Once you know the volume of air and the static pressure of the system to be cooled, you can determine the fan specifications for your product.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Once you know the volume of air and the static pressure of the system to be cooled, you can determine the fan specifications for your product."

Transcription

1 COOLING FAN REQUIREMENTS CALCULATIONS Determining System Impedance Determining the actual airflow produced by a fan mounted in an enclosure is much more difficult than calculating the airflow required. Obstructions in the airflow path cause static pressure within the enclosure, referred to as system impedance (expressed in static pressure as a function of flow in CFM). To maximize airflow, any resistance should be minimized, except for baffles that may be necessary to direct the airflow. A typical system impedance curve for electronic equipment follows what is called the "square law". This law states that static pressure changes as a square function of changes in the CFM. The chart to the right displays typical impedance curves. Static pressure through complex systems cannot be easily arrived at by calculation. The experimental method of finding airflow through an enclosure is very accurate, but costly, time consuming and cumbersome. In practice, empirical methods are normally used to estimate airflow resistance. Experience shows that: An empty enclosure usually reduces airflow by 5 to 20%. A densely packed enclosure reduces airflow by 60% or more. Most enclosures have a static pressure between 0.05 and 0.15 in H2O. Once you know the volume of air and the static pressure of the system to be cooled, you can determine the fan specifications for your product.

2 Required Air Flow DC or AC Power Voltage Speed Life Expectancy EMI/RFI Heat Dissipation Auto-restart Acoustic Noise This guide will help you determine the best cooling sol for your product. Intake or Exhaust Forced air-cooling for packaged electronic enclosures can be achieved by either evacuation (with fan on exhaust side) or pressurizing the enclosure with a fan on the intake side. This choice should be made early in the design process. Although both theoretically use the same volume of air to dissipate the heat, they have different effects on placement of components within the enclosure. When using an exhaust fan, the air distribution inside the cabinet is flexible and heat from the fan itself is not dissipated into the cabinet. Evacuation has the disadvantage of reducing the pressure within the enclosure, so airborne dust is drawn in through all the vents and cracks in the enclosure. Filtering of the fan on the exhaust side is extremely difficult. A further benefit is that the enclosure is slightly pressurized so that dust is not drawn into the enclosure from the surrounding environment. The disadvantage of intake fans is that filters must be changed frequently to eliminate dust accumulation. A

3 clogged filter can severely restrict airflow, causing elevated temperatures in an enclosure that may be more of a problem than the dust itself. Another disadvantage of a fan that pressurizes the system is that air dissipated by the fan motor can slightly warm the incoming air. This can reduce the air's cooling effect. Components that have the most critical cooling requirements should be placed closest to the air inlets. High temperature components should be placed closest to the air outlets. If exclusion of dust is required, it is better to use a fan that pulls air into the enclosure. In this configuration, a filter at the fan inlet can remove dust from the incoming air. Air that is drawn into the fan flows in a continuous, non-turbulent movement called laminar flow, which allows for a uniformly distributed airflow velocity in the enclosure. This is important in eliminating stagnant air and hot spots. Air exhausted from the fan is turbulent. Heat dissipation in a turbulent airflow can be up to twice that of a laminar flow with the same volumetric flow rate, except that the turbulent airflow region near a fan exhaust is normally limited. Developing a well-defined airflow path through the whole enclosure is essential to minimizing airflow waste. Vents should be at least 50 percent larger than the fan openings themselves. Care must also be

4 taken to eliminate air recirculation in a fan, as over ninety percent of the airflow can be lost. Baffles may be used to eliminate re-circulation of the same air since an airflow path will always take the path of least resistance (Figure Above). Subassemblies and components within the enclosure should be positioned to direct the airflow to places that require cooling. Component placement should always be considered in order to take advantage of natural convection; for example, placing warm components above cool components. Avoid placing large components so that they shield smaller components from the flow of air. Use baffles, where necessary, to direct the airflow to critical hot spots. Smaller systems usually use axial cooling fans, where airflow is perpendicular to the fan blades. The airflow required to dissipate the heat generated can either be obtained by calculation or from a graph. This airflow requirement will depend on the heat generated within the enclosure and the maximum temperature rise permitted. When estimating the power dissipated within a system, use a worst-case estimate for a fully loaded system to allow for the possibility of future changes and additions of heat generating subsystems. In many applications, using an intake fan rather than an exhaust fan can double or triple the life of the fan. The heated air passing over an exhaust fan stresses the fan's bearings much more than the 25 C air flowing over an intake fan. This reduction in

5 temperature provides a dramatic increase on fan life, as seen in the JMC Life Expectancy Curve (Chart Above). Power Parameters In the past, the higher cost of DC fans led to the almost exclusive use of AC fans. Today the price differential between the two has disappeared and DC fans have many advantages compared to AC fans. For example, DC fans typically have a longer life and consume almost 60% less power. Brushless DC fans are usually available in four nominal voltages: 5V, 12V, 24V, and 48V. If the system has a regulated power supply with one of these voltages, then a brushless DC fan may be utilized. This fan will provide performance required, without the input variables that plague AC fans. The speed and airflow of a typical DC fan is proportional to the voltage supplied. Therefore, a single product may be utilized in different applications by adjusting the supply voltage to provide the desired airflow. The voltage range for satisfactory operation depends on the individual fan design. Brushless DC fans do not draw constant currents. The choice of the power source, along with the addition of other peripheral devices, will affect the type and number of DC fans and their motor current characteristics. Throughout blade rotation (particularly at commutation), the current will fluctuate from minimum to maximum. The wave form and level of ripple current will vary significantly between fans and motor designs, making specifications in narrow terms difficult. An understanding of the power source limitations and how they may be impacted by various brushless DC fans early in the design phase will help

6 prevent problems and allow maximum system flexibility. What is Locked Rotor? A locked rotor is a type of sensor output that measures when the fan has completely stopped or locked. It sends an alarm signal, at either high or low voltage when the rotor locks. If the fan starts spinning again, the alarm signal condition will stop. What is Tach Output? A tach output or "sensor output" indicates the speed of the fan at different operating levels. Its purpose is to identify when the fan drops below a certain RPM, and to identify a potential problem with airflow. A tach output fan will always have at least 3 wire leads.

7 Variable Speed Fan in an Electronics Enclosure A variable speed fan is automaticall y controlled by the fan circuit, which changes speed as the temperature changes to provide optimum air flow at all times. Two options are available: 1. A remotely mounted thermistor on a third lead wire (thermistor not provided). 2. A thermistor mounted on the fan PCB (thermistor provided). With the three lead wire fan, varying the voltage on the third lead from 0 to 6 volts can also control speed variation. Variable and Two Speed Fan Information Specially designed variable-speed and two-speed fans can be used to significantly reduce noise generation and power consumption. With standard single speed fans, the DC fan rpm and air output can be controlled by varying

8 the input voltage or by switching between power supply circuits. However, these methods limit the range of low speed operation; and they may involve switching the motor IC on and off when changing speeds. Fan motor damage or malfunction is possible. To overcome these problems, two speed fan motors and variable speed fans are available from JMC. These specially designed JMC fan motors offer a wide variation of fan rpm while keeping the supply voltage constant. Two speed fans can be used in many cooling applications. When extra heat is generated in an application, the fan can switch from idle mode to high-speed operation for extra cooling.

9 Important: Bearing type and temperature matter The life and reliability of all DC fans, regardless of manufacturer, depends on a combination of voltage, frequency, ambient temperature, and airflow restrictions. The normal failure mode is in the bearing system, which is usually related to the total temperature that the bearings are subjected to, although other factors may apply. In general, there is not much difference in life between sleeve and ball bearings when the total temperature is relatively low. As this total temperature increases, however, ball bearings will give a progressively longer life than sleeve bearings.

10 be taken separately. Equations and Variables: Maximum static pressure and maximum air volume measurements must Maximum Static Pressure Measurement: When the nozzle is closed, the pressure in chamber A will reach a maximum. The pressure difference P s represents the maximum static pressure achievable by the fan. Maximum Air Volume Measurement: The nozzle is opened and the auxiliary blower is used to lower the pressure in chamber A to Ps = 0. The maximum air volume can then be calculated using Pn, D and the air volume equation below. Q represents the maximum achievable airflow with the fan in free air. Heat Transfer is represented by: Q = 3.16W / T f or Q = 1.76W / T c Where: Q = Airflow required in CFM (cubic feet per minute) W = Heat dissipated in watts T c = Temperature rise above inlet temp C T f = Temperature rise above inlet temp F Using the chart to the left, one can estimate the airflow required. The vertical axis represents the heat to be removed and the horizontal axis represents the airflow. Notice that both axes are logarithmic. The sloping lines define the

11 temperature rise in C. First find the sloping line that represents the permitted rise, and then find the point on this line that corresponds to the heat to be removed. The horizontal position of this point shows the required airflow. For example, 35 CFM of airflow is required for a system that dissipates 200W, which results in a 10 C temperature rise. Noise has no effect on a fan's cooling performance,

12 but it makes a big difference to the people working nearby. Audible noise originates from several sources, some of which can be controlled by the enclosure designer. Others are a result of a fan manufacturer's design. Read below to find out more about the causes of fan noise and what you can do to minimize it. Causes of Fan Noise Noise emanating from axial fans is a function of many variables and causes: Whirl pooling: This is a broadband noise source generated by air separation from the blade surface and trailing edge. It can be partially controlled by good blade profile design, proper pitch angle and notched or serrated trailing blade edges. Turbulence: Also a broadband noise, generated within the airflow stream itself. Inlet and outlet disturbances, sharp edges and bends in the airflow will cause increased turbulence and noise. Speed: Speed of rotation is a major contributor to fan noise. Fan load: Noise varies with the system load; fans are generally quieter when operated near their peak efficiency. Structure vibration: This can be caused by the components and mechanism within the fan, such as residual unbalance, bearings, rotor to stator eccentricity, and by motor mounting. Cooling fans are basically motors and should be treated as such when mounted. System disturbance: System disturbances are the biggest cause of fan noise. When a fan is designed for low noise operation, it can be very sensitive to inlet and outlet disturbances caused by card guides, brackets, capacitors, transformers, cables, finger guards, filter assemblies, walls or panels, etc. Trial and error, combined with common sense and intuition, are often the best tools for determining fan selection and component placement for low noise operation. How to Minimize Fan Noise

13 The following design actions will help produce a system with minimal fan noise: Reduce system impedance at the inlet and outlet ports. If a large part of the fan's flow potential is used up by the impedance of the inlet and outlet, a larger, faster, noisier fan will be required. Avoid obstructions to the airflow, especially in the critical inlet and outlet areas. When turbulent air enters the fan, noise is increased by as much as 10 db, usually in a discrete tone form that is particularly annoying. Use a larger, slower fan rather than a faster, smaller version whenever possible. Often, this solution will produce less noise for the same airflow. Relax the temperature rise limits where possible, to reduce the airflow required. This will allow you to use a smaller, slower fan that produces less noise. Isolate the fan to avoid vibration transmission. Because fans operate at a low frequency and are light in weight, vibration isolators must be soft and flexible. Since the transmission is dependent on the system, trial and error is the best approach to a quiet system/fan interaction. In systems that require 20 CFM or less, cabinet vibration is the predominant source of noise, and isolation of the fan is the only practical solution. Cooling fan noise is expressed in decibels (dba). The dba rating is determined directly by a sound level meter equipped with a filtering system which de-emphasizes both the low and high frequency portions of the audible spectrum. This measurement is recorded at a distance of 1 meter from the source.

Temperature Rise Above

Spec-00488 E763.422.2211 763.422.2600 Thermal Management Heat Dissipation in Electrical Enclosures Thermal Management Heat Dissipation in Electrical Enclosures Heat Dissipation in Sealed Electrical Enclosures

Fan & Blowers. Motorized Impellers and Centrifugal Blowers. Backward & Forward Curved 2 & 4 Pole Motors Single & Dual Inlet. FB 01.

Fan & Blowers Motorized Impellers and Centrifugal Blowers Backward & Forward Curved 2 & 4 Pole Motors Single & Dual Inlet FB 1.12 January 212 1 HVAC Air Movers Designed for Hard Work and Long Service Motor

EFFECT OF OBSTRUCTION NEAR FAN INLET ON FAN HEAT SINK PERFORMANCE

EFFECT OF OBSTRUCTION NEAR FAN INLET ON FAN HEAT SINK PERFORMANCE Vivek Khaire, Dr. Avijit Goswami Applied Thermal Technologies India 3rd Floor,C-Wing,Kapil Towers, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Pune- 411 1 Maharashtra,

SERVICE INSTRUCTION R410A. WALL MOUNTEDtype INVERTER SPLIT TYPE ROOM AIR CONDITIONER. Models Indoor unit Outdoor unit

SERVICE INSTRUCTION SPLIT TYPE ROOM AIR CONDITIONER WALL MOUNTEDtype INVERTER Models Indoor unit Outdoor unit ASYG07LECA ASYG09LECA ASYG12LECA ASYG14LECA AOYG07LEC AOYG09LEC AOYG12LEC AOYG14LEC R410A CONTENTS

SANYO DENKI AMERICA, INC.

Fundamentals of Brushless DC Axial Cooling Fans Gerald Tan Sales Engineering Manager Sanyo Denki America Inc. 3/31/08 Table of Contents 1. Introduction. 2 2. BLDC fan construction. 2 2.1 Rotor assembly

Fan Basics and Selection Criteria (How to Use)

Feature: Understanding SANYO DENKI Products from Scratch Fan Basics and Selection Criteria (How to Use) Honami Osawa 1. Introduction In recent years, the importance of cooling technology has become even

How to improve energy efficiency of fans for air handling units

How to improve energy efficiency of fans for air handling units Nejc Brelih Junior project engineer REHVA office nb@rehva.eu Introduction Fans use approximately 40% of all electricity in HVAC systems.

Acoustic Overview. Version 1.0

IMPORTANT INFORMATION AND DISCLAIMERS Acoustic Overview 1. INTEL CORPORATION (AND ANY CONTRIBUTOR) IS PROVIDING THIS INFORMATION AS A CONVENIENCE AND ACCORDINGLY MAKES NO WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS

Power and Cooling for Ultra-High Density Racks and Blade Servers

Power and Cooling for Ultra-High Density Racks and Blade Servers White Paper #46 Introduction The Problem Average rack in a typical data center is under 2 kw Dense deployment of blade servers (10-20 kw

Data Bulletin. Mounting Variable Frequency Drives in Electrical Enclosures Thermal Concerns OVERVIEW WHY VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES THERMAL MANAGEMENT?

Data Bulletin April 2001 Raleigh, NC, USA Mounting Variable Frequency Drives in Electrical Enclosures Thermal Concerns OVERVIEW Variable frequency drives are available from manufacturers as enclosed engineered

SUNON SPECIFICATION FOR APPROVAL DESCRIPTION : DC BRUSHLESS FAN. DIMENSIONS : 60X60X15 mm M O D E L : KD0506PHS2

SPECIFICATION FOR APPROVAL CUSTOMER : DESCRIPTION : DC BRUSHLESS FAN DIMENSIONS : 60X60X15 mm M O D E L : KD0506PHS2 APPROVED NO : APPROVED BY : (AUTHORIZED) SPEC.NO D600023 ISSUE DATE 08.06.1998 DAWN.

Fractional Horsepower Motors a n d Specialty Blowers. Bulletin 7000 ONE SOURCE MANY P O W E R F U L S O L U T I O N S.

Fractional Horsepower Motors a n d Specialty Blowers Bulletin 7 ONE SOURCE MANY P O W E R F U L S O L U T I O N S. C-Frame Motors & Blowers 2 C-Frame Motors Compact, reliable C-Frame subfractional HP motors

SUNON SPECIFICATION FOR APPROVAL

SPECIFICATION FOR APPROVAL CUSTOMER : DESCRIPTION : DC BRUSHLESS FAN DIMENSIONS : 60X60X25 mm M O D E L : KDE2406PTB2 APPROVED NO : APPROVED BY : (AUTHORZIED) SPEC.NO D600732 ISSUE DATE 10.01.1998 DAWN.

Application of PWM speed control

The Fan Company www.jmcproducts.com Application of PWM speed control Prepared by JMC Engineering Team Introduction: Technical Report Regulating fan speed according to the temperature inside an enclosure

615xx, 616xx, 617xxx, 646x, 64xx, 65xx Series Programmable AC source

Chroma Systems Solutions, Inc. AC Power Definitions 615xx, 616xx, 617xxx, 646x, 64xx, 65xx Series Programmable AC source Keywords: Peak, RMS, Phase, Inrush Current, Power Factor, Crest Factor, Apparent

What is a transformer and how does it work?

Why is a transformer needed? A control transformer is required to supply voltage to a load which requires significantly more current when initially energized than under normal steady state operating conditions.

Application Information

Moog Components Group manufactures a comprehensive line of brush-type and brushless motors, as well as brushless controllers. The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for the selection and application

Test Methods for DC/DC Power Modules

Test Methods for DC/DC Power Modules Design Note 027 Ericsson Power Modules Precautions Abstract A user may have the desire to verify or characterize the performance of DC/DC power modules outside the

Accurate Air Flow Measurement in Electronics Cooling

Accurate Air Flow Measurement in Electronics Cooling Joachim Preiss, Raouf Ismail Cambridge AccuSense, Inc. E-mail: info@degreec.com Air is the most commonly used medium to remove heat from electronics

15.4. Self-diagnosis Method

15.4. Self-diagnosis Method 15.4.1. H11 (Indoor/Outdoor Abnormal Communication) During startup and operation of cooling and heating, the data received from outdoor unit in indoor unit signal transmission

Chapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers

Part I: Objective type questions and answers Chapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers 1. The parameter used by ASME to define fans, blowers and compressors is a) Fan ration b) Specific ratio c) Blade ratio d) Twist

Specifying a Variable Frequency Drive s

Specifying a Variable Frequency Drive s Put on by Bruce Reeves and Jeremy Gonzales Dykman Electrical Covering the Western US For all of your VFD and Soft Start and Motor Needs How To Specify a Variable

Harmonic Distortion of the AC Power Line

Introduction Adjustable frequency drives have become the standard method of control for heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems due to precise control and very significant energy savings.

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR MINI MAKE-UP AIR MODEL FER

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR MINI MAKE-UP AIR MODEL FER May 2012 VERSION 1.3 Please read instructions carefully before installation. This unit is a complete fresh air make-up package with an integrated

Energy Conservation and the Electronically Communicated Fan. Theory Benefits Application A Typical Installation

7 th Annual Energy Conservation and the Electronically Communicated Fan Theory Benefits Application A Typical Installation Presented by: Adam Perry, Platte River Power Authority Ed Hegwood, Rocky Mountain

The Effect of Forced Air Cooling on Heat Sink Thermal Ratings

zpero 1 The Effect of Forced Air Cooling on Heat Sink Thermal Ratings By Paul Bachman, Fellow Engineer & Ronnie Haiduk, Applications Engineer, Crydom, Inc. ABSTRACT A heat sink s ability to dissipate thermal

Data Center Cooling. The engineer s choice

Data Center Cooling The engineer s choice About ebm-papst Inc. Headquarters - Farmington, CT» 250K sq. ft.» Acoustic testing chamber» Complete air testing lab on site» Mechanical/Design Engineering» Electrical

R410A. WALL MOUNTEDtype INVERTER SPLIT TYPE ROOM AIR CONDITIONER. Models Indoor unit Outdoor unit AOU9RLS2 AOU12RLS2 AOU15RLS2

SERVICE INSTRUCTION SPLIT TYPE ROOM AIR CONDITIONER WALL MOUNTEDtype INVERTER Models Indoor unit Outdoor unit ASU9RLS2 ASU12RLS2 ASU15RLS2 AOU9RLS2 AOU12RLS2 AOU15RLS2 R410A CONTENTS 1. DESCRIPTION OF

APC APPLICATION NOTE #112

#112 Best Practices for Deploying the InfraStruXure InRow SC By David Roden Abstract The InfraStruXure InRow SC (ACSC100 and ACSC101) is a self-contained air conditioner for server rooms and wiring closets.

Benefits of. Air Flow Management. Data Center

Benefits of Passive Air Flow Management in the Data Center Learning Objectives At the end of this program, participants will be able to: Readily identify if opportunities i where networking equipment

14. Troubleshooting Guide

14. Guide 14.1 Refrigeration Cycle System In order to diagnose malfunctions, ensure the air conditioner is free from electrical problems before inspecting the refrigeration cycle. Such problems include

Pre-compliance testing the conducted line emissions of DC supplied circuits

Pre-compliance testing the conducted line emissions of DC supplied circuits By Paul Lee, Director of Engineering, Murata Power Solutions It s quite common for a power supply (PSU) designer to work with

Trouble 1: The air conditioner can t be turned on at all.

Trouble 1: The air conditioner can t be turned on at all. Check to see if there is power supply to the air conditioner. If there's no power supply to the unit, insure the fuse or circuit breaker is ok.

HOW TO CALCULATE ENCLOSURE HEAT LOAD AND WHY YOU NEED TO COOL ELECTRONICS.

HOW TO CALCULATE ENCLOSURE HEAT LOAD AND WHY YOU NEED TO COOL ELECTRONICS. HARMFUL HEAT Like people, industrial electronics can over-heat, causing malfunction and even complete failure. The good news is

NEBB STANDARDS SECTION-8 AIR SYSTEM TAB PROCEDURES

NEBB STANDARDS SECTION-8 AIR SYSTEM TAB PROCEDURES 8.1 INTRODUCTION Testing, adjusting, and balancing of HVAC systems can best be accomplished by following a series of systematic procedures. The NEBB TAB

01-3 0000-00 6810-20 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 1. FFH SPECIFICATION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM RODIUS 2004.09

0000-00 01-3 6810-20 1. FFH SPECIFICATION 01-4 0000-00 2. SYSTEM LAYOUT AND COMPONENTS 0000-00 01-5 01-6 0000-00 3. FFH GENERAL INFORMATION The system is to increase the coolant temperature quickly by

Electronic Refrigerator Diagnostics

Electronic Refrigerator Diagnostics IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE The information in this presentation is intended for use by individuals possessing adequate backgrounds of electrical, electronic, & mechanical

SERVICE INSTRUCTION R410A. WALL MOUNTEDtype SPLIT TYPE ROOM AIR CONDITIONER INVERTER. Models Indoor unit Outdoor unit AOU 9RLFW AOU12RLFW AOU15RLS

SERVICE INSTRUCTION SPLIT TYPE ROOM AIR CONDITIONER WALL MOUNTEDtype INVERTER Models Indoor unit Outdoor unit ASU 9RLF ASURLF ASU5RLS AOU 9RLFW AOURLFW AOU5RLS R40A CONTENTS. DESCRIPTION OF EACH CONTROL

R22. K Control. Indoor Unit. Nomenclature. Compatibility PL H 3 G K H B. Unit style Heat Pump Horse Power

R22. K Control. Indoor Unit. Nomenclature. PL H 3 G K H B Compatibility Unit style Heat Pump Horse Power Control Boost Heaters R22. K Control. Outdoor Unit. Nomenclature. PU H 3 Y K A Compatibility Outdoor

Centrifugal Fans and Pumps are sized to meet the maximum

Fans and Pumps are sized to meet the maximum flow rate required by the system. System conditions frequently require reducing the flow rate. Throttling and bypass devices dampers and valves are installed

Reliability of Air Moving Fans, and Their Impact on System Reliability. A White Paper from the Experts in Business-Critical Continuity TM

Reliability of Air Moving Fans, and Their Impact on System Reliability A White Paper from the Experts in Business-Critical Continuity TM Summary Air-moving fans are used to remove waste heat on all UPS

NFPA and Beyond

NFPA 20 2016 and Beyond Gayle Pennel, P.E. - Aon Fire Protection Engineering Aon Fire Protection Engineering Corporation NFPA 20-2016 Major Changes Automatic Supervision of Pressure Transducers Connectivity

Direct Current Motor Electrical Evaluation Using Motor Circuit Analysis

Direct Current Motor Electrical Evaluation Using Motor Circuit Analysis Howard W. Penrose, PhD ALL-TEST Pro, LLC Old Saybrook, CT Introduction Electrical testing of Direct Current (DC) electric motors

Side Wall Venting Means

Compare These Side Wall Venting Means No Chimney/Chase More Living Space Increased Safety & Efficiency Lower Installation Costs Venting for heating appliances doesn t have to go through the roof, either

MODEL 27106D GILL PROPELLER ANEMOMETER JANUARY 2003 MANUAL PN 27106D-90 R. M. YOUNG COMPANY

MODEL 27106D GILL PROPELLER ANEMOMETER JANUARY 2003 MANUAL PN 27106D-90 R. M. YOUNG COMPANY 2801 AERO PARK DRIVE, TRAVERSE CITY, MICHIGAN 49686, USA TEL: (231) 946-3980 FAX: (231) 946-4772 MODEL 27106D

EC medium pressure axial fans. The effi cient system solution.

EC medium pressure axial fans. The effi cient system solution. GreenTech EC technology in a new dimension. Thanks to the new axial fans, our highly effi cient GreenTech EC technology is now available for

Energy Saving ECM Motors and Fans. 2010 Ventilation Catalogue

Energy Saving ECM s and Fans 2010 Ventilation Catalogue CONTENTS For ellington, sustainability is about delivering products at competitive prices while preserving the environment for future generations.

LG Air Conditioning Multi F(DX) Fault Codes Sheet. Multi Split Units

Multi Split Units If there is a fault on any LG Multi unit, an Error mark is indicated on the display window of the indoor unit, wired-remote controller, and LED s of outdoor unit control board. A two

Air Moving Solutions. ADJUSTABLE PITCH PROPELLER fans. Model TCWPX

Air Moving Solutions. ADJUSTABLE PITCH PROPELLER fans Model TCWPX CATALOG AX510 March 2012 AdjustablePitch Model TCWPX Sizes 24'' - 48'' Heavy-Duty Construction Twin City Fan & Blower adjustable pitch

CellarPro Cooling Systems 1800 Series

CellarPro Cooling Systems 1800 Series Overview Control the Elements CellarPro 1800 Series cooling units are designed for wine cabinets and small cellars up to 400 cubic feet, as follows: CellarPro 1800QTL

Eurovacuum EV Series. Single Stage Oil Sealed Rotary Vane Pump

Eurovacuum EV Series Single Stage Oil Sealed Rotary Vane Pump Eurovacuum EV Series Single Stage Oil Sealed Rotary Vane Pumps Eurovacuum Company is offering its various products to meet industrial vacuum

FIRE DAMPER APPLICATION GUIDE

FIRE AND CEILING RADIATION DAMPERS FIRE DAMPER APPLICATION GUIDE Use this application guide to help determine what type of fire damper best suits the application. Below are listed the ten Metal-Fab fire

Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Split-phase/Capacitor start motor (8251), Electrodynamometer (8960), timing belt.

Lab 10: Split-phase induction motor. Objective: to examine the construction of the split-phase motor; to learn its wiring connections; to observe its starting and running operations; to measure its starting

TECHNICAL DATA & SERVICE MANUAL SPLIT SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONER INDOOR UNIT: AW52AL AW64AL AW52AL 387030095 AW64AL 0.8180.463.0 07/05

TECHNICAL DATA & SERVICE MANUAL INDOOR UNIT: AW52AL AW64AL SPLIT SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONER Model No. Product Code No. AW52AL 387030095 AW64AL 387030096 0.8180.463.0 07/05 IMPORTANT! Please read before installation

Power Management Basics 2. Power Supply Characteristics

Power Management Basics 2. Power Supply Characteristics A power supply s characteristics influence the design of a power management subsystem. Two major characteristics are efficiency and performance over

Variable Frequency Drives

Purchasing Tips Analyse the System as a Whole Variable Frequency Drives Since the process of converting incoming power from one frequency to another will result in some losses, energy savings must always

The way a cabinet should sound. UCoustic Sound Proof Enclosures

UCoustic Sound Proof Enclosures UCoustic Sound-Proof Enclosures Capable of up to 28.5DBa noise attenuation Independently tested by MIRA Test Laboratories (Sound Power Measurement in accordance with ISO3744)

AC Input. MRS Series. AC Input. AC Input. MU Series. DC Input. MDS Series/MD Series. DC Input. MB Series. DC Input. MBD Series.

F Cooling s Cooling s Introduction F-2 Introduction F-32 Series Axial Flow s... F-25 Centrifugal Blowers... F-79 Cross Flow s... F-101 F-46 Series F-48 MU Series F-56 MDS Series/MD Series F-74 MDE Series

ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM

06 3 ENGINE GENERAL Radiator Radiator Coolant reservoir Coolant reservoir Thermostat Water pump Thermostat Water pump Engine Cylinder head Cylinder block (Heater line) Oil cooler

Application Information Fully Integrated Hall Effect Motor Driver for Brushless DC Vibration Motor Applications

Application Information Fully Integrated Hall Effect Motor Driver for Brushless DC Vibration Motor Applications By Shaun Milano Vibration motors are used in a variety of applications including mobile phone

Characteristics of Centrifugal Blower and Its Effective Use in High Static Pressure Area

Characteristics of Centrifugal Blower and Its Effective Use in High Static Pressure Area Masayuki TAKAHASHI With small fans, selecting the right fan that most fits the purpose is extremely important from

ebm-papst North America

ebm-papst North America Data Center Cooling The engineer s choice About ebm-papst Inc. Headquarters - Farmington, CT» 250K sq. ft.» Acoustic testing chamber» Complete air testing lab on site» Mechanical/Design

ECM Motors Manufactured By Regal Beloit. Products and Applications- What s an ECM? GEXPRO Regal Beloit s distribution arm for all ECM motor products

ECM Motors Manufactured By Regal Beloit Products and Applications- What s an ECM? ECM 2.3 series ECM 142 Arktic ECM 58mm Arktic ECM 59 Arktic SSC2 Arktic 51 GEXPRO Regal Beloit s distribution arm for all

How to Reduce Compressed Air Consumption in Drying and Blow-Off Applications

Experts in Technology Nozzles Control Analysis Fabrication How to Reduce Compressed Air Consumption in Drying and Blow-Off Applications Changing your approach can slash operating costs, increase efficiency

- White Paper - Data Centre Cooling. Best Practice

- White Paper - Data Centre Cooling Best Practice Release 2, April 2008 Contents INTRODUCTION... 3 1. AIR FLOW LEAKAGE... 3 2. PERFORATED TILES: NUMBER AND OPENING FACTOR... 4 3. PERFORATED TILES: WITH

SPECIFICATION DGK25C

SPECIFICATION DGK25C CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: GENERAL STANDARDS & CONDITIONS 1 1. DESIGN STANDARDS 1 2. DESIGN CONDITIONS 3. FACTORY INSPECTION 4. PAINTING PROCESS CHAPTER 2: EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS 2 1. OVERALL

CONTROLS DATA MANAGEMENT PROCESS AUTOMATION EUROCUBE. General purpose single phase thyristors and solid state relays Product data.

425 CONTROLS DATA MANAGEMENT PROCESS AUTOMATION EUROCUBE General purpose single phase thyristors and solid state relays Product data abc 425 EUROCUBE A complete range of low cost solid state relays and

IE3. BOGE S series S-3. Motor. Premium Efficiency. BOGE Competence

BOGE S series S-3 IE3 Motor Premium Efficiency BOGE Competence Top quality has surpassed itself again: The new generation BOGE S series. 6 Details of new generation: 4 A B C New BOGE effilence airend New

Motors and Generators

Motors and Generators Electro-mechanical devices: convert electrical energy to mechanical motion/work and vice versa Operate on the coupling between currentcarrying conductors and magnetic fields Governed

SWIMMING POOL HEAT PUMP Owners Manual

SWIMMING POOL HEAT PUMP Owners Manual This manual refers to the 17.0kw and 21.0kw models only. The heat pump unit is sold with a 1 year warranty. In addition there is a 2 year parts warranty on the compressor

Indoor coil is too warm in cooling mode or too cold in heating mode. Reversing valve or coil thermistor is faulty

Codes Room Air Conditioner range: Indoor unit alarm s If timer lamp flashes for 1 second on, 1 second off, this indicates pre heating on the coil during heating mode and is not an error. If timer lamp

VFD 101 Lesson 4. Application Terminology for a VFD

VFD 101 Lesson 4 Application Terminology for a VFD This lesson covers the application terminology associated with a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) and describes each term in detail. When applying a Variable

HVAC SYSTEM (HEATER, VENTILATOR, AND A/C)

HVAC SYSTEM (HEATER, VENTILATOR, AND A/C) HEATER SYSTEM 1. Heater System A: GENERAL A semi-center type integrated air conditioning unit is used, where a high performance heater core and an evaporator core

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS Revision 12:50 14 Nov 05 INTRODUCTION A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by using the principle of magnetic induction. This principle

Objective - Determining characteristic curve of a four-stroke Diesel engine - Calculating thermal efficiency of the engine

Objective - Determining characteristic curve of a four-stroke Diesel engine - Calculating thermal efficiency of the engine Apparatus The experimental setup, shown in Fig. 1, has three main parts: engine,

Thermal characterization of Ericsson power modules

Thermal characterization of Ericsson power modules Design Note 019 Ericsson Power Modules Abstract The latest power modules feature extremely compact form factors and high efficiency operation. The high

26 3213.13 Diesel Engine Driven Generators Page 1 of 6

Last Update: December 8, 2014 A. Description of System Consultant s Handbook Page 1 of 6 1. Provide a diesel engine driven electric generating unit, factory assembled, tested and certified to operate at

Why and How we Use Capacity Control

Why and How we Use Capacity Control On refrigeration and air conditioning applications where the load may vary over a wide range, due to lighting, occupancy, product loading, ambient weather variations,

Filterfans. Air Flow data: PF 1000 PF 2000 PF 2500 PF 3000 PF 5000 PF 6000 PF 7000

Filterfans Patented Click & Fit design provides a hardware free installation! Poured-in foam gasket allows for quick NEMA 12 sealing against the enclosure (except PF 1000) Plastic made from strong (ABS-FR),

PowerAmp Design. PowerAmp Design PAD135 COMPACT HIGH VOLATGE OP AMP

PowerAmp Design COMPACT HIGH VOLTAGE OP AMP Rev G KEY FEATURES LOW COST SMALL SIZE 40mm SQUARE HIGH VOLTAGE 200 VOLTS HIGH OUTPUT CURRENT 10A PEAK 40 WATT DISSIPATION CAPABILITY 200V/µS SLEW RATE APPLICATIONS

PASSIVE INFRARED INTRUSION DETECTOR PASSIVE INFRAROOD DETECTOR DETECTEUR D INTRUSION PASSIF INFRAROUGE

MODEL HAA51 PASSIVE INFRARED INTRUSION DETECTOR PASSIVE INFRAROOD DETECTOR DETECTEUR D INTRUSION PASSIF INFRAROUGE OPERATING MANUAL HAA51 PASSIVE INFRARED INTRUDER DETECTOR INTRODUCTION HAA51 Passive Infrared

2.3 Adequate space and access shall be provided for all fan locations for maintenance and operations.

HVAC FANS GENERAL INFORMATION 1.1 This section applies to centrifugal and axial fans. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 2.1 The Consultant shall include such considerations as duct leakage (expect 5 percent), temperature

Technology Corporation

1 White Paper Meeting The Increased Demand For Efficient Computer Room Cooling Server Cooling Problems: An Overview As microprocessors and other electronic components in servers grow more powerful, they

ROTATING MACHINERY DIVISION (RMD)

SUBMERSIBLE PUMP SETS THREE PHASE SQUIRRELCAGE INDUCTION MOTOR SUBMERSIBLE MONO BLOCK PUMPS Page 1 THREE PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTORS Salient features Rugged cast iron frames Fitted with specially

Typical ECM/PCM Inputs

Typical ECM/PCM Inputs The computer system components fall into two categories: sensors (inputs) and controlled components (outputs). Each system has sensors. Not every system has all the ones listed,

MEMBRANE VACUUM MINI PUMPS

MEMBRANE VACUUM MINI PUMPS The mini pumps described in this page are membrane-type. They can be used both as vacuum pumps and compressors. In the latter version they can supply compressed air 100% oil-free

AC-DC Converter Application Guidelines

AC-DC Converter Application Guidelines 1. Foreword The following guidelines should be carefully read prior to converter use. Improper use may result in the risk of electric shock, damaging the converter,

A whole new way to design backlight inverters for mobile computing applications

A whole new way to design backlight inverters for mobile computing applications John Lambert Product Marketing Engineer International Rectifier Inc. Carl Smith Product Marketing Engineer International

Current Loop Tuning Procedure. Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) General Procedure AN-015

Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) The standard tuning values used in ADVANCED Motion Controls drives are conservative and work well in over 90%

Filters & Wave Shaping

Module 8 AC Theory Filters & Wave Shaping Passive Filters & Wave Shaping What you'll learn in Module 8. Module 8 Introduction Recognise passive filters with reference to their response curves. High pass,

DC Ammeter Shunts. General Information. Leads. Installation. Characteristics of Manganin Shunt Cold Formed Stress Relieved

General Information CSI shunts are designed for use with 50 or 100 millivolt measuring instruments, calibrated in terms of the ampere ratings of the shunt. The accuracy of our shunts is better than ±1/4%

Installation Guide: Quad INSTALLATION GUIDE FOR POWERAIRE QUAD QUAD-FAN ASSIST Tel (410)799-4200 1 of 15 Installation Guide: Quad INTRODUCTION Tate s Variable Speed Quad Fan Assist device provides the

TECHNICAL GUIDE. Call 800-624-2766 or visit 1 SOLENOID DESIGN & OPERATION

Definition & Operation Linear solenoids are electromechanical devices which convert electrical energy into a linear mechanical motion used to move an external load a specified distance. Current flow through

There are many different type of accelerometers and each has unique characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. The different types include:

How does a piezo-electric accelerometer work? Piezo-electric crystals are man-made or naturally occurring crystals that produce a charge output when they are compressed, flexed or subjected to shear forces.

32:(5#5\$7,1* 4833#USP283#+] 4;33#USP293#+] 3ULPH 113 kva, 90 kw 124 kva, 99 kw 6WDQGE\ 114 kva, 91 kw 125 kva, 100 kw

,1'8675,\$/#*(16(7 6HULHV#'9#448 32:(5#5\$7,1* 4833#USP283#+] 4;33#USP293#+] 3ULPH 113 kva, 90 kw 124 kva, 99 kw 6WDQGE\ 114 kva, 91 kw 125 kva, 100 kw Generator set consisting of engine and alternator mounted

Cirrus. Maintenance Manual

Cirrus 5 Maintenance Manual Contents External Components... 2 Internal Components... 3 Disassembly/Replacement of Major Components... 4 Theory of Operation...7 Electrical Components-Specs/LCD...8 Troubleshooting.10-2-

Application Solution. Intoduction. Figure 1. Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps

Application Solution Intoduction This article is a revised edition of the original D-7112-1 application note as written by Thomas R. Doll. The overall content and principles of this 1983 publication are