University Physics AI No. 11 Kinetic Theory


 Delilah McDonald
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Unersty hyscs AI No. 11 Knetc heory Class Number Name I.Choose the Correct Answer 1. Whch type o deal gas wll hae the largest alue or C C? ( D (A Monatomc (B Datomc (C olyatomc (D he alue wll be the same or all. he derence between the molar specc heat at constant pressure and that at constant olume s equal to the unersal gas constant: C C R.. What would be the most lkely alue or C, the molar heat capacty at constant temperature? ( D (A 0 (B 0< C < C (C C <C <C (D C Usng the denton o the molar specc heat: heat capacty s C. C molar 1 dq, so when constant, the molar n d. Whch o the ollowng speeds ddes the molecules n a gas n thermal equlbrum so that hal hae speeds aster, and hal hae speeds slower? ( B (A p (B a (C rms (D Non o the aboe. Accordng to the physcal meanng o p,, and gas so that hal hae speeds aster, and hal hae speeds slower. a rms, non o them ddes the molecules n a 4. Whch o the ollowng speeds corresponds to a molecule wth the aerage knetc energy? ( C (A p (B a (C rms (D Non o the aboe he aerage knetc energy s 1 ae m, and or rms, we hae 1 ae m rms, hen the answer s (C.
2 II. Flg the Blanks 1. he number o partcles n a cubc mllmeter o a gas at temperature 7 K and 1.00 atm pressure s.9 1. o get a eeg or the order o magntude o ths number, the age o the unerse n seconds assumng t s 15 bllon years old s s. he number o partcles s Q nr N nn R A N A N nn A he age o the unerse n seconds s (s 1. A sample o oxygen gas (O s at temperature 00 K and 1.00 atm pressure. One molecule, wth a speed equal to the rms speed, makes a headon elastc collson wth your nose. Ouch! he magntude o the mpulse mparted to your schnozzle s Kg m/s. he speed o an oxygen molecule s R / ( 1/ rms ( 48.59(m/s M Usng the ImpulseMomentum heorem, the magntude o the mpulse mparted to the schnozzle s I m M N A (Kg m/s. When helum atoms hae an rms speed equal to the escape speed rom the surace o the Earth ( escape 11. km/s, the temperature s.01 4 K. Accordng to the problem R rms ( M 1/ rmsm ( So the temperature s.01 (K R he rms speed o hydrogen gas (H at temperature 00 K n the atmosphere s 1.9 km/s. Compare t wth the escape speed rom the Earth (11. km/s. Snce hydrogen s the least masse gas, hydrogen molecules wll hae the hghest rms speeds at a gen temperature. How can ths calculaton explan why there s essentally no hydrogen gas n the atmosphere o the Earth?
3 he rms speed o hydrogen gas s rms R ( 1/ ( M 1/ 1.9 (m/s he rms speed o hydrogen gas s less than the escape speed rom the Earth (11. km/s. Snce hydrogen s the least masse gas, hydrogen molecules hae the hghest rms speeds at a gen temperature. Hydrogen hae hghest escape rate n the atmosphere o the Earth, so there s ery ew hydrogen gas n the atmosphere o the Earth. 5. he aerage knetc energy o a partcle n a gas at temperature s gen by Equaton 14.1: ae k, or 1 m k. he specal theory o relatty states that there s an upper lmt on the speed o an partcle: the speed o lght c.00 8 m/s. For a gas o hydrogen atoms, the mmedately precedng equaton mples an upper lmt on the temperature. he absolute temperature such that or a gas o hydrogen atoms s equal to the square o the speed o lght s 4.5 K. In act, there s no upper lmt on the temperature; so the classcal expresson or the knetc energy cannot be ald or speeds approachng the speed o lght. Accordng to the problem c, so m k mc k 8 ( (K III. Ge the Solutons o the Followng roblems 1. Consder helum gas at temperature 00 K near the surace o the Earth. (a Calculate the aerage knetc energy o one o the helum atoms. (b Calculate the gratatonal potental energy o a sngle helum atom near the surace o the Earth. Choose the zero o gratatonal potental energy to be nntely ar away rom the Earth. (c What s the absolute alue o the rato o the gratatonal potental energy o the helum atom to ts aerage knetc energy? Is t justable to neglect the gratatonal potental energy n theory? Why or why not? (a he aerage knetc energy o one o the helum atoms s ae k (J (b he gratatonal potental energy o a sngle helum atom near the surace o the Earth s E gra mgrearth (J
4 (c he absolute alue o the rato s E gra 1 ae 7 It s justable to neglect the gratatonal potental energy n theory. As the aerage knetc energy s a statstcal alue or the whole system regardless the gratatonal potental energy.. A wellnsulated 4.00 lter box contans a partton ddng the box nto two equal olumes as shown n Fgure 1. Intally,.00 g o molecular hydrogen gas (H at 00 K s conned to the lethand sde o the partton, and the other hal s a acuum. (a What s the rms speed o the partcles n the gas? (b What s the ntal pressure o the gas? (c he partton s remoed or broken suddenly, so that the gas now s contaned throughout the entre box. Assume that the gas s deal. Does the temperature o the gas change? What s the change n the nternal energy o the system? (d When the gas reaches equlbrum, what s the nal pressure? (a he rms speed o the partcles n the gas s Insulaton Gas hn partton acuum Fg.1 rms R ( 1/ ( M 1/ (b Usng the equaton o state or an deal gas: nr So the ntal pressure o the gas s 1.9 m M R (m/s m R (a M (c he temperature s not changed. he nternal energy o the system s not changed too. (d Because t s so ast that the gas reaches equlbrum. So t s an adabatc process. For 00K and 1 1, So the nal pressure s (a. A gas ntally at temperature, pressure and olume has ts pressure reduced to a nal alue a one o the ollowng types o processes: (1 sochorc; ( sothermal; ( adabatc. (a Sketch each process schematcally on a  dagram. (b In whch process s the work done by the gas zero? (c In whch process s the work done by the gas greatest?
5 (d Show that the rato o the absolute magntude o the heat transer to the gas durng the sothermal process to that durng the sochorc process s Qsothermal R Qsochorc c (e In whch process s the absolute magntude o the change n the nternal energy o the gas the greatest? Explan your reasonng. (a Isochorc process Isothermal process Adabatc process (b See the area under the cure o the graph, the work done by the gas s zero n sochorc process. (c See the area under the cure o the graph, the work done by the gas s greatest n sothermal process. (d For sothermal process: So the heat transer s For sochorc process: Q sothermal nr nr So the heat transer s Q nc Q sochorc ( Qsochorc nc hus the rato o the absolute magntude o the heat transer to the gas durng the sothermal process to that durng the sochorc process s
6 Q Q sothermal sochorc nr nc ( C R ( R C (e For sothermal process: U 1 0. Usng the rst law o thermodynamcs, or an adabatc process: Q 0 U For sochorc process: W 0 U W nc ( Q nc ( Q > U > U So the absolute magntude o the change n the nternal energy o the gas s the greatest n adabatc process. 4. An deal gas experences an adabatc compresson rom 1kpa,.7m, .0 C to 1450kpa, 1.m. (a Calculate the alue o γ. (b Fnd the nal temperature. (c How many moles o gas are present? (d What s the total translatonal knetc energy per mole beore and ater the compresson? (e Calculate the rato o the rms speed beore to that ater the compresson. (a For adabatc process:, γ 1450 γ.7 γ 1450 Hence ( ( γ 1 1., γ (b Usng the equaton o state or an deal gas: nr, we hae (7 So the nal temperature s 77.(K 1.7 (c Usng the equaton o state or an deal gas: nr, we hae
7 1.7 n 7.97 (mole R 8.15 (7 (dhe total translatonal knetc energy per mole beore and ater the compresson s beore ater n R (J n R (J (e he rms speed s R rms ( M 1/ Hence the rato o the rms speed beore to that ater the compresson s rms rms ( 1/ 7 ( 77. 1/ 0.81
Homework 11. Problems: 20.37, 22.33, 22.41, 22.67
Homework 11 roblems: 0.7,.,.41,.67 roblem 0.7 1.00kg block o alumnum s heated at atmospherc pressure such that ts temperature ncreases rom.0 to 40.0. Fnd (a) the work done by the alumnum, (b) the energy
More informationPhysics 41 HW Set 11 Chapters 20 and 21
Physcs 41 HW Set 11 Chapters 0 and 1 Chapter 0 1 An deal gas ntally at P,, and T s taken through a cycle as shown Fnd the net work done on the gas per cycle What s the net energy added by heat to the system
More informationLecture 2 The First Law of Thermodynamics (Ch.1)
Lecture he Frst Law o hermodynamcs (Ch.) Outlne:. Internal Energy, Work, Heatng. Energy Conservaton the Frst Law 3. Quasstatc processes 4. Enthalpy 5. Heat Capacty Internal Energy he nternal energy o
More informationChapter 18 Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics
Chapter 8 Heat and the Frst Law o Thermodynamcs 9 [SSM] How much heat must be absorbed by 6. g o ce at.ºc to transorm t nto 6. g o at 4.ºC? Pcture the Problem e can nd the amount o heat that must be absorbed
More informationTHERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER 12
HERMAL PROPERIES OF MAER Q.. Reason: he mass o a mole o a substance n grams equals the atomc or molecular mass o the substance. Snce neon has an atomc mass o 0, a mole o neon has a mass o 0 g. Snce N has
More informationFaraday's Law of Induction
Introducton Faraday's Law o Inducton In ths lab, you wll study Faraday's Law o nducton usng a wand wth col whch swngs through a magnetc eld. You wll also examne converson o mechanc energy nto electrc energy
More informationCHAPTER 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
CHAPTER 8 Potental Energy and Conservaton o Energy One orm o energy can be converted nto another orm o energy. Conservatve and nonconservatve orces Physcs 1 Knetc energy: Potental energy: Energy assocated
More informationHomework: 49, 56, 67, 60, 64, 74 (p. 234237)
Hoework: 49, 56, 67, 60, 64, 74 (p. 3437) 49. bullet o ass 0g strkes a ballstc pendulu o ass kg. The center o ass o the pendulu rses a ertcal dstance o c. ssung that the bullet reans ebedded n the pendulu,
More informationESCI 341 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Lesson 9 Entropy
ESCI 341 Atmosherc hermodynamcs Lesson 9 Entroy References: An Introducton to Atmosherc hermodynamcs, sons Physcal Chemstry (4 th edton), Levne hermodynamcs and an Introducton to hermostatstcs, Callen
More informationMean Molecular Weight
Mean Molecular Weght The thermodynamc relatons between P, ρ, and T, as well as the calculaton of stellar opacty requres knowledge of the system s mean molecular weght defned as the mass per unt mole of
More informationHEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases
UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius
More informationGeneral Physics (PHY 2130)
General Physcs (PHY 30) Lecture 8 Moentu Collsons Elastc and nelastc collsons http://www.physcs.wayne.edu/~apetro/phy30/ Lghtnng Reew Last lecture:. Moentu: oentu and pulse oentu conseraton Reew Proble:
More informationGibbs Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium (or how to predict chemical reactions without doing experiments)
Gbbs Free Energy and Chemcal Equlbrum (or how to predct chemcal reactons wthout dong experments) OCN 623 Chemcal Oceanography Readng: Frst half of Chapter 3, Snoeynk and Jenkns (1980) Introducton We want
More information1. Give a reason why the Thomson plumpudding model does not agree with experimental observations.
[Problems] Walker, Physcs, 3 rd Edton Chapter 31 Conceptual Questons (Answers to oddnumbered Conceptual Questons can be ound n the back o the book, begnnng on page ANSxx.) 1. Gve a reason why the Thomson
More informationsubstances (among other variables as well). ( ) Thus the change in volume of a mixture can be written as
Mxtures and Solutons Partal Molar Quanttes Partal molar volume he total volume of a mxture of substances s a functon of the amounts of both V V n,n substances (among other varables as well). hus the change
More informationCHAPTER 9 SECONDLAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME. blank
CHAPTER 9 SECONDLAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME blank SONNTAG/BORGNAKKE STUDY PROBLEM 91 9.1 An deal steam turbne A steam turbne receves 4 kg/s steam at 1 MPa 300 o C and there are two ext flows, 0.5
More informationLesson 2 Chapter Two Three Phase Uncontrolled Rectifier
Lesson 2 Chapter Two Three Phase Uncontrolled Rectfer. Operatng prncple of three phase half wave uncontrolled rectfer The half wave uncontrolled converter s the smplest of all three phase rectfer topologes.
More informationChapter 9. Linear Momentum and Collisions
Chapter 9 Lnear Momentum and Collsons CHAPTER OUTLINE 9.1 Lnear Momentum and Its Conservaton 9.2 Impulse and Momentum 9.3 Collsons n One Dmenson 9.4 TwoDmensonal Collsons 9.5 The Center of Mass 9.6 Moton
More informationTHE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINETIC THEORY
Chapter 14 he Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic heory Chapter 14 HE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINEIC HEORY REIEW Kinetic molecular theory involves the study of matter, particularly gases, as very small particles in constant
More informationMolecular spectroscopy II: Electronic transitions. Characteristic frequencies and wavelengths. Hierarchy of energy levels. E el >> E rot >> E vib
Molecular spectroscopy II: Electronc transtons Characterstc requences and wavelengths Herarchy o energy levels E el >> E rot >> E vb Electronc transtons Vbratonal transtons Rotatonal transtons Energy Energy
More information+ + +   This circuit than can be reduced to a planar circuit
MeshCurrent Method The meshcurrent s analog of the nodeoltage method. We sole for a new set of arables, mesh currents, that automatcally satsfy KCLs. As such, meshcurrent method reduces crcut soluton to
More informationLinear Circuits Analysis. Superposition, Thevenin /Norton Equivalent circuits
Lnear Crcuts Analyss. Superposton, Theenn /Norton Equalent crcuts So far we hae explored tmendependent (resste) elements that are also lnear. A tmendependent elements s one for whch we can plot an / cure.
More informationMechanics of Rigid Body
Mechancs of Rgd Body 1. Introducton Knematcs, Knetcs and Statc 2. Knematcs. Types of Rgd Body Moton: Translaton, Rotaton General Plane Moton 3. Knetcs. Forces and Acceleratons. Energy and Momentum Methods.
More informationState Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.
5 Question 1. [Marks 20] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding
More informationRecurrence. 1 Definitions and main statements
Recurrence 1 Defntons and man statements Let X n, n = 0, 1, 2,... be a MC wth the state space S = (1, 2,...), transton probabltes p j = P {X n+1 = j X n = }, and the transton matrx P = (p j ),j S def.
More informationExperiment 5 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
PHY191 Experment 5: Elastc and Inelastc Collsons 8/1/014 Page 1 Experment 5 Elastc and Inelastc Collsons Readng: Bauer&Westall: Chapter 7 (and 8, or center o mass deas) as needed 1. Goals 1. Study momentum
More informationThe MaxwellBoltzmann Distribution
The MaxwellBoltzmann Distribution Gases are composed of atoms or molecules. These atoms or molecules do not really interact with each other except through collisions. In many cases, we may think of a
More informationPhysics problem solving (Key)
Name: Date: Name: Physcs problem solvng (Key) Instructons: 1.. Fnd one partner to work together. You can use your textbook, calculator and may also want to have scratch paper. 3. Work through the problems
More informationChapter 17 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases
Chapter 7 emperature and the Kinetic heory of Gases Conceptual roblems rue or false: (a) he zeroth law of thermodynamics states that two objects in thermal equilibrium with each other must be in thermal
More informationThe FullWave Rectifier
9/3/2005 The Full Wae ectfer.doc /0 The FullWae ectfer Consder the followng juncton dode crcut: s (t) Power Lne s (t) 2 Note that we are usng a transformer n ths crcut. The job of ths transformer s to
More informationMOLECULAR PARTITION FUNCTIONS
MOLECULR PRTITIO FUCTIOS Introducton In the last chapter, we have been ntroduced to the three man ensembles used n statstcal mechancs and some examples of calculatons of partton functons were also gven.
More informationTHE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
Chapter 19: THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. Evidence that a gas consists mostly of empty space is the fact that: A. the density of a gas becomes much greater when it is liquefied B. gases exert pressure
More informationPhysics Courseware Physics I Ideal Gases
Physics Courseware Physics I Ideal Gases Problem 1. How much mass of helium is contained in a 0.0 L cylinder at a pressure of.0 atm and a temperature of.0 C? [The atomic mass of helium is 4 amu] PV (
More informationPhysics 100A Homework 8 Chapter 9
Physcs 00A Hoework 8 Chater 9 9.4 Two artrack carts oe toward one another on an ar track. Cart has a ass o 0.35 kg and a seed o. /s. Cart has a ass o 0.6 kg. A)What seed ust cart hae the total oentu o
More informationFORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN A DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER
FORCED CONVECION HEA RANSFER IN A DOUBLE PIPE HEA EXCHANGER Dr. J. Mchael Doster Department of Nuclear Engneerng Box 7909 North Carolna State Unversty Ralegh, NC 276957909 Introducton he convectve heat
More informationState function: eigenfunctions of hermitian operators> normalization, orthogonality completeness
Schroednger equaton Basc postulates of quantum mechancs. Operators: Hermtan operators, commutators State functon: egenfunctons of hermtan operators> normalzaton, orthogonalty completeness egenvalues and
More informationExperiment 8 Two Types of Pendulum
Experment 8 Two Types of Pendulum Preparaton For ths week's quz revew past experments and read about pendulums and harmonc moton Prncples Any object that swngs back and forth can be consdered a pendulum
More informationPhys222 W11 Quiz 1: Chapters 1921 Keys. Name:
Name:. In order for two objects to have the same temperature, they must a. be in thermal equilibrium.
More informationSemiconductor sensors of temperature
Semconductor sensors of temperature he measurement objectve 1. Identfy the unknown bead type thermstor. Desgn the crcutry for lnearzaton of ts transfer curve.. Fnd the dependence of forward voltage drop
More informationImplementation of Deutsch's Algorithm Using Mathcad
Implementaton of Deutsch's Algorthm Usng Mathcad Frank Roux The followng s a Mathcad mplementaton of Davd Deutsch's quantum computer prototype as presented on pages  n "Machnes, Logc and Quantum Physcs"
More informationGeneral Chemistry. Principles & Modern Applications 9 th Edition. Petrucci/Harwood/Herring/Madura. Chapter 6 Gases
General Chemistry Principles & Modern Applications 9 th Edition Petrucci/Harwood/Herring/Madura Chapter 6 Gases Dr. Travis D. Fridgen Memorial University of Newfoundland 007 Pearson Education In which
More informationIdeal Gases and the First Law of Thermodynamics
N.1  Ideal Gases Chapter N Ideal Gases and the First Law of Thermodynamics linn College  hysics 45  Terry Honan asic Definitions The assumption behind an ideal gas is that it is a collection of noninteracting
More information5. Simultaneous eigenstates: Consider two operators that commute: Â η = a η (13.29)
5. Smultaneous egenstates: Consder two operators that commute: [ Â, ˆB ] = 0 (13.28) Let Â satsfy the followng egenvalue equaton: Multplyng both sdes by ˆB Â η = a η (13.29) ˆB [ Â η ] = ˆB [a η ] = a
More informationa) Use the following equation from the lecture notes: = ( 8.314 J K 1 mol 1) ( ) 10 L
hermodynamics: Examples for chapter 4. 1. One mole of nitrogen gas is allowed to expand from 0.5 to 10 L reversible and isothermal process at 300 K. Calculate the change in molar entropy using a the ideal
More informationn + d + q = 24 and.05n +.1d +.25q = 2 { n + d + q = 24 (3) n + 2d + 5q = 40 (2)
MATH 16T Exam 1 : Part I (InClass) Solutons 1. (0 pts) A pggy bank contans 4 cons, all of whch are nckels (5 ), dmes (10 ) or quarters (5 ). The pggy bank also contans a con of each denomnaton. The total
More informationHeat and Work. First Law of Thermodynamics 9.1. Heat is a form of energy. Calorimetry. Work. First Law of Thermodynamics.
Heat and First Law of Thermodynamics 9. Heat Heat and Thermodynamic rocesses Thermodynamics is the science of heat and work Heat is a form of energy Calorimetry Mechanical equivalent of heat Mechanical
More informationThinking about Newton's Laws
Newtonan modellng In ths actvty you wll see how Newton s Laws of Moton are used to connect the moton of an object wth the forces actng on t. You wll practse applyng Newton s three laws n some real contexts.
More information1. Which graph shows the pressuretemperature relationship expected for an ideal gas? 1) 3)
1. Which graph shows the pressuretemperature relationship expected for an ideal gas? 2. Under which conditions does a real gas behave most like an ideal gas? 1) at low temperatures and high pressures
More informationCLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8
CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8 Kinetic Theory Information concerning the initial motions of each of the atoms of macroscopic systems is not accessible, nor do we have the computational capability even with
More informationLaws of Electromagnetism
There are four laws of electromagnetsm: Laws of Electromagnetsm The law of BotSavart Ampere's law Force law Faraday's law magnetc feld generated by currents n wres the effect of a current on a loop of
More informationCHAPTER 12. Gases and the KineticMolecular Theory
CHAPTER 12 Gases and the KineticMolecular Theory 1 Gases vs. Liquids & Solids Gases Weak interactions between molecules Molecules move rapidly Fast diffusion rates Low densities Easy to compress Liquids
More informationSection 5.3 Annuities, Future Value, and Sinking Funds
Secton 5.3 Annutes, Future Value, and Snkng Funds Ordnary Annutes A sequence of equal payments made at equal perods of tme s called an annuty. The tme between payments s the payment perod, and the tme
More informationReview C: Work and Kinetic Energy
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department o Physcs 8.2 Revew C: Work and Knetc Energy C. Energy... 2 C.. The Concept o Energy... 2 C..2 Knetc Energy... 3 C.2 Work and Power... 4 C.2. Work Done by
More informationIntroduction to Statistical Physics (2SP)
Introducton to Statstcal Physcs (2SP) Rchard Sear March 5, 20 Contents What s the entropy (aka the uncertanty)? 2. One macroscopc state s the result of many many mcroscopc states.......... 2.2 States wth
More informationThe Greedy Method. Introduction. 0/1 Knapsack Problem
The Greedy Method Introducton We have completed data structures. We now are gong to look at algorthm desgn methods. Often we are lookng at optmzaton problems whose performance s exponental. For an optmzaton
More informationEntropy Changes & Processes
Entropy Changes & Processes Chapter 4 of Atkins: he Second Law: he Concepts Section 4.3, 7th edition; 3.3, 8th edition Entropy of Phase ransition at the ransition emperature Expansion of the Perfect Gas
More informationMolecular Dynamics Simulation of Ablation and Spallation of Gold irradiated by femtosecond laser
Molecular Dynamcs Smulaton of Ablaton and Spallaton of Gold rradated by femtosecond laser Bran J. Demaske, V.V. Zhakhovsky, Ivan I. Oleynk Department of Physcs, Unversty of South Florda Ablaton Spallaton
More informationSection 5.4 Annuities, Present Value, and Amortization
Secton 5.4 Annutes, Present Value, and Amortzaton Present Value In Secton 5.2, we saw that the present value of A dollars at nterest rate per perod for n perods s the amount that must be deposted today
More informationNONCONSTANT SUM REDANDBLACK GAMES WITH BETDEPENDENT WIN PROBABILITY FUNCTION LAURA PONTIGGIA, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
To appear n Journal o Appled Probablty June 2007 OCOSTAT SUM REDADBLACK GAMES WITH BETDEPEDET WI PROBABILITY FUCTIO LAURA POTIGGIA, Unversty o the Scences n Phladelpha Abstract In ths paper we nvestgate
More informationGas  a substance that is characterized by widely separated molecules in rapid motion.
Chapter 10  Gases Gas  a substance that is characterized by widely separated molecules in rapid motion. Mixtures of gases are uniform. Gases will expand to fill containers (compare with solids and liquids
More informationQuotes. Research Findings. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Introduction. Introduction. Thermodynamics Lecture Series
8//005 Quotes Thermodynamcs Lecture Seres Frst Law of Thermodynamcs & Control Mass, Open Appled Scences Educaton Research Group (ASERG) Faculty of Appled Scences Unverst Teknolog MARA emal: drjjlanta@hotmal.com
More informationMultivariate EWMA Control Chart
Multvarate EWMA Control Chart Summary The Multvarate EWMA Control Chart procedure creates control charts for two or more numerc varables. Examnng the varables n a multvarate sense s extremely mportant
More informationFinal Exam Review Questions PHY Final Chapters
Final Exam Review Questions PHY 2425  Final Chapters Section: 17 1 Topic: Thermal Equilibrium and Temperature Type: Numerical 12 A temperature of 14ºF is equivalent to A) 10ºC B) 7.77ºC C) 25.5ºC D) 26.7ºC
More informationBoltzmann Distribution Law
Boltzmann Distribution Law The motion of molecules is extremely chaotic Any individual molecule is colliding with others at an enormous rate Typically at a rate of a billion times per second We introduce
More informationChapter 31B  Transient Currents and Inductance
Chapter 31B  Transent Currents and Inductance A PowerPont Presentaton by Paul E. Tppens, Professor of Physcs Southern Polytechnc State Unversty 007 Objectves: After completng ths module, you should be
More information21 Vectors: The Cross Product & Torque
21 Vectors: The Cross Product & Torque Do not use our left hand when applng ether the rghthand rule for the cross product of two vectors dscussed n ths chapter or the rghthand rule for somethng curl
More informationThe complex inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions
Physcs 116A Wnter 010 The complex nerse trgonometrc and hyperbolc functons In these notes, we examne the nerse trgonometrc and hyperbolc functons, where the arguments of these functons can be complex numbers
More informationDETERMINATION OF MOLAR MASS FROM FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION
Exercse 1 DETERINTION OF OLR SS FRO FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION Collgatve propertes The propertes we now consder are the lowerng of vapour pressure, the elevaton of bolng pont, the depresson of freezng pont,
More informationDescription of the Force Method Procedure. Indeterminate Analysis Force Method 1. Force Method con t. Force Method con t
Indeternate Analyss Force Method The force (flexblty) ethod expresses the relatonshps between dsplaceents and forces that exst n a structure. Prary objectve of the force ethod s to deterne the chosen set
More informationENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 1. In a reversible process the system: A. is always close to equilibrium states B. is close to equilibrium states only at the beginning and end
More informationGases and KineticMolecular Theory: Chapter 12. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline
Gases and KineticMolecular heory: Chapter Chapter Outline Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases Pressure Boyle s Law: he VolumePressure
More informationSolutions to First Midterm
rofessor Chrstano Economcs 3, Wnter 2004 Solutons to Frst Mdterm. Multple Choce. 2. (a) v. (b). (c) v. (d) v. (e). (f). (g) v. (a) The goods market s n equlbrum when total demand equals total producton,.e.
More informationLuby s Alg. for Maximal Independent Sets using Pairwise Independence
Lecture Notes for Randomzed Algorthms Luby s Alg. for Maxmal Independent Sets usng Parwse Independence Last Updated by Erc Vgoda on February, 006 8. Maxmal Independent Sets For a graph G = (V, E), an ndependent
More information(6)(2) (6)(4) (4)(6) + (2)(3) + (4)(3) + (2)(3) = 1224 + 24 + 6 + 12 6 = 0
Chapter 3 Homework Soluton P3., 4, 6, 0, 3, 7, P3.3, 4, 6, P3.4, 3, 6, 9, P3.5 P3.6, 4, 9, 4,, 3, 40  P 3. Determne the alues of, 4,, 3, and 6
More informationENERGY BALANCE. Heat liberated within the reactor due to reaction = 1414.575 kcal/kmol
ENERGY BALANCE Deulphurzer ere Sulphur n Naphtha made to react wth ydrogen n preence of catalyt to gve ydrogen Sulphde. h reacton take place at a temperature of 63 K + S ydrogen and Naphtha are aumed to
More informationThe Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10
Our Atmosphere The Gas Laws 99% N 2 and O 2 78% N 2 80 70 Nitrogen Chapter 10 21% O 2 1% CO 2 and the Noble Gases 60 50 40 Oxygen 30 20 10 0 Gas Carbon dioxide and Noble Gases Pressure Pressure = Force
More informationPeak Inverse Voltage
9/13/2005 Peak Inerse Voltage.doc 1/6 Peak Inerse Voltage Q: I m so confused! The brdge rectfer and the fullwae rectfer both prode fullwae rectfcaton. Yet, the brdge rectfer use 4 juncton dodes, whereas
More informationPhysics 2101 Section 3 April 26th: Chap. 18 : Chap Ann n ce n e t nnt : Exam #4, April Exam #4,
Physics 2101 Section 3 April 26 th : Chap. 181919 Announcements: n nt Exam #4, April 28 th (Ch. 13.618.8) 18.8) Final Exam: May 11 th (Tuesday), 7:30 AM Make up Final: May 15 th (Saturday) 7:30 AM Class
More informationA. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences.
I. MOLECULES IN MOTION: A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. 1) theory developed in the late 19 th century to
More informationAnalysis of Smallsignal Transistor Amplifiers
Analyss of Smallsgnal Transstor Amplfers On completon of ths chapter you should be able to predct the behaour of gen transstor amplfer crcuts by usng equatons and/or equalent crcuts that represent the
More informationElectromagnetic Radiation
Forms of Energy There are many types of energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Potential energy is energy that results from position, such as the energy in water going over a dam. Electrical energy
More information( ) Homework Solutions Physics 8B Spring 09 Chpt. 32 5,18,25,27,36,42,51,57,61,76
Homework Solutons Physcs 8B Sprng 09 Chpt. 32 5,8,25,27,3,42,5,57,,7 32.5. Model: Assume deal connectng wres and an deal battery for whch V bat = E. Please refer to Fgure EX32.5. We wll choose a clockwse
More informationSection 2 Introduction to Statistical Mechanics
Secton 2 Introducton to Statstcal Mechancs 2.1 Introducng entropy 2.1.1 Boltzmann s formula A very mportant thermodynamc concept s that of entropy S. Entropy s a functon of state, lke the nternal energy.
More information<v 1 > 1/ 2. = 444 ms 1 PN RT. ρ = (πd 2 ) C rel ρ = m 3 s 1. = = mol L 1 s 1
TOPIC  THE COLLISIO THEORY Example of solved problems. For molecular oxygen at 5 o C, (a) calculate the collision frequency z and (b) the collision density Z at a pressure of atm. Given: d oxy. 0.36 nm.
More informationMulticomponent Distillation
Multcomponent Dstllaton need more than one dstllaton tower, for n components, n1 fractonators are requred Specfcaton Lmtatons The followng are establshed at the begnnng 1. Temperature, pressure, composton,
More informationHomework Solutions Physics 8B Spring 2012 Chpt. 32 5,18,25,27,36,42,51,57,61,76
Homework Solutons Physcs 8B Sprng 202 Chpt. 32 5,8,25,27,3,42,5,57,,7 32.5. Model: Assume deal connectng wres and an deal battery for whch V bat =. Please refer to Fgure EX32.5. We wll choose a clockwse
More informationPhysics 110 Spring D Motion Problems and their Solutions
Phyc 1 Sprng 006 1D Moton Proble and ther Soluton 1. Jule Verne n 1865 propoed endng people to the oon by rng a pace capule ro a 0 long cannon wth a nal elocty o.97 k/. What the acceleraton o th pace
More informationCHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET
Boyle s Law Charles Law GuyLassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The volume of a fixed mass of gas is
More informationIsotherms of liquidgas phase transition
sotherms of liquidgas phase transition RT b a et us plot s at fied T for dw fluid: For concreteness we will use a dw fluid approimating He. Note that the isotherms with T < 5 K do not satisfy a stability
More informationGeol 116 The Planet Class 71 Feb 28, 2005. Exercise 1, Calculate the escape velocities of the nine planets in the solar system
Exercises/Discussions Atmospheric Composition: Escape Velocities and Surface Temperature Objectives Escape velocity and the mass and size of a planetary body The effect of escape velocity and surface temperature
More informationTopical Workshop for PhD students Adsorption and Diffusion in MOFs Institut für Nichtklassische Chemie, Germany, www.unileipzig.
Gas Separaton and Purfcaton Measurement of Breakthrough Curves Topcal Workshop for PhD students Adsorpton and Dffuson n MOFs Adsorpton on Surfaces / Separaton effects Useful features Thermodynamc effect
More informationOptical SignaltoNoise Ratio and the QFactor in FiberOptic Communication Systems
Applcaton ote: FA9.0. Re.; 04/08 Optcal Sgnaltoose Rato and the QFactor n FberOptc Communcaton Systems Functonal Dagrams Pn Confguratons appear at end of data sheet. Functonal Dagrams contnued at
More informationThermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions
Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium
More informationKinetic Molecular Theory
Kinetic Molecular Theory Particle volume  The volume of an individual gas particle is small compaired to that of its container. Therefore, gas particles are considered to have mass, but no volume. There
More informationKinetic Theory of Gases
Kinetic Theory of Gases Important Points:. Assumptions: a) Every gas consists of extremely small particles called molecules. b) The molecules of a gas are identical, spherical, rigid and perfectly elastic
More information1 Example 1: Axisaligned rectangles
COS 511: Theoretcal Machne Learnng Lecturer: Rob Schapre Lecture # 6 Scrbe: Aaron Schld February 21, 2013 Last class, we dscussed an analogue for Occam s Razor for nfnte hypothess spaces that, n conjuncton
More informationMEMORANDUM GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Paper 2
MEMORANDUM GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Paper 2 MARKS: 150 TIME: 3 hours Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards LO1 LO2 LO3 AS 11.1.1: Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to collect
More informationViscosity of Solutions of Macromolecules
Vscosty of Solutons of Macromolecules When a lqud flows, whether through a tube or as the result of pourng from a vessel, layers of lqud slde over each other. The force f requred s drectly proportonal
More informationLesson 6: Earth and the Moon
Lesson 6: Earth and the Moon Reading Assignment Chapter 7.1: Overall Structure of Planet Earth Chapter 7.3: Earth s Interior More Precisely 72: Radioactive Dating Chapter 7.5: Earth s Magnetosphere Chapter
More informationAnswer: A). There is a flatter IS curve in the high MPC economy. Original LM LM after increase in M. IS curve for low MPC economy
4.02 Quz Solutons Fall 2004 MultpleChoce Questons (30/00 ponts) Please, crcle the correct answer for each of the followng 0 multplechoce questons. For each queston, only one of the answers s correct.
More information