strategy for solving linear programming problems with two decision variables. 1. Graph the feasible region using the system of inequalities in the linear programming problem. 2. Find the corner points of the feasible region. 3. At each corner point, find the value of the objective function. By examining the value of the objective function, we can find the maximum or minimum values. If the feasible region is bounded, the maximum and minimum values of the objective function will occur at one or more of the corner points. If two adjacent corner points lead to same maximum (or minimum) value, then the maximum (or minimum) value also occurs at all points on the line connecting the adjacent corner points.

8 Unbounded feasible regions may or may not have optimal values. However, if the feasible region is in the first quadrant and the coefficients of the objective function are positive, then there is a minimum value at one or more of the corner points. There is no maximum value in this situation. Like a bounded region, if the minimum occurs at two adjacent corner points, it also occurs on the line connecting the adjacent corner points. Figure 4 The feasible region in Graph (a) can be enclosed in a circle so it is a bounded feasible region. The feasible region in Graph (b) extends infinitely far to the upper right so it cannot be enclosed in a circle. This feasible region is unbounded.

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