8-2 The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse. Find x.

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1 1 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse Find x. 1. hypotenuse is 13 and the lengths of the legs are 5 and x.. equaltothesquareofthelengthofthehypotenuse. The length of the hypotenuse is x and the lengths of the legs are 8 and equaltothesquareofthelengthofthehypotenuse. The length of the hypotenuse is x and the lengths of the legs are 8 and esolutions 1. Manual - Powered by Cognero 3. Page 1 hypotenuse is 16 and the lengths of the legs are 4 and x.

2 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse 4.Use a Pythagorean triple to find x. Explain your reasoning. 3. hypotenuse is 16 and the lengths of the legs are 4 and x. 35 is the hypotenuse, so it is the greatest value in the Pythagorean Triple. Find the common factors of 35 and 1. TheGCFof35and1is7.Dividethisout. Check to see if 5 and 3 are part of a Pythagorean triple with 5 as the largestvalue. We have one Pythagorean triple The multiples of this triple also will be Pythagorean triple. So, x = 7(4) = 8. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to check it. 4.Use a Pythagorean triple to find x. Explain your reasoning. 35 is the hypotenuse, so it is the greatest value in the Pythagorean Triple. Find the common factors of 35 and 1. 8; Since or 8. and and is a Pythagorean triple, 5.MULTIPLE CHOICE The mainsail of a boat is shown. What is the length, in feet, of? Page

3 8; Since andits is a Pythagorean triple, 8- The Pythagorean and Theorem and Converse or 8. 5.MULTIPLE CHOICE The mainsail of a boat is shown. What is the length, in feet, of? Therefore, the correct choice is D. D Determine whether each set of numbers can be the measures of the sides of a triangle. If so, classify the triangle as acute, obtuse, or right. Justify your answer. 6.15, 36, 39 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. A 5.5 B 65 C 7.5 D 75 The mainsail is in the form of a right triangle. The length of the hypotenuse is xandthelengthsofthelegsare45and60. Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Therefore, by the converse of Pythagorean Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be a right triangle. Yes; right Therefore, the correct choice is D. D Determine whether each set of numbers can be the measures of the sides of a triangle. If so, classify the triangle as acute, obtuse, or right. Justify your answer. 6.15, 36, 39 - Powered by Cognero esolutions Manual By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two 7.16, 18, 6 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Page 3 Now, classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to

4 Yes; obtuse Yes; right 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse 7.16, 18, , 0, 4 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Now, classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Now, classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Therefore, by Pythagorean Inequality Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be an obtuse triangle. Therefore, by Pythagorean Inequality Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be an acute triangle. Yes; obtuse Yes; acute 8.15, 0, 4 Find x. By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. 9. Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Now, classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of-the squares of the other two sides. esolutions Manual Powered by Cognero hypotenuse is xandthelengthsofthelegsare1and16. Page 4

5 Yes; acute 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse 0 Find x. 10. hypotenuse is 15 and the lengths of the legs are 9 and x. 9. hypotenuse is xandthelengthsofthelegsare1and hypotenuse is 15 and the lengths of the legs are 9 and x. hypotenuse is 5 and the lengths of the legs are and x. Page 5

6 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse hypotenuse is 5 and the lengths of the legs are and x. hypotenuse is 66 and the lengths of the legs are 33 and x. 1. hypotenuse is 66 and the lengths of the legs are 33 and x. 13. hypotenuse is x and the lengths of the legs are. Page 6

7 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse 13. hypotenuse is x and the lengths of the legs are. 14. hypotenuse is andthelengthsofthelegsare. Use a Pythagorean Triple to find x. 14. Page 7

8 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse 34 Use a Pythagorean Triple to find x Findthegreatestcommonfactorof14and48. Find the greatest common factors of 16 and 30. The GCF of 16 and 30 is. Divide this value out. The GCF of 14 and 48 is. Divide this value out. Check to see if 7 and 4 are part of a Pythagorean triple. Checktoseeif8and15arepartofaPythagoreantriple. We have one Pythagorean triple The multiples of this triple also will be Pythagorean triple. So, x = (5) = 50. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to check it. We have one Pythagorean triple The multiples of this triple also will be Pythagorean triple. So, x = (17) = 34. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to check it Page 8 74 is the hypotenuse, so it is the greatest value in the Pythagorean triple.

9 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse is the hypotenuse, so it is the greatest value in the Pythagorean triple. Findthegreatestcommonfactorof74and4. The GCF of 4 and 74 is. Divide this value out. Check to see if 1 and 37 are part of a Pythagorean triple with 37 as the largestvalue. We have one Pythagorean triple The multiples of this triple also will be Pythagorean triple. So, x = (35) = 70. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to check it. 78 is the hypotenuse, so it is the greatest value in the Pythagorean triple. Find the greatest common factor of 78 and 7. 78= = 3 3 The GCF of 78 and 7 is 6. Divide this value out. 78 6=13 7 6=1 Check to see if 13 and 1 are part of a Pythagorean triple with 13 as the largest value = = 5 = 5 We have one Pythagorean triple The multiples of this triple also will be Pythagorean triple. So, x = 6(5) = 30. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to check it BASKETBALL The support for a basketball goal forms a right triangle as shown. What is the length x of the horizontal portion of the support? Page 9

12 Yes; obtuse 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse Since the sum of the lengths of two sides is less than that of the third side, the set of numbers cannot be measures of a triangle. No; 3 > , 1, , 0, 0.5 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Since the sum of the lengths of two sides is less than that of the third side, the set of numbers cannot be measures of a triangle. Classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. No; 3 > , 0, 0.5 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. Therefore, by the converse of Pythagorean Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be a right triangle. Yes; right Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. 4.44, 46, 91 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. Therefore, by the converse of Pythagorean Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be a right triangle. Yes; right Since the sum of the lengths of two sides is less than that of the third side, the set of numbers cannot be measures of a triangle. Page 1 No; 91 >

13 Yes; right 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse Since the sum of the lengths of two sides is less than that of the third side, the set of numbers cannot be measures of a triangle. No; 91 > , 46, , 6.4, 7.6 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Since the sum of the lengths of two sides is less than that of the third side, the set of numbers cannot be measures of a triangle. Now, classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. No; 91 > , 6.4, 7.6 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. Therefore, by Pythagorean Inequality Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be an acute triangle. Yes; acute Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Now, classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. 6.4, 1, 14 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. Therefore, by Pythagorean Inequality Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be an acute triangle. Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Yes; acute Now, classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to Page 13 the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

14 Yes; acute Yes; obtuse 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse 6.4, 1, 14 Find x. By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. 7. The triangle with the side lengths 9, 1, and x form a right triangle. Therefore, the set of numbers can be measures of a triangle. Now, classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. hypotenuse is xandthelengthsofthelegsare9and1. Therefore, by Pythagorean Inequality Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be an obtuse triangle. Yes; obtuse 15 Find x The triangle with the side lengths 9, 1, and x form a right triangle. In a Manual right triangle, sum of esolutions - Poweredthe by Cognero the squares of the lengths of the legs is hypotenuse is xandthelengthsofthelegsare9and1. Page 14 The segment of length 16 units is divided to two congruent segments. So,

15 8- The 15 Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse The segment of length 16 units is divided to two congruent segments. So, the length of each segment will be 8 units. Then we have a right triangle with the sides 15, 8, and x. hypotenuse is xandthelengthsofthelegsare8and15. We have a right triangle with the sides 14, 10, and x. hypotenuse is 14 and the lengths of the legs are 10 and x COORDINATE GEOMETRY Determine whether is an Page 15 acute, right, or obtuse triangle for the given vertices. Explain. 30.X( 3, ), Y( 1, 0), Z(0, 1)

16 given measures will be a right triangle. 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse COORDINATE GEOMETRY Determine whether is an acute, right, or obtuse triangle for the given vertices. Explain. 30.X( 3, ), Y( 1, 0), Z(0, 1) right;,, 31.X( 7, 3), Y(, 5), Z( 4, 1) Use the distance formula to find the length of each side of the triangle. Use the distance formula to find the length of each side of the triangle. Classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Therefore, by the converse of Pythagorean Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be a right triangle. Therefore, by the Pythagorean Inequality Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be an acute triangle. right;,, acute;,, ; 31.X( 7, 3), Y(, 5), Z( 4, 1) 3.X(1, ), Y(4, 6), Z(6, 6) Page 16

17 Therefore, by the Pythagorean Inequality Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be an obtuse triangle. acute;,, 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse ; obtuse; XY = 5, YZ =, ; 33.X(3, 1), Y(3, 7), Z(11, 1) 3.X(1, ), Y(4, 6), Z(6, 6) Use the distance formula to find the length of each side of the triangle. Use the distance formula to find the length of each side of the triangle. Classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Classify the triangle by comparing the square of the longest side to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Therefore, by the Pythagorean Inequality Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be an obtuse triangle. Therefore, by the converse of Pythagorean Theorem, a triangle with the given measures will be a right triangle. obtuse; XY = 5, YZ =, 33.X(3, 1), Y(3, 7), Z(11, 1) right; XY = 6, YZ = 10, XZ = 8; = 10 ; 34.JOGGING Brett jogs in the park three times a week. Usually, he takes a -mile path that cuts through the park. Today, the path is closed, so he is taking the orange route shown. How much farther will he jog on his alternate route than he would have if he had followed his normal path? Page 17

18 right; XY = 6, YZ = 10, XZ = 8; = JOGGING Brett jogs in the park three times a week. Usually, he takes 8- The Pythagorean and Converse a -mile path that Theorem cuts through theits park. Today, the path is closed, so he is taking the orange route shown. How much farther will he jog on his alternate route than he would have if he had followed his normal path? 0.3 mi 35.PROOF Write a paragraph proof of Theorem 8.5. Theorem 8.5 states that if the sum of the squares of the lengths of the shortest sides of a triangle are equal to the square of the length of the longest side, then the triangle is a right triangle. Use the hypothesis to create a given statement, namely that c = a + b fortriangleabc.youcanaccomplishthisproofbyconstructinganother The normal jogging route and the detour form a right triangle. One leg of the right triangle is 0.45 mi. and let x be the other leg. The hypotenuse of the right triangle is. In a right triangle, the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse. triangle (Triangle DEF) that is congruent to triangle ABC, using SSS triangle congruence theorem. Show that triangle DEF is a right triangle, using the Pythagorean theorem. therefore, any triangle congruent to a righttrianglebutalsobearighttriangle. Given: Prove: Proof: Draw So, the total distance that he runs in the alternate route is = 1.05 mi. instead of his normal distance 0.75 mi. Therefore, he will be jogging an extra distance of 0.3 miles in his alternate route. line on line with measure equal to a. At D, draw. Locate point F on m so that DF = b. Draw measure x. Because with sides of measure a, b, and c, where c = a + b is a right triangle. and call its is a right triangle, a + b = x. But a + b = c, so x = c or x = c. Thus, by SSS. This means. Therefore, C must be a right angle, making right triangle. a 0.3 mi 35.PROOF Write a paragraph proof of Theorem 8.5. esolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Theorem 8.5 states that if the sum of the squares of the lengths of the Given: Prove: with sides of measure a, b, and c, where c = a + b Page 18 is a right triangle.

19 means right triangle.. Therefore, C must be a right angle, making a 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse Given: Prove: with sides of measure a, b, and c, where c = a + b is a right triangle. proof. Given: In In,, c < a + b where c is the length of the longest side. R is a right angle. Prove: is an acute triangle. Proof: Statements (Reasons) Proof: Draw line on line with measure equal to a. At D, draw. Locate point F on m so that DF = b. Draw measure x. Because is a right triangle, a + b = x. But a + b 3. c < x (Substitution Property) 4. c < x (A property of square roots) = c, so x = c or x = c. Thus, by SSS. This means. Therefore, C must be a right angle, making right triangle., c < a + b where c is the length of the longest, R is a right angle. (Given). a + b = x (Pythagorean Theorem) and call its 1. In side. In a PROOF Write a two-column proof for each theorem. 36.Theorem m R= (Definition of a right angle) 6. m C<m R (Converse of the Hinge Theorem) 7. m C< (SubstitutionProperty) 8. C is an acute angle. (Definition of an acute angle) isanacutetriangle.(definitionofanacutetriangle) 9. You need to walk through the proof step by step. Look over what you are given and what you need to prove. Here, you are given two triangles, a right angle, relationship between sides. Use the properties that you have learned about right angles, acute angles, Pythagorean Theorem,angle relationships and equivalent expressions in algebra to walk through the proof. Given: In In,, c < a + b where c is the length of the longest side. R is a right angle. Prove: is an acute triangle. Given: In In,, c < a + b where c is the length of the longest side. R is a right angle. Prove: is an acute triangle. Proof: Statements (Reasons) 1. In side. In Proof:, c < a + b where c is the length of the longest, R is a right angle. (Given). a + b = x (Pythagorean Theorem) 3. c < x (Substitution Property) Page 19

20 Proof: 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse Statements (Reasons) 1. In side. In, c < a + b where c is the length of the longest, R is a right angle. (Given). a + b = x (Pythagorean Theorem) 3. c < x (Substitution Property) 4. c < x (A property of square roots) Statements (Reasons) 1. In, c > a + b, where c is the length of the longest side. In, R is a right angle. (Given). a + b = x (Pythagorean Theorem) 3. c > x (Substitution Property) 4. c > x (A property of square roots) 5. m R= (Definitionofarightangle) 5. m R= (Definition of a right angle) 6. m C>m R (Converse of the Hinge Theorem) 6. m C<m R (Converse of the Hinge Theorem) 7. m C> (SubstitutionPropertyofEquality) 7. m C< (SubstitutionProperty) C is an acute angle. (Definition of an acute angle) isanacutetriangle.(definitionofanacutetriangle) 9. C is an obtuse angle. (Definition of an obtuse angle) isanobtusetriangle.(definitionofanobtusetriangle) 9. Given: In Prove: 37.Theorem 8.7, c > a + b, where c is the length of the longest side. is an obtuse triangle. You need to walk through the proof step by step. Look over what you are given and what you need to prove. Here, you are given two triangles, relationship between angles.use the properties that you have learned about triangles, angles and equivalent expressions in algebra to walk through the proof. Given: In Prove:, c > a + b, where c is the length of the longest side. is an obtuse triangle. Statements (Reasons) 1. In, c > a + b, where c is the length of the longest side. In, R is a right angle. (Given). a + b = x (Pythagorean Theorem) 3. c > x (Substitution Property) 4. c > x (A property of square roots) Statements (Reasons) 1. In, c > a + b, where c is the length of the longest side. In, R is a right angle. (Given) R= (Definitionofarightangle) 6. m C>m R (Converse of the Hinge Theorem) 7. m C> (SubstitutionPropertyofEquality) C is an obtuse angle. (Definition of an obtuse angle) isanobtusetriangle.(definitionofanobtusetriangle). a + b = x (Pythagorean Theorem) 5. m 3. c > x (Substitution Property) 4. c > x (A property of square roots) Find the perimeter and area of each figure. Page 0

21 6. m C>m R (Converse of the Hinge Theorem) = 48 units. 7. m C> (SubstitutionPropertyofEquality) 8. Pythagorean C is an obtuse Theorem angle. (Definition an obtuse angle) 8- The and Itsof Converse 9. isanobtusetriangle.(definitionofanobtusetriangle) P = 48 units; A = 96 units Find the perimeter and area of each figure The area of a triangle is given by the formula whereb is the base and h is the height of the triangle. Since the triangle is a right triangle the base and the height are the legs of the triangle. So, The area of a triangle is given by the formula The perimeter is the sum of the lengths of the three sides. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle. equaltothesquareofthelengthofthehypotenuse. whereb is the base and h is the height of the triangle. The altitude to the base of an isosceles triangle bisects the base. So, we have two right triangles with one of the legs equal to 5 units and the hypotenuse is 13 units each. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of the common leg of the triangles. equaltothesquareofthelengthofthehypotenuse. The length of the hypotenuse is 0 units. Therefore, the perimeter is = 48 units. P = 48 units; A = 96 units The altitude is 1 units. Therefore, Page 1 The perimeter is the sum of the lengths of the three sides. Therefore, the

22 triangle. So, The altitude is 1 units. 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse Therefore, The perimeter is the sum of the lengths of the three sides. Therefore, the perimeter is = 36 units. P = 36 units; A = 60 units The area of a rectangle of length l and width w is given by the formula A = l w. So, Therefore, the total area is = 56 sq. units. The perimeter is the sum of the lengths of the four boundaries. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle. equaltothesquareofthelengthofthehypotenuse. 40. The given figure can be divided as a right triangle and a rectangle as shown. Thehypotenuseis10units. Therefore, the perimeter is = 3 units P = 3 units; A = 56 units The total are of the figure is the sum of the areas of the right triangle and the rectangle. The area of a triangle is given by the formula whereb is the base and h is the height of the triangle. Since the triangle is a right triangle the base and the height are the legs of the triangle. So, 41.ALGEBRA The sides of a triangle have lengths x, x + 5, and 5. If the length of the longest side is 5, what value of x makes the triangle a right triangle? By the converse of the Pythagorean Theorem, if the square of the longest side of a triangle is the sum of squares of the other two sides then the triangle is a right triangle. The area of a rectangle of length l and width w is given by the formula A = l w. So, Therefore, the total area is = 56 sq. units. Page

23 Therefore, the perimeter is = 3 units Since x is a length, it cannot be negative. Therefore, x = The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse P = 3 units; A = 56 units 41.ALGEBRA The sides of a triangle have lengths x, x + 5, and 5. If the length of the longest side is 5, what value of x makes the triangle a right triangle? By the converse of the Pythagorean Theorem, if the square of the longest side of a triangle is the sum of squares of the other two sides then the triangle is a right triangle ALGEBRA The sides of a triangle have lengths x, 8, and 1. If the length of the longest side is x, what values of x make the triangle acute? By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. So, the value of x should be between and 10. By the Pythagorean Inequality Theorem, if the square of the longest side of a triangle is less than the sum of squares of the other two sides then thetriangleisanacutetriangle. Use the Quadratic Formula to find the roots of the equation. Therefore, for the triangle to be acute, Since x is a length, it cannot be negative. Therefore, x = ALGEBRA The sides of a triangle have lengths x, 8, and 1. If the length of the longestbyside is x, what values of x make the triangle acute? esolutions Manual - Powered Cognero By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two 43.TELEVISION The screen aspect ratio, or the ratio of the width to the length, of a high-definition television is 16:9. The size of a television is given by the diagonal distance across the screen. If an HDTV is 41 inches wide, what is its screen size? Refer to the photo on page 547. Page 3

24 43.TELEVISION The screen aspect ratio, or the ratio of the width to the length, of a high-definition television is 16:9. The size of a television is givenpythagorean by the diagonal distanceand across screen. If an HDTV is The Theorem Its the Converse inches wide, what is its screen size? Refer to the photo on page 547. Use the ratio to find the length of the television. Let x be the length of the television. Then, The two adjacent sides and the diagonal of the television form a right triangle. equaltothesquareofthelengthofthehypotenuse. Therefore, the screen size is about 47 inches. 47 in. Solve the proportion for x. 44.PLAYGROUND According to the Handbook for Public Playground Safety, the ratio of the vertical distance to the horizontal distance covered by a slide should not be more than about 4 to 7. If the horizontal distance allotted in a slide design is 14 feet, approximately how long should the slide be? The two adjacent sides and the diagonal of the television form a right triangle. equaltothesquareofthelengthofthehypotenuse. Use the ratio to find the vertical distance. Let x be the vertical distance. Then, Solve the proportion for x. Therefore, the screen size is about 47 inches. Page 4

25 Let x be the vertical distance. Then, Therefore, the slide will be about 16 ft long. 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse about 16 ft Solve the proportion for x. Find x. The vertical distance, the horizontal distance, and the slide form a right triangle. equaltothesquareofthelengthofthehypotenuse. 45. hypotenuse is x and the lengths of the legs are x 4and8. Solve for x. Therefore, the slide will be about 16 ft long. about 16 ft Find x hypotenuse is x and the lengths of the legs are x 4and8. esolutions Manual Solve for x.- Powered by Cognero 46. Page 5

26 8- The 10 Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse hypotenuse is x and the lengths of the legs are x 3and9. Solve for x. hypotenuse is x + 1 and the lengths of the legs are x and. Solve for x MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS In this problem, you will investigate special right triangles. 47. esolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero a. GEOMETRIC Draw three different isosceles right triangles that have whole-number side lengths. Label the triangles ABC, MNP, and XYZ with the right angle located at vertex A, M, and X, respectively.page 6 Label the leg lengths of each side and find the length of the hypotenuse in simplest radical form.

27 48.MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS In this problem, you will investigate special right triangles. 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse Let MN = PM. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find NP. a. GEOMETRIC Draw three different isosceles right triangles that have whole-number side lengths. Label the triangles ABC, MNP, and XYZ with the right angle located at vertex A, M, and X, respectively. Label the leg lengths of each side and find the length of the hypotenuse in simplest radical form. b. TABULAR Copy and complete the table below. Let ZX = XY. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find ZY. c. VERBAL Make a conjecture about the ratio of the hypotenuse to a leg of an isosceles right triangle. a.let AB = AC. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find BC. Sampleanswer: b.complete the table below with the side lengths calculated for each triangle.then,computethegivenratios. Let MN = PM. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find NP. c. Summarize any observations made based on the patterns in the table. Page 7 Sample answer: The ratio of the hypotenuse to a leg of an isosceles right triangle is.

28 any observations made based on the patterns in the c. Summarize 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse table. Sample answer: The ratio of the hypotenuse to a leg of an isosceles right triangle is c. Sample answer: The ratio of the hypotenuse to a leg of an isosceles right triangle is.. 49.CHALLENGE Find the value of x in the figure. a. Label the vertices to make the sides easier to identify. Find each side length, one at a time, until you get to the value of x. By the Pythagorean Theorem, in a right triangle, the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse. Use the theorem to find the lengths of the required segments. b. c. Sample answer: The ratio of the hypotenuse to a leg of an isosceles right triangle is. 49.CHALLENGE Find the value of x in the figure. BC is the hypotenuse of the right triangle BDC. Page 8

29 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse BC is the hypotenuse of the right triangle BDC REASONING True or false? Any two right triangles with the same hypotenuse have the same area. Explain your reasoning. A good approach to this problem is to come up with a couple different set three numbers that form a right triangle, but each have a hypotenuse of 5. could pick a leg length ( less that 5) and then solve for the other leg. Leav non-integersinradicalform,foraccuracy. Find FC. Forexample: We have BF = BC FC = = 4.7. Use the value of BF to find x in the right triangle BEF. Then, find the area of a right triangle with legs of and findtheareaofarighttrianglewithlegsof3and Page 9

30 . Then, find the area of a right triangle with legs of and 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse findtheareaofarighttrianglewithlegsof3and4. Sincetheseareasarenotequivalent,thestatementisFalse. If you double the side lengths, you get 6, 8, and 10. Determine the type oftrianglebyusingtheconverseofthepythagoreantheorem: If you halve the side lengths, you get 1.5,, and.5. Determine the typeoftrianglebyusingtheconverseofthepythagoreantheorem: False; sample answer: A right triangle with legs measuring 3 in. and 4 in. hypotenuse of 5 in. and an area of in.alsohasa or 6 in. A right triangle with legs measuring in. and hypotenuse of 5 in., but its area is or in, which is not eq to 6 in. 51.OPEN ENDED Draw a right triangle with side lengths that form a Pythagorean triple. If you double the length of each side, is the resulting triangle acute, right, or obtuse? if you halve the length of each side? Explain. Right; sample answer: If you double or halve the side lengths, all three sides of the new triangles are proportional to the sides of the original triangle. Using the Side- Side-Side Similarity Theorem, you know that both of the new triangles are similar to the original triangle, so they are both right. If you double the side lengths, you get 6, 8, and 10. Determine the type oftrianglebyusingtheconverseofthepythagoreantheorem: Right; sample answer: If you double or halve the side lengths, all three sides of the new triangles are proportional to the sides of the original triangle. Using the Side- Side-Side Similarity Theorem, you know that both of the new triangles are similar to the original triangle, so they are both right. 5.WRITING IN MATH Research incommensurable magnitudes, and describe how this phrase relates to the use of irrational numbers in geometry. Include one example of an irrational number used in geometry. Page 30 Sample answer: Incommensurable magnitudes are magnitudes of the

31 Right; sample answer: If you double or halve the side lengths, all three sides of the new triangles are proportional to the sides of the original triangle. Using the Side- Side-Side Similarity Theorem, you know that 8- The both Pythagorean of the new triangles Theorem are similar and Its to Converse the original triangle, so they are both right. 5. WRITING IN MATH Research incommensurable magnitudes, and describe how this phrase relates to the use of irrational numbers in geometry. Include one example of an irrational number used in geometry. Sample answer: Incommensurable magnitudes are magnitudes of the same kind that do not have a common unit of measure. Irrational numbers were invented to describe geometric relationships, such as ratios of incommensurable magnitudes that cannot be described using rational numbers. For example, to express the measures of the sides of a square with an area of square units, the irrational number is needed. same kind that do not have a common unit of measure. Irrational numbers were invented to describe geometric relationships, such as ratios of incommensurable magnitudes that cannot be described using rational numbers. For example, to express the measures of the sides of a square with an area of square units, the irrational number is needed. 53. Which set of numbers cannot be the measures of the sides of a triangle? A 10, 11, 0 B 14, 16, 8 C 35, 45, 75 D 41, 55, 98 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. Sample answer: Incommensurable magnitudes are magnitudes of the same kind that do not have a common unit of measure. Irrational numbers were invented to describe geometric relationships, such as ratios of incommensurable magnitudes that cannot be described using rational numbers. For example, to express the measures of the sides of a square with an area of square units, the irrational number is needed. 53. Which set of numbers cannot be the measures of the sides of a triangle? A 10, 11, 0 B 14, 16, 8 C 35, 45, 75 D 41, 55, 98 By the triangle inequality theorem, the sum of the lengths of any two sides should be greater than the length of the third side. In option D, the sum of the lengths of two sides is less than that of the third side, the set of numbers cannot be measures of a triangle. Therefore, the correct choice is D. D 54. A square park has a diagonal walkway from one corner to another. If the walkway is 10 meters long, what is the approximate length of each side of the park? F 60 m G 85 m H 170 m J 40 m Let x be the length of each side of the square. The diagonal of a square divides the square into two congruent isosceles right triangles. Use Pythagorean Theorem to solve for x: Page 31

32 third side, the set of numbers cannot be measures of a triangle. Therefore, the correct choice is D. 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse D 54. A square park has a diagonal walkway from one corner to another. If the walkway is 10 meters long, what is the approximate length of each side of the park? F 60 m G 85 m H 170 m J 40 m Therefore, the correct choice is G. G 55. SHORT RESPONSE If the perimeter of square is 00 units and the perimeter of square 1 is 150 units, what is the perimeter of square 3? Let x be the length of each side of the square. The diagonal of a square divides the square into two congruent isosceles right triangles. Use Pythagorean Theorem to solve for x: The length of each side of square is 1 is and that of square The side lengths of the squares 1 and are the lengths of the legs of the right triangle formed. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of the hypotenuse. Therefore, the correct choice is G. G 55. SHORT RESPONSE If the perimeter of square is 00 units and the perimeter of square 1 is 150 units, what is the perimeter of square 3? The length of each side of square is 1 is and that of square Therefore, the perimeter of the square 3 is 4(6.5) = 50 units. 50 units 56. SAT/ACT In, B is a right angle and A is greater than C. What is the measure of C? A 30 B 35 C 40 D 45 E 70 Page 3 Let x be the measure C. Then The sum of the three

33 Therefore, the perimeter of the square 3 is 4(6.5) = 50 units. 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse 50 units 56. SAT/ACT In, B is a right angle and A is greater than C. What is the measure of C? A 30 B 35 C 40 D 45 E 70 Let x be the measure C. Then The sum of the three angles of a triangle is and 5 By the definition, the geometric mean x of any two numbers a and b is given by Therefore, the geometric mean of 45 and 5 is and 15 By the definition, the geometric mean x of any two numbers a and b is given by Therefore, the geometric mean of 1 and 15 is Therefore, the correct choice is B. B Find the geometric mean between each pair of numbers and 4 By the definition, the geometric mean x of any two numbers a and b is given by Therefore, the geometric mean of 9 and 4 is and 48 By the definition, the geometric mean x of any two numbers a and b is given by Therefore, the geometric mean of 36 and 48 is and 5 By the definition, the geometric mean x of any two numbers a and b is 61. SCALE DRAWING Teodoro is creating a scale model of a skateboarding ramp on a 10-by-8-inch sheet of graph paper. If the real ramp is going to be 1 feet by 8 feet, find an appropriate scale for the drawing and determine the ramp s dimensions. Page 33

34 divided the original dimensions by, the scale for the drawing will be 1 in = ft. 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse 61. SCALE DRAWING Teodoro is creating a scale model of a skateboarding ramp on a 10-by-8-inch sheet of graph paper. If the real ramp is going to be 1 feet by 8 feet, find an appropriate scale for the drawing and determine the ramp s dimensions. The real ramp is 1 feet by 8 feet. We need a reduced version of this ratio to fit on a 10 by 8 inch paper. To begin, consider the ratio of the sides:. Now divide each dimension by the same scale factor to create dimensions of a similar figure: 6. 1 in. = ft; Determine whether the triangles are similar. If so, write a similarity statement. If not, what would be sufficient to prove the triangles similar? Explain your reasoning. Find the ratio of the lengths of the corresponding sides (short with short, medium with medium, and long with long). Since 6<10 and 4<8, these dimensions will fit on a 10 by 8 inch paper. Therefore, the dimensions of the model will be and, since we divided the original dimensions by, the scale for the drawing will be 1 in = ft. 1 in. = ft; Determine whether the triangles are similar. If so, write a similarity statement. If not, what would be sufficient to prove the triangles similar? Explain your reasoning.. 6. Find the ratio of the lengths of the corresponding sides (short with short, medium with medium, and long with long). 63. Since, then by SSS Similarity. Yes; SSS Page 34 The corresponding angles formed when two parallel lines are cut by a

35 Since, then by SSS Similarity. 8- The Yes; Pythagorean SSS Theorem and Its Converse No; corresponding angles are not congruent. Write a two-column proof. 65. Given: is any non-perpendicular segment from F to. Prove: FH > FG 63. The corresponding angles formed when two parallel lines are cut by a transversal are congruent. So, the two triangles are similar by AA Similarity. Yes; AA This proof involves knowledge of perpendicular lines, right angles, and the Exterior Angle Inequality theorem. If you can prove that an exterior angle of a triangle is greater than a remote interior angle, then any angle congruent to that exterior angle would also be greater than that exterior angle, as well. 64. Using the triangle angle sum theorem, we can find the missing angles of each triangle. Given: ; is any non-perpendicular segment from F to. Prove: FH > FG In the left triangle, the missing angle is (7+66) = 4 degrees. In the right triangle, the missing angle is (66+38)=76 degrees. Since one triangle has angles whose measures are 7, 66, and 4 degrees and the other has angles whose measures are 76, 66, and 38 degrees. Therefore, the corresponding angles are not congruent and the two triangles are not similar. No; corresponding angles are not congruent. Write a two-column proof. 65. Given: is any non-perpendicular segment from F to. Prove: FH > FG Proof: Statements (Reasons) 1. (Given). 1 and are right angles. ( lines form right angles.) 3. (All right angles are congruent.) 4. m 1 = m (Definition of congruent angles) 5. m 1 > m 3 (Exterior Angle Inequality Theorem) 6. m > m 3 (Substitution Property) Page FH > FG (If an angle of a triangle is greater than a second angle, then the side opposite the greater angle is longer than the side opposite the

36 . 1 and are right angles. ( lines form right angles.) 3. (All right angles are congruent.) 8- The 4. mpythagorean 1 = m (Definition Theorem of and congruent Its Converse angles) 5. m 1 > m 3 (Exterior Angle Inequality Theorem) 6. m > m 3 (Substitution Property) 7. FH > FG (If an angle of a triangle is greater than a second angle, then the side opposite the greater angle is longer than the side opposite the lesser angle.) Given: is any non-perpendicular segment from F to. Prove: FH > FG 7. FH > FG (If an angle of a triangle is greater than a second angle, then the side opposite the greater angle is longer than the side opposite the lesser angle.) Find each measure if m DGF = 53 and m AGC = m 1 The sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangle is 180. Therefore, Proof: Statements (Reasons) 1. (Given). 1 and are right angles. ( lines form right angles.) 3. (All right angles are congruent.) 4. m 1 = m (Definition of congruent angles) 5. m 1 > m 3 (Exterior Angle Inequality Theorem) 6. m > m 3 (Substitution Property) 7. FH > FG (If an angle of a triangle is greater than a second angle, then the side opposite the greater angle is longer than the side opposite the lesser angle.) Find each measure if m DGF = 53 and m AGC = m Therefore, m 3 The sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangle is 180. Therefore, Page 36

37 Consider the y-intercept of any of the two lines and write the equation of Therefore, 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse m 3 The sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangle is 180. Therefore, m Find the distance between each pair of parallel lines with the given equations. The slope of a line perpendicular to both the lines will be Consider the y-intercept of any of the two lines and write the equation of the perpendicular line through it. The y-intercept of the line y = 4x is (0, 0). So, the equation of a line with slope ¼ and a y-intercept of 0 is The perpendicular meets the first line at (0, 0). To find the point of intersection of the perpendicular and the second line, solve the two equations:. Therefore, The left sides of the equations are the same so you can equate the right sides and solve for x. The sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangle is 180. Therefore, 40 Use the value of x to find the value of y. Find the distance between each pair of parallel lines with the given equations. 70. So, the point of intersection is (4, 1). The slope of a line perpendicular to both the lines will be Use the Distance Formula to find the distance between the points (0, 0) and (4, 1). Page 37

38 8- The So, the Pythagorean point of intersection Theorem is (4, and 1). Its Converse Use the Distance Formula to find the distance between the points (0, 0) and (4, 1). First, write the second equation also in the slope-intercept form. The slope of a line perpendicular to both the lines will be Consider the y-intercept of any of the two lines and write the equation of the perpendicular line through it. The y-intercept of the line y = x 3 is (0, 3). So, the equation of a line with slope ½ and a y-intercept of 3 is Therefore, the distance between the two lines is The perpendicular meets the first line at (0, 3). To find the point of intersection of the perpendicular and the second line, solve the two equations:. The left sides of the equations are the same so equate the right sides and solve for x. 71. Use the value of x to find the value of y. First, write the second equation also in the slope-intercept form. The slope of a line perpendicular to both the lines will be Consider the y-intercept of any of the two lines and write the equation of the perpendicular line through it. The y-intercept of the line y = x 3 is So, the point of intersection is Use the Distance Formula to find the distance between the points (0, 3) Page 38 and

39 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse So, the point of intersection is Use the Distance Formula to find the distance between the points (0, 3) and 7. First, write the second equation in the slope-intercept form: The slope of a line perpendicular to both the lines will be Therefore, the distance between the two lines is Consider the y-intercept of any of the two lines and write the equation of the perpendicular line through it. The y-intercept of the line y = 0.75x 1 is (0, 1). So, the equation of a line with slope and y-intercept of 1 is. The perpendicular meets the first line at (0, 1). To find the point of intersection of the perpendicular and the second line, solve the two equations:. The left sides of the equations are the same so you can equate the right sides and solve for x. 7. Page 39 First, write the second equation in the slope-intercept form:

40 equations:. 8- The Pythagorean left sides of the Theorem equations and are the Its same Converse so you can equate the right sides and solve for x. Therefore, the distance between the two lines is Use the value of x to find the value of y. So, the point of intersection is Use the Distance Formula to find the distance between the points (0, 1) and Find the value of x. 73. Divide each side by Multiply the numerator and the denominator of the fraction by rationalize the denominator. to Therefore, the distance between the two lines is Page 40

41 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse Find the value of x Divide each side by Divide each side by Multiply the numerator and the denominator of the fraction by rationalize the denominator. to Multiply the numerator and the denominator of the fraction by rationalize the denominator. to Divide each side by Divide each side by 76. Page 41

42 8- The Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse 75. Divide each side by 76. Multiply each side by Page 4

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