1 Fluency and Reader s Theater Jennifer Haws Virginia Beach City Public Schools December 12, 2008
2 2 Introduction As a reading specialist, I have always been surprised by the way students read aloud. While some students reading sounds natural, many more students struggle with oral reading. They often sound like robots, reading with sudden pauses, little expression, and at a very slow rate. Teachers often comment on student s fluency, or lack thereof; however, few interventions are made to help students read with greater fluency especially after students finish first or second grade. Specifically, fluency is the ability to read a text rapidly and fluidly with expression. It has been identified as a key component of literacy (National Reading Panel, 2000). While many students naturally read with good fluency, struggling students often show poor fluency in their oral reading. Research supports the use of repeated oral readings to improve fluency rate (Wahl, 2006). This action research seeks to investigate the relationship between the use of Reader s Theater, as a highly engaging form of repeated reading, and the fluency of fourth grade readers. In Reader s Theater, students perform by reading leveled scripts. Students reread the scripts multiple times and often present a public performance of the script in front of their peers. Scripts are not memorized, and minimal props are used; therefore, this methodology is simple and easy to use. Fluency and engagement will be discussed and evaluated. Literature Review At the request of Congress, the National Reading Panel (NRP) was developed in This group was charged to review current research and identify the critical factors necessary for reading performance. In 2000, the NRP defined fluency as the ability to read orally with speed, accuracy, and proper expression and identified fluency as one of the five critical components of reading (National Reading Panel, 2000, page 11). Furthermore, the NRP linked student s
3 3 fluency to comprehension. The panel concluded that many students struggled to decode words which then made it difficult for them to remember what they read. The NRP suggested that instructional time needed to be devoted to addressing student s fluency. Specific instruction has been shown to improve students oral reading fluency when used over time. Specific instruction models typically fall into two categories: repeated oral readings and independent silent reading (Reading Rockets, 2000). While research related to independent silent reading is mixed, research supports the use of repeated readings to improve reading fluency. During repeated oral reading methodologies, students are asked to repeatedly read texts multiple times. Michelle Wahl (2006) at The Florida Center for Reading Research investigated the use of repeated readings on the reading fluency of second graders in two different elementary schools in a large ethnically diverse school district. Students in the treatment group repeatedly read poems, rhymes, and narrative passages for 15 minutes daily at the start of each day from November to mid-may. A three-way analysis of covariance revealed a significant treatment by time interaction on the Grade 2 oral reading rate. Those students who took part in the daily 15-minute repeated reading showed statistically significant reading rate growth after receiving this repeated reading intervention when compared to the nontreatment group. Chard, Vaughn, and Tyler (2002) examined the effectiveness of repeated oral readings for elementary students with learning disabilities. They reviewed 24 research studies including over 350 students and concluded that students showed significant improvements in reading fluency after repeated reading interventions. Specifically, learning disabled students showed the greatest gains in fluency when they listened to an adult model fluent reading of the passage first and then repeatedly read the same text several times on their own. Allinder, Dunse, Brunken and
4 4 Obermiller-Krolikowki (2001) studied the effects of specific fluency strategy intervention for middle-school students and found increased comprehension scores for students who were exposed to daily repeated reading interventions. These results were found for various learners, including learning disabled students. Rasinski (2000) recommended using Reader s Theater as a form of repeated readings to improve fluency. During Reader s Theater, students perform by reading scripts out loud and usually without props or costumes. Scripts are written at student s instructional reading level, and students are assigned parts to repeatedly practice for some kind of public performance. Reader s Theater scripts range in size and difficulty and are used with two or more students. Bafile (2005) identified Reader s Theater as a real reason to read aloud and an authentic form of repeated reading. After interviewing educators and observing Reader s Theater presentations, Bafile (2005) concluded that Reader s Theater dramatically impacted student s reading fluency. Her studies also revealed a high level of student interest when using Reader s Theater. Certainly, research has identified fluency as an important part of the reading process. In addition, the use of repeated reading strategies to address students oral reading fluency has been widely supported by many researchers. Reader s Theater presents an interesting opportunity to provide students with repeated oral reading practice using an appealing and engaging format. Action Research Question This is my fifth year serving as a reading specialist for Virginia Beach City Public Schools. I typically model reading strategies for whole groups of students and offer small intervention groups for struggling readers. I have noticed that many struggling readers show very poor reading fluency. Their reading is often at a very slow rate, shows little to no prosody (expression), and often includes many miscues (reading errors). To address fluency issues, I
5 5 have tried using sight word games and repeated readings. In January, Professor Tim Rasinski spoke to all of the Virginia Beach City Public Schools reading specialists during a monthly collaboration session. He spoke about fluency issues and supported the use of Reader s Theater as a means for repeated readings. In addition, the district purchased Reader s Theater kits to use in each school in support of fluency. With a plethora of materials available for reading instruction, these kits are unfortunately not being used in all buildings. In addition, I have heard some teachers express the idea that Reader s Theater is too time consuming and that they believe it is not a good use of instructional time. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between using Reader s Theater and students reading fluency. Often teachers view fun activities like Reader s Theater as noneducational. I believe that Reader s Theater is very educational because it helps to improve fluency. I also believe that Reader s Theater is a useful instructional methodology to make fluency instruction fun. Hopefully, this research will support these assumptions. Specifically, this action research seeks to investigate: What is the relationship between the weekly use of Reader s Theater and fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody/expression) of fourth-grade students? Methodology Subjects The students in one fourth-grade class from White Oaks Elementary are the subjects for this action research. White Oaks Elementary is a Title I school with a diverse population. Approximately 45% of the student population receives free and/or reduced lunch. There are 18 students in this fourth-grade class, 7 girls and 11 boys. Five of the eighteen students have been identified as learning disabled and receive special education services as outlined in their IEP
6 6 (Individualized Education Plans). There is one ESL student (English as a Second Language), and the student receives additional ESL support from a specialist. Ten of the students are Caucasian, six are African American, one is Asian, and one is Hispanic. An informed consent form (Appendix A) was sent home with all the students to allow for data collection, and all parents did consent to participate. Intervention This action research occurred the fall of Students fluency was assessed in September to establish baseline performance levels. Then weekly Reader s Theater intervention was offered for eight weeks from September 26 November 14, After that time, students fluency was reassessed. All intervention occurred during the math instructional block as Reader s Theater was integrated using scripts with Math themes. My weekly Reader s Theater intervention included 30-minutes of whole-group instruction and 15-minutes of independent repeated reading practice weekly. I used the Teacher s Created Materials Building Fluency through Reader s Theater: Grades 4-5 kit. This kit is available in all of the elementary schools across the district. I used two different scripts over an eight-week period: The Ancient City of Anglezandria and The Great Mathematical Journey of a Lifetime. Week one included a background building introduction and listening to a recorded version of the script. Students were then asked to repeatedly reread the script for 15- minutes during independent reading on a separate day of the week. During week two, vocabulary words from the script were reviewed, the song and poem from the scripts were practiced, and students were assigned specific parts. I chose each individual s part based on the number of speaking parts, text difficulty, and student s reading ability. Each script had between six to eight acts and six different reading parts. Students were divided into three groups and each
7 7 group was responsible for two acts of the script. Every child was again asked to repeatedly practice their script part for 15 minutes during an independent reading. For week three, students were divided by acts into groups and practiced reading out loud. The special education inclusion teacher, classroom teacher, and I provided oral feedback to students related to rate, accuracy, and prosody. Another 15-minute repeated reading practice time was assigned, and students were informed that they would be taped the following week. During week four, students were videotaped as they read the scripts in groups for the entire class. A copy of the videotape was shared with the students during week four and fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) was discussed. The same process was then used for the next script (lasting another four weeks). Thus, a total of eight weeks of intervention occurred. Assessment Student s fluency was assessed based on rate, accuracy, and prosody (expression). Several instruments were used. First, all of the students were asked to read the same fourth-grade level nonfiction passage from the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3 (2001) titled Johnny Appleseed during the month of September. This passage had been independently researched and assessed at a valid and reliable fourth-grade reading level (Leslie & Caldwell, 2001). The Qualitative Reading Inventory passage was used to yield an accuracy score and word per-minute score (fluency rate). In addition, student s reading was rated by the researcher using the NAEP s (2000) Integrated Reading Performance Record Oral Reading Fluency Scale to determine student s reading prosody (levels 1-4).
8 8 NAEP s Integrated Reading Performance Record Oral Reading Fluency Scale 4 Reads primarily in large, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author s syntax is consistent. Some of most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. 3 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three- or four-word groupings. Some word-byword reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage. 1 Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two- or three-word phrases may occur but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax. Adapted from the U.S. Department of Education, National Reading Panel (2000). At the end of the intervention period, students were reassessed using a different Qualitative Reading Inventory-3 passage at the fourth-grade level: The Busy Beaver. This passage had been independently researched and has been evaluated at a fourth-grade reading level (Leslie & Caldwell, 2001). Other data were collected as well. Students fluency was rated through a fluency survey completed by the students classroom teacher before (Appendix B) and after (Appendix C) the intervention. In addition, a self-assessment survey was completed by each student after he/she viewed the taped video performances (Appendix D). It was felt by the researcher that students would not be able to accurately rate fluency without experiencing and viewing Reader s Theater performances; therefore, terminology related to fluency was explained throughout and students gave feedback at the end of the intervention. Data Analysis Using a triangulation methodology, three forms of data were collected and used for analysis: Qualitative Reading Inventory fluency scores, teacher-reported fluency scores, and self-reported student scores. These data sources provided both quantitative and qualitative data.
9 First, pretest scores on the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3 Johnny Appleseed passage and posttest scores on the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3 Busy Beaver passage were examined. Survey data were averaged to make quantitative data comparisons between before and after the intervention periods. (see Figure 1.) Figure 1. Qualitative Reading Inventory Pretest and Posttest Data Secondly, the teacher reported survey results were examined comparing quantitative survey data before the intervention (Teacher Responded Fluency Survey - 1) to the data collected after the intervention (Teacher Responded Fluency Survey - 2) to look for trends. (see Table 1.) In addition, qualitative data was collected from the classroom teacher regarding her opinions of Reader s Theater. Table 1. Teacher Responded Survey Results Oral Reading Rate Oral Reading Accuracy Prosody (Expression) Much Lower Lower Average Above Average Before After Much Lower Average Above Lower Average Before After NAEP 1 (No 2 (Very 3 (Some 4 (Much Prosody Expression) Little Expression) Expression) Scale Expression) Before After
10 Student survey data was collected and averaged for quantitative comparison purposes. (see Figure 2.) In addition, student comments were collected for qualitative analysis to identify similarities and differences of student opinions. Figure 2. Student Self-Reported Fluency Survey Results Results Student fluency rates increased on all three fluency measures (words per minute, accuracy, and expression) between the pretest and posttest Qualitative Reading Inventory tests. See Figure 1 for specific averages. It appears that student reading rates made the greatest gains from an average of 79 words per minute on the pretest to an average of 95 words per minute on the posttest. I was astonished by how much the fluency rates increased having only used the Reader s Theater intervention for eight weeks. I hoped to see an increase, but was amazed by the differences in the data. The teacher responded data revealed a fewer number of students receiving much lower than average ratings and an increase in the number of students who rated above average in rate and accuracy. Prosody scores remained fairly constant with one student moving from above average to average. Informal comments provided by the teacher indicated, I love Reader s Theater. I believe it helps build fluency and expression. The kids enjoy the scripts.
11 11 On the student survey, 83 percent of the students reported that they did better on the second Reader s Theater performance. In addition, 83 percent of the students reported that they learned something from Reader s Theater. Informal comments provided by students indicated that many of them found Reader s Theater fun, that many learned a lot about reading with expression, and many found the scripts cool and interesting. As the reading specialist, I was surprised that some students indicated that they learned more about math concepts through Reader s Theater. Since I was examining fluency, I hadn t really considered an impact on math content. A few students reported not learning or not liking Reader s Theater because of their limited parts. I tried to assign parts that would not be too difficult for special education students; therefore, some students only had a few lines. An analysis of the other student data listed in Figure 2 revealed that the majority of students feel that they are reading at the appropriate rate and feel that they make only a few mistakes. In addition, the majority of students indicated that they read with a little expression, indicating plenty of room for improvement for future Reader s Theater scripts. Summary and Conclusions The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of Reader s Theater, as a highly engaging form of repeated oral reading, on fluency. In summary, I feel that my intervention model was effectively organized and my data collection methods were diverse; therefore, I believe my initial research question was successfully answered. My intervention model included eight weeks of planned activities requiring approximately 45 minutes of weekly class time. That translated to six hours of fluency practice plus an additional hour for DVD viewing and data collection. I believe the Building Fluency Through Reader s Theater Kit was an effective resource to use in this investigation. The kit
12 12 provided two math-related scripts each with a multiple number of characters, a song, and a poem. Student and teacher survey feedback was overwhelmingly positive about the scripts and the songs. In addition, on the student survey, many students indicated that they learned a lot by viewing their own performance on recorded DVDs. I used a Click video camera to record the students performances and created DVDs using WinDVD Movie Creator software. Using the DVDs, students were able to view their own performances and critique their own fluency. I believe the filming of the Reader s Theater performances was a key component to this action research because students were given visual and auditory feedback about their own fluency. I intentionally used both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods during this action research. Although it took more time than I had hoped, I do believe the data collection methods were effective. I used the Qualitative Reading Inventory data to make comparisons before and after the intervention about student fluency using an independently validated fourth grade level text (Leslie & Caldwell, 2001). I purposely used the Qualitative Reading Inventory because I wanted to have quantitative data to compare which I believe lends reliability to the fluency results. When viewing the DVDs of the student performances, it is easy to see improvements between the first and second Reader s Theater scripts; however, I wanted to see if those fluency gains are evident in separate texts. With increases on all three areas of fluency (words per minute, accuracy, and prosody), I believe the Qualitative Reading Inventory helps to show that fluency instruction during Reader s Theater is related to increased fluency rates on other texts. This is an important finding as my overall goal as a reading specialist is to find a way to help improve fluency on all texts. In addition, I wanted qualitative data from the classroom teacher and research students. This data helped reveal individual opinions and was overwhelmingly positive about the usage of
13 13 Reader s Theater. It is impressive when teacher and student feedback agree that a teaching methodology is fun and effective. To summarize my research findings, the usage of Reader s Theater is related to increased student fluency as supported by student s oral reading, teacher feedback, and student feedback. Future Actions/Directions I look forward to sharing the results of this action research with other educators. I believe my research helps to validate the money that Virginia Beach City Public Schools has spent on Reader s Theater scripts, Click video cameras, and WinDVD Movie Creator software as all of these resources were valuable tools in this investigation. I plan on using more Reader s Theater scripts in the future. When assigning parts, I will need to balance text difficulty with quantity so that every student has about an equal number of lines. This can be difficult but should be considered. In addition, I plan on collaborating with other teachers to help them use my four week per script intervention model as an organizational model to employ when using Reader s Theater scripts in their own classrooms. While the Reader s Theater kits are currently in schools throughout the district, there has been limited training related to the usage of these kits. The results of this action research could be shared with teachers during Reader s Theater training for teachers at a school and/or district level. I feel that future research on Reader s Theater could investigate possible relationships between fluency and comprehension. In addition, many students indicated Reader s Theater was fun. Future research could investigate the relationship between student engagement and fluency. Longer intervention time periods and the effects of Reader s Theater usage at different grade levels could also be investigated.
14 14 Reflections This action research has taught me a lot about collecting data and examining the impact of my teaching methodologies on students learning. By completing a literature review, I learned that student fluency can be increased through repeated oral reading (Allinder, Dunse, Brunken, & Obermiller-Krolikowski, 2001; Wahl, 2006). I started this action research because I wanted to investigate the impact of my teaching on student performance. I have always been interested in research and was excited to complete my own action research project. However, I have to admit that the action research process was more involved than I had originally believed. This research took two semesters and many hours to complete. I am thankful to the students, parents, cooperating teachers, and professors who helped to make it a reality. I am pleased because my completed research mirrored my original proposed action research plan in many ways. I started with an interest in fluency and maintained that focus throughout the process. Looking back, I believe that my methodology and research question matched my interest and objectives. I would have liked to investigate the impact of Reader s Theater on multiple classes and would have used a longer intervention period to lend more reliability to the results; however, I had to shorten the intervention time period due to time constraints and deadlines. I was surprised to find positive data results in only eight weeks of intervention and cannot help but wonder about the implications for extended usage of Reader s Theater methodologies. Future research could investigate the impact of Reader s Theater on multiple classes and at a variety of grade levels; however, I believe that I did what I could in the available time. Overall, as I reflect on the process, I am excited by my results and admit that the results are worth the time and effort.
15 15 It is my intent that other educators will recognize the significant relationship between the usage of Reader s Theater and student fluency. I hope that teachers across the district pull the Building Fluency Through Reader s Theater kits off the shelf, dust them off, and start to use them. I also hope that other teachers would embark on the action research process realizing time spent investigating the effectiveness of teaching methodologies is time well spent.
16 16 References Allinder, R. M., Dunse, L., Brunken, C. D. & Obermiller-Krolikowski, H. J. (2001). Improving fluency in at-risk readers and students with learning disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 22 (1), Bafile, C. (2005). Reader s theater: giving students a reason to read aloud. LD Online. retrieved March 15, Building Fluency Through Reader s Theater: Grades 4-5 Kit. (2007). Teacher Created Materials. Chard, D. J., Vaughn, S., & Tyler, B-J. (2002). A synthesis of research of effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35 (5), Leslie, L. & Caldwell, J. (2001). Qualitative Reading Inventory-3. Longman, New York. National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research on reading and its implications for reading instruction: report of the subgroups. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved March 15 from Rasinski, T.V. (2000). Speed does matter in reading. The Reading Teacher, 54 (2), Reading Rockets. (2000). What works in fluency instruction. Retrieved March 4, Wahl, Michelle. (2006). What is fluency first!? Florida Center for Reading Research. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
17 17 Appendix A Action Research for Teachers, Informed Consent Form Dear Parents, My name is Jennifer Haws, and I am a Reading Specialist at White Oaks Elementary. I regularly work in your child s classroom to enhance language arts instruction. In an effort to examine my own teaching practices, I have enrolled in a course through the University of Virginia which is being sponsored by Virginia Beach Public Schools. The course is titled Action Research for Teachers. As part of my course work, I am hoping to conduct action research on the usage of Reader s Theater to increase student s oral reading fluency. During Reader s Theater, students are assigned parts in a play and are asked to read and reread their parts out loud. The students are not required to memorize their parts and no props are used. Instead, students learn to use their voices and intonation to convey meaning. I am planning on using the Reader s Theater methodology in Mrs. Arnold s/mrs. Caraballo s class over the next three months. During that time, we will use two different Reader s Theater scripts with math themes. Students will be given specific instruction about reading with increased rate, accuracy, and expression. Student s performances on each of the two Reader s Theater scripts will be videotaped and shared with the students. My data collection methods will include a brief oral reading check of each child s fluency at the beginning of the study as well as a posttest of oral reading at the end of the study. This will help me to determine an accuracy, speed, and expression score from each student. In addition, the classroom teacher and each student will complete a brief questionnaire where they will rate their own fluency before and after using Reader s Theater. I am asking that each parent sign the form below allowing your child s scores and questionnaires to be used in this research. All students will participate in the Reader s Theater intervention as part of their regularly scheduled language arts instruction; however, I can only use student data with parent permission. I assure you that if you choose to participate, I will keep any student data anonymous and confidential. I will not disclose your child s name or other personal identification. If you wish, I will keep you informed of my progress throughout this project. I greatly value your child s participation in this project. If this explanation leaves you with any unanswered questions, please feel free to ask in person or call me at work ( ). Yours sincerely, Jennifer Haws Reading Specialist White Oaks Elementary School, Virginia Beach Public Schools I the parent of give my permission for my child s data and questionnaires to be included in the Reader s Theater Action Research completed from September November 2008 at White Oaks Elementary. I know my child s data will be kept anonymous and confidential. Parent s Signature (Date)
18 18 Appendix B Teacher Responded Fluency Survey - 1 Teacher s Name: Date: Student s Name: Student s Fall DRA Level: Student s Accuracy Rate for instructional level text on the DRA: Student s Words Per Minute Rate for instructional level text on the DRA: Informal Observations (Please check the appropriate box): Student s oral reading rate appears: Much Lower Than Peers Lower Than peers About Average with Peers Above Average than Peers Student s oral reading accuracy appears: Much Lower Than Peers Lower Than Peers About Average with Peers Above Average Than Peers Prosody rating: 4 Reads primarily in large, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author s syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. 3 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three- or four-word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage. 1 Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two- or threeword phrases may occur but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax. Adapted from the U.S. Department of Education, Nation Center for Education Statistics.
19 19 Appendix C Teacher Responded Fluency Survey - 2 To be completed after Reader s Theater intervention Teacher s Name: Date: Student s Name: Informal Observations (Please check the appropriate box): Student s oral reading rate appears: Much Lower Than Peers Lower Than Peers About Average with Peers Above Average Than Peers Student s oral reading accuracy appears: Much Lower Than Peers Lower Than Peers About Average with Peers Above Average Than Peers Prosody rating: 4 Reads primarily in large, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author s syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. 3 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three- or four-word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage. 1 Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two- or three-word phrases may occur but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax. Adapted from U.S. Department of Education, Nation Center for Education Statistics *My Thoughts about Reader s Theater:
20 20 Appendix D Student Fluency Self-Assessment Student Name: Date: After watching the Reader s Theater videotapes, I think 1. My reading speed is Slow About Right Too Fast 2. My reading showed Lots of Mistakes Just a Few Mistakes No Mistakes 3. My reading Shows No Expression Shows a Little Expression Shows Lots of Expression 4. I think I did best on The First Reader s Theater (Anglezandria) The Second Reader s Theater (Journey) 5. Do you think you learned anything from using Reader s Theater? Yes No 6. If yes, what did you learn from Reader s Theater? 7. What do you think about Reader s Theater?
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Language Reading Connection Collaborating with Your SLP WELCOME! What is Project CENTRAL? Coordinating g Existing g Networks To Reach All Learners The ultimate goals are to provide professional development
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