JAMAICA. Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) Last year abstainers

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1 JAMAICA Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) 6 5 Litres of pure alcohol Beer Spirits Wine Sources: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), World Drink Trends 23 Last year abstainers 21 (total sample size n = 238; aged 12 years and above) % Male 43.8% Female 69.4% Estimates from key alcohol experts show that the proportion of adult males and females who had been abstaining (last year before the survey) was 29% (males) and 7% (females). Data is for after year Heavy drinkers (last month) 5.2% Male 8.8% Female 2.2% 21 (total sample size n = 238; aged 12 years and above). Heavy drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on five or more occasions during the past month. 1 WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 24 1

2 Heavy episodic drinkers (last month) Male 3% Female 9% A population-based probability sample of 958 (454 males and 54 females) persons aged 15 to 49 years surveyed in 1993 for lifestyle and behaviour risk factors. Heavy episodic drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on at least one occasion during the previous month. 3 Youth drinking (last year prevalence of alcohol use) 26% 21 (original sample size n = 238). Results shown for the age group 12 to 17 years old. 1 According to the 1997 National Adolescent Students Drug Survey, 7.9% of students reported having ever had a drink. A little more than one in four students (28.8%) had used alcohol in the month preceding the survey. 4 In a study of 2417 Jamaican urban and rural high school students (163 boys and 1354 girls, aged years old), the rate of prevalence of alcohol use was found to be 5.2%. 5 In a study of 28 female adolescents (aged 16 to 19.9 years) diagnosed with more than one sexually transmitted disease in Kingston, Jamaica, it was found that 62% of the sample consumed alcoholic drinks. 6 Youth drinking (last month heavy drinkers) 2.1% 21 (original sample size n = 238). Results shown for the age group 12 to 17 years old. 1 The same survey also found that last year prevalence rates of alcohol dependence or abuse among 12- to 17- year-olds were 1.3% for abuse and.9% for dependence. 1 WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 24 2

3 Alcohol dependence (last year) 1.6% 21 (total n = 238) using DSM- IV criteria (three or more of the seven symptoms constituted dependence). 1 Male 3% Female.4% The same survey also found that 5.8% of respondents had a problem of alcohol abuse or dependence and of which 4.3% were diagnosed with abuse without dependence (for abuse only, the male prevalence was 7.2% and female 1.9%). DSM-IV criteria was used to assess alcohol abuse and dependence. 1 Unrecorded alcohol consumption According to the WHO Global Burden of Disease Study (2) the unrecorded alcohol consumption in Jamaica is estimated to be 1. litre pure alcohol per adult capita. 2 Mortality rates from selected death causes where alcohol is one of the underlying risk factors The data represent all the deaths occurring in a country irrespective of whether alcohol was a direct or indirect contributor. Chronic mortality Alcohol use disorders SDR per Cirrhosis of the liver Mouth and oropharynx cancers Ischaem ic heart disease Note: Chronic mortality time-series measured on two axes, ischaemic heart disease on right axis and the other causes on the left. WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 24 3

4 Acute mortality.12.1 SDR per Falls Intentional injuries Accidental poisonings Road traffic accidents Source: WHO Mortality Database Morbidity, health and social problems from alcohol use A study identified that in blood samples of 31 motor vehicle fatalities, evidence of alcohol intake was found in 77.5% of the fatalities and 35.5% had alcohol levels above the legal acceptable limits. 7 A recent study done by three doctors revealed that alcohol was found in the bodies of 43% of drivers involved in traffic accidents. 8 Country background information population Life expectancy at birth (22) Male 71.1 Adult (15+) Female 74.6 % under 15 3 Probability of dying under age 5 per 1 (22) Male 16 Population distribution 21 (%) Female 14 Urban 57 Gross National Income per capita 22 US$ 282 Rural 43 Sources: Population and Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat, World Bank World Development Indicators database, The World Health Report 24 References 1. National household survey of drug use and abuse in Jamaica 21. The National Council on Drug Abuse, Alcohol per capita consumption, patterns of drinking and abstention worldwide after Appendix 2. European Addiction Research, 21, 7(3): Figueroa JP, Fox K, Minor K. A behaviour risk factor survey in Jamaica. West Indian Medical Journal, 1999, 48(1): Douglas K. Patterns of substance use and abuse among post primary students in Jamaica: National Adolescent Students Drug Survey 1997/1998. Planning Institute of Jamaica, Soyibo K, Lee MG. Use of alcohol, tobacco and non-prescription drugs among Jamaican high school students. West Indian Medical Journal, 1997, 46(4): Graham M et al. Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among female adolescents. West Indian Medical Journal, 2, 49(Supplement 4): Francis M, Eldemire D, Clifford R. A pilot study of alcohol and drug-related traffic accidents and death in two Jamaican parishes, West Indian Medical Journal, 1995, 44(3): WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 24 4

5 8. Medical experts should check drivers involved in accidents. Jamaica Gleaner. March 31 2 (http://www.rism.org/isg/dlp/ganja/news/gj_jg_2331_1.html, accessed 5 May 24). WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 24 5

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