Arktis en kilde til fornybar energi?

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1 Arktis en kilde til fornybar energi? Ånund Killingtveit 1 1 Norwegian University of Science and Technology

2 Centre for environmental design of renewable energy - CEDREN

3 SRREN was prepared for WG III In 2008 IPCC decided to produce a Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation The report (SRREN) was finished in 2011 and printed in 2012 It will also be an input to Assessment Report 5 (AR5) in 2014

4 Potential Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN) Bio-energy Hydro Solar Ocean energy Waves, Tidal, Current Geothermal Wind Renewable energy sources suitability depends on latitude, local climate, geology and topography

5 A view towards the Arctic / High North region RE Technologies (SRREN) Not all will be applicable in the High North - Bio-energy: Low potential in High North - Direct solar: Low potential, High cost - Geothermal: Low potential outside Iceland - Ocean energy: Unknown potential, very high cost

6 Capacity factor 0.05 Capacity factor 0.10 Capacity factor 0.20

7 78o N Longyearbyen 63o N (Trondheim) 52o N (Berlin) 23o N (Sahara)

8 Existing hydropower development in the Arctic

9 Hydropower from the north - example > MW in La Grande system, Canada Several reservoirs and power plants built step-by-step Provides electricity to Quebec security of supply DC line to Boston, USA export and peak power

10 Hydropower in the high north Large unused potential Increased runoff with climate change Small scale hydro in remote areas Large-scale balancing power for export to the south Local scale balancing with other renewables

11 Wind Map (IPCC-SRREN) IPCC-SRREN report does not contain detailed wind power assessments for the Arctic but many studies have documented high wind resources in Alaska, Canada, Russia, Iceland and Scandinavia Long distance to the consumption centres is a major problem Stand-alone local systems will need balancing technology

12 Wind turbines operating in cold or icing climate Source: IEA, Wind RP13

13 Wind power in cold climate Some special considerations: Low temperature (outside normal limits) Icing Legal issues (Ice throw, noise, ) O&M issues Economy (high cost, low load factor)

14 MW MW Wind Power is highly variable needs balancing x 24 h x 24 h 7 x 24 h

15 Renewable energy in the high north Abundant wind resources in the north Remote and expensive grid connection Local hydropower for balancing Case study Goulas hydropower + wind Lakselv Goulas hydropower Source: SINTEF Energy AS Northern Norway

16 Power export can be increased by wind-hydro coordination 220 power export (MW) (MW) AverageAverage power export 200 No grid constraints non-congested control wind control hydro Coordination wind/hydro 180 Only downregulation of wind 160 Due to grid constraints, local hydropower is enhancing the wind production even without pumping Source: SINTEF Energy AS Installed windwind power (MW) Installed power (MW) 400

17 Securing a high penetration of variable RE in a given grid Norwegian storage hydro or pumped storage in a future wind driven Europe

18 Norway as a Green Battery for Europe

19 RE development in Polar region is difficult/expensive High construction cost Intermittent operation No storage possible Low load factor No grid 100% duplicated Not very suitable

20 Most important RE in Arctic region in the future? (For Large-scale electricity production) Hydropower Hydro Norway Sweden Finland Iceland Canada Russia Greenland Geothermal Hydro Hydro Hydro Wind Wind Canada Alaska Russia Scandinavia...

21 Summary and conclusions More renewable energy development is possible Also in the High North Most important RE sources in the high north are probably: - Hydropower - Wind power Hydro and wind is a good match both seasonally and short term interaction Wind, Solar and Small hydro are highly intermittant Energy storage and new transmission lines are needed Renewable energy (Wind, Hydro) is sustainable even with climate change Climate Change will (probably) increase hydropower potential

22 Hydropower from Greenland Ice sheet? Area: km2 Thickness: 2135 m (average) Volume: km3 Potential energy: ca 15 Mill TWh Over 1000 yrs: TWh/yr = Today s annual global electricity production A business idea?

23

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