Chapter 11. Areas of Plane Figures You MUST draw diagrams and show formulas for every applicable homework problem!

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1 Chapter 11 Areas of Plane Figures You MUST draw diagrams and show formulas for every applicable homework problem!

2 Objectives A. Use the terms defined in the chapter correctly. B. Properly use and interpret the symbols for the terms and concepts in this chapter. C. Appropriately apply the postulates and theorems in this chapter. D. Correctly calculate the perimeters of various plane figures. E. Correctly calculate the areas of various plane figures. F. Correctly compare the areas of various plane figures. G. Correctly calculate the areas of combined plane figures. H. Correctly calculate linear and regional geometric probability.

3 Section 11-1 Areas of Rectangles Homework Pages 46-47: 1-34 Excluding 18, and 30

4 Objectives A. Understand the meaning of the phrase area of a polygon. B. Understand and apply the area of a square postulate. C. Understand and apply the area congruence postulate. D. Understand and apply the area addition postulate. E. Understand and apply the area of a rectangle theorem. F. Apply the area theorems and postulates to real world problems. G. Understand and apply the terms altitude, base, and height.

5 Reminder! Pattern Right Triangles Pattern right triangles can also be seen as RATIOS! The Pythagorean Triples (based on lengths of sides) 3x: 4x: 5x 5x: 1x: 13x 8x: 15x: 17x 7x: 4x: 5x The Special Right Triangles (based on angles) Based on sides 1x: 1x, x Based on sides 1x: 3x : x

6 What is LARGER? You have been cautioned not to refer to one figure being LARGER than another based simply on: One side of a figure being longer than one side of a second figure The measure of one angle of a figure being greater than the measure of an angle of a second figure One figures looking bigger than a second figure With the information in this chapter, you can finally say which figure is LARGER! In geometry, the larger figure has the greater area. To be technically correct, we should refer to the area of a rectangular region, not the area of a rectangle.

7 Key Measurement Terms Base Any side of a: Triangle Parallelogram Rectangle Rhombus Square or the parallel sides of a trapezoid. The length of the base is indicated by a b. Altitude any segment perpendicular to a line containing a base from a point on the opposite side of the figure. Height length of an altitude, indicated by an h.

8 Key Measurement Terms Perimeter The length of the outside of a closed geometric figure. Perimeter of a Polygon The sum of the lengths of the sides of the polygon. Circumference of a Circle The perimeter of a circle

9 Terms in Action Base Base h = 4 b = 6 Base Altitude Height Base Altitude Altitude Height Base

10 Postulate 17 The area of a square is the square of the length of a side. s Area = s s

11 Postulate 18 If two figures are congruent, then they have the same area. A D B C E ABC DEF Area of ABC = Area of DEF F

12 So How would you correctly identify one figure being larger or smaller than a second figure?

13 Postulate 19 The area of a region is the sum of the areas of its non-overlapping parts. Area of the cross = red area + blue area + purple area

14 Theorem 11-1 The area of a rectangle equals the product of its base and its height. h Area = (b)(h) b

15 Sample Problems y x If x = and y = 7, then perimeter =? Perimeter = = 18 If x = 4 and y = 6, then Area =? Using Theorem 11-1, the area is the product of the base times height, 6 x 4 = 4 square units. If the area = 70 square units and y = 4, then x =? Using Theorem 11-1, the area is the product of the base times height, 70 square units = 4x. x = 70/4 = 35/

16 Sample Problems Questions 1 16 refer to rectangles. Complete the table where b is the base of the rectangle, h is the height, A is the area, and p is the perimeter b 1 cm 16 cm 3 units (x) units h 5 cm 5 cm 4 units (x 3) units A 80 cm 60 cm 4 units (x - 6x) units 1. Area of a rectangle =? Area of a rectangle = base x height A = 1cm x 5cm 3. Area of a rectangle = base x height 80cm = 16cm x h 5. Area of a rectangle = base x height A 3 units 4 units 7. Area of a rectangle = base x height A = (x) units x (x 3) units

17 Sample Problems Questions 1 16 refer to rectangles. Complete the table where b is the base of the rectangle, h is the height, A is the area, and p is the perimeter b 9 cm 16 cm (a + 3) units x units h 4 cm 5 cm (a 3) units A (x - 3x) units p 36 cm 6 cm 80 cm 4 cm (a - 9) units 4a units (x 3) units (4x 6) units 9. Area of a rectangle = base x height A = 9cm x 4cm Perimeter of a rectangle =? Perimeter of a rectangle = b + h + b + h = b + h Perimeter of a rectangle = (9 cm) + (4 cm) 11. Perimeter of a rectangle = b + h 4 cm = (16 cm) + (h cm) 4 cm = 3 cm + (h cm) 10 cm = (h cm) A =? 13. A = (a + 3) units x (a 3) units A = (a 3a + 3a - 9) units Perimeter of a rectangle = ((a + 3) units) + ((a 3) units) p = (a a - 6) units 15. (x 3x) units = (x) units x (h) units p = (x units)+ ((x 3) units)

18 Sample Problems Consecutive sides of the figure are perpendicular. Find the area of each figure x 5 = x = x 5 = x 5 = 30 5 x 5 = 5 By Postulate 19, Area = = 130 sq units.

19 Sample Problems Consecutive sides of the figure are perpendicular. Find the area of each figure. 6 What type of triangle? Any patterns??: 8: 10?/: 4: 5 Area =? Area = 48 units What type of triangle? Any patterns? How would you find the height? height units sin 6 units 10 units height units units 10 units height units base units base units How would you find the base? cos 6 units units 10 units 10 units base units area units units area 39.4 units

20 Sample Problems Consecutive sides of the figure are perpendicular. Find the area of each figure. 3. 3y 3y 8y 3y 4x 3y x x

21 Sample Problems 5. Find the area of a square with diagonal of length d d 45 Definition of square: Parallelogram Congruent Sides 4 Right Angles All squares are rhombi. Diagonals of rhombi bisect angles. Pattern Right Triangle x, x, x d x x d Area x x d d d sq. units

22 Sample Problems 7. A path m wide surrounds a rectangular garden 0 m long and 1 m wide. Find the area of the path. 9. A room 8 ft long and 0 ft wide has walls 8 ft high. a. What is the total wall area? b. How many gallon cans of paint should be bought to paint the walls if 1 gal of paint covers 300 ft? 31. A rectangle having an area of 39m is twice as long as it is wide. Find its dimensions. 35. You have 40 m of fencing to enclose a pen for your dog. If one side is x, what is the dimension, in terms of x, of the other side? Express the area in terms of x. Find the area of the pen if x = 0,, 4, 6, 8, 10, 1, 14, 16, 18, 0. What are the dimensions of the pen with the greatest area?

23 Section 11- Areas of Parallelograms, Triangles and Rhombuses Homework Pages : 1-36 Excluding 3, 34

24 Objectives A. Understand and evaluate the area of a parallelogram. B. Understand and evaluate the area of a triangle. C. Understand and evaluate the area of a rhombus by using the lengths of the diagonals.

25 Theorem 11- The area of a parallelogram equals the product of a base and the height to that base. h Area = (b)(h) b

26 Theorem 11-3 The area of a triangle equals half the product of a base and the height to that base. h Area = (½)(b)(h) b

27 Theorem 11-4 The area of a rhombus equals half the product of its diagonals. d Area = (½)(d 1 )(d ) d 1

28 Sample Problems 1. Find the area of an equilateral triangle with perimeter = 18. a h 3 c 3 a = b = c b a b a a c a by 3a 18 or a substitution pattern right triangle x, x 3, x

29 Sample Problems 4. Find the area of an isosceles triangle with a 3 degree vertex angle and a base of 8 cm. (find to the nearest 10 th ) h 4 tan16 h 4 (.867) h 4 h Area b h 55.8cm

30 Sample Problems 7. If AM is a median of ABC, h = 5, and BC = 16 then find the areas of ABC and AMB. A 5 h B 8 M 16 8 C Area AMB 1 bh 1 (8)(5) 0 units

31 Sample Problems Find the area of each figure. 1. A triangle with base 5. m and corresponding height 11.5 m. 1. What should you do first? 5. meters 11.5 meters Supporting theorem? The area of a triangle equals half the product of a base and the height to that base. Formula? Area = ½ (base x height) Area = ½ (5. meters x 11.5 meters) Area = 9.9 meters 3. A parallelogram with base 3 and corrsponding height. 3. What should you do first? 3 units Supporting theorem? The area of a parallelogram equals the product of a base and the height to that base. Formula? Area = base x height Area = 3 units units

32 Sample Problems Find the area of each figure. 5. An equilateral triangle with sides 8 feet. 5. What should you do first? 8 ft. 8 ft. Supporting theorem? The area of a triangle equals half the product of a base and the height to that base. Base = 8 feet. Height =? The height of a triangle is the length of its altitude ft. The altitude of a triangle is the line segment 8 ft. perpendicular to a line containing a base from a point on the opposite side of the figure. Isosceles Triangle Theorem Corollary 3 The bisector of the vertex angle of an isosceles triangle is perpendicular to the base at its midpoint. Isosceles Triangle Theorem Corollary 1 An equilateral triangle is also equiangular. Pattern right triangle? 30 : 60 :90 4 ft. across from 30, 60 or 90 angle? Height across from 30, 60 or 90 angle? x :x 3 : x Base = 8 ft. Height = 4 3 ft. 4 :x 3 : x Area = ½ (base x height) 4 :4 3 :8 1 Area = 8 ft. 4 3 ft. =16 3 ft

33 Sample Problems Find the area of each figure Length? Length? What type of figure? Supporting theorem? The area of a parallelogram equals the product of a base and the height to that base. Any ideas? Area = base x height Area = 5 units x 8 units Area = 40 units 9. What type of figure? So sorry, it is NOT a parallelogram! Supporting theorem? The area of a triangle equals half the product of a base and the height to that base. Area = ½ (base x height) Area 1 = ½ (5 units x 1 units) Area 1 = 30 units Area = ½ (9 units x 1 units) Area = 54 units Area = 30 units + 54 units = 84 units 5

34 Sample Problems Find the area of each figure. 11. An isosceles right triangle with hypotenuse A parallelogram with a 45 angle and sides 6 and A triangle with hypotenuse A rhombus with perimeter 68 and one diagonal 30.

35 Sample Problems 19. A square inscribed in a circle with radius r. 5. Find the areas of all three triangles. 8

36 Sample Problems 9a. Find the ratio of the areas of QRT and QTS. 9b. If the area of QRS is 40, find the length of the altitude from S. Q h 4 R 1 T 18 S 33. Find the area of an equilateral triangle with side The area of a rhombus is 100. Find the length of the two diagonals if one is twice as long as the other.

37 Section 11-3 Areas of Trapezoids Homework Pages : -6 evens Excluding 8, 14

38 Objectives A. Correctly identify the bases and height of a trapezoid. B. Understand and apply the theorem of the area of a trapezoid.

39 Theorem 11-5 The area of a trapezoid equals half the product of the height and the sum of the bases. b 1 h Area = (½)(h)(b 1 + b ) b

40 Do you remember? What is the median of a trapezoid? What is the relationship between the lengths of the bases of a trapezoid and its median? b 1 Median m m 1 b 1 b b

41 trapezoid 1. b 1 1 b 8 h 7 A Sample Problems What should you do first? Supporting theorem? The area of a trapezoid equals half the product of the height and the sum of the bases. 1 Area h b b 1 Area units Equation? m 1 Supporting theorem for length of median? The length of the median of a trapezoid is half the sum of its bases. Equation? 1 Median b b 1 1 Median units

42 trapezoid 8. b 1 b h 3k 5k A 45k m Sample Problems What should you do first? 5k Supporting theorem for length of median? The length of the median of a trapezoid is half the sum of its bases. Equation? 1 Median b1b Median 1 15 k 3 k 9 k units b 1 3k 45k b1 15 k units Supporting theorem? The area of a trapezoid equals half the product of the height and the sum of the bases k units 5k b1 3k 90 k (5 k) b 3k Equation? Area hb b 1 18k b 3k 1

43 Sample Problems 17. An isosceles trapezoid with legs 10 and bases 10 and. What should you do first? Now what? What type of triangles? Make familiar figures! 3x: 4x: 5x 6: 8 :10 for x =?? 8 8 Supporting theorem? The area of a trapezoid equals half the product of the height and the sum of 6 6 the bases. Equation? Area hb b 1 Area Can you see another way of solving this problem? units 1 1 A units By area addition: 1 1

44 Sample Problems trapezoid b b h A m

45 Sample Problems 9. A trapezoid has area 54 and height 6. How long is its median?

46 Sample Problems 3. An isosceles trapezoid has bases 1 and 8. The area is 300. Find the height and the perimeter. 5. ABCDEF is a regular hexagon with side 1. Find the areas of the three regions formed by diagonals AC and AD. 7. A trapezoid with area 100 has bases 5 and 15. Find the areas of the two triangles formed by extending the legs until they intersect.

47 Section 11-4 Areas of Regular Polygons Homework Pages : 1-0

48 Objectives A. Correctly identify and apply the terms center of a regular polygon, radius of a regular polygon, central angle of a regular polygon, and apothem of a regular polygon. B. Understand and apply the theorem regarding the area of a regular polygon.

49 Regular Reminder regular polygon: both equilateral and equiangular

50 Parts of a Regular Polygon center of a regular polygon: center of the circumscribed circle. radius of a regular polygon: distance from the center to a vertex. central angle of a regular polygon: the angle formed by two radii drawn to consecutive vertices. apothem of a regular polygon: distance from the center to a side.

51 Parts of a Regular Polygon Regular Polygon Center Radius Central Angle Apothem

52 Theorem 11-6 The area of a regular polygon is equal to half the product of the apothem and the perimeter. Area = (½)(a)(p) a p = 4s Area = (½)(a)(4s) a p = 3s Area = (½)(a)(3s) a p = 6s Area = (½)(a)(6s)

53 Sample Problems Complete the table for the regular polygon shown. Area a ap r a A r s 8 units (8) 16 p x : x : x 8: 8: 8 What should you do first? What is the measure of the central angle? What type of triangle? Where is the apothem? What type of triangle? Pattern? Radius across from which angle? x =? a =? Supporting theorem? The area of a regular polygon is equal to half the product of the apothem and the perimeter. General equation for the area of regular polygon? Perimeter of the regular polygon? Area 1 (8)(64) 56 units

54 Area Sample Problems 13. Find the area of an equilateral triangle with radius ap 4 3 Side (6) 1 Perimeter 3s 3(1) 36u What should you do first? Where is the radius? What is the measure of the central angle? Where is the apothem? What type of triangle? Pattern? x : x 3 : x 3 : 6: 4 3 Radius across from which angle? x =? x 3 Apothem =? Apothem 3 units Supporting theorem? The area of a regular polygon is equal to half the product of the apothem and the perimeter. General equation for the area of regular polygon? Perimeter of the regular polygon? Area ap 36 3 units 1 1

55 Sample Problems 19. Find the apothem, perimeter and area of the inscribed polygon a a x x x x x 1,, units 4 4 units s p s units ap A

56 r a A Sample Problems a r 5. 6 r a p A 7. 1 a r

57 Sample Problems r a p A a r 15. A regular hexagon with perimeter Find the perimeter and the area of a regular dodecagon inscribed in a circle with a radius of 1.

58 Section 11-5 Circumferences and Areas of Circles Homework Pages : -30 evens Excluding 4, 10, 14, 4, 8

59 Objectives D. Derive the approximate value for pi. E. Identify multiple approximations for pi. A. Understand and apply the term circumference of a circle. B. Apply the equations for circumference and area of a circle to real world problems. C. Understand the relationship between the diameter of a circle and its circumference.

60 circle: area: the limit of the sequence of numbers representing the areas of the inscribed regular polygons as the number of sides goes to infinity. Area = r circumference: the limit of the sequence of numbers representing the perimeters of the inscribed regular polygons as the number of sides goes to infinity. Circumference = r or d

61 Area of a Circle Area 1.3 r = 1 Area = Area.60 Area.83 Area r 3.14

62 Circumference of a Circle Perimeter 5.0 r = 1 Perimeter 5.66 Perimeter = 6 Perimeter 6.1 Circumference = r Circumference 6.8

63 Key concepts concerning : I ll have a piece of represents the ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameter of that circle: = circumference / diameter (C = d) is a constant. is an irrational number. You can approximate as: /7

64 Sample Problems Complete the table. Leave answers in terms of. r C A 3. 5 Do you need an exact or estimated value? Since the instructions state Leave the answers in terms of, you are finding an exact answer. Equation for circumference of a circle in terms of the radius? C r C 5 units Equation for area of a circle in terms of the radius? 5 5 A r A units 4 What if you were asked to estimate the values? Which value of π would you use? Since the radius is given as a fraction, it would be most logical to use π = /7 to estimate the values C r 1 units ()5 75 A r units 7 (7)4 14

65 Sample Problems 11. A basketball rim has a diameter 18 in. Find the circumference and the area enclosed by the rim. Use π Do you need an exact or estimated value? Since the instructions state Use 3.14, you are finding an estimated answer. Equation for circumference of a circle in terms of the diameter? C dc d (3.14)(18) 56.5 inches Equation for area of a circle in terms of the diameter? d A 18 A (3.14) inches

66 Sample Problems 13. If 6oz of dough are needed to make an 8 in pizza, how much dough is needed to make a 16 in pizza of the same thickness? What should you do first? 8 inches 16 inches What is the area of each pizza? d 8 d 16 A 16 inches A 64 inches Now what? Does the amount of dough needed grow proportionally? 6 ounces x ounces 64 inches 6 ounces x ounces 16 inches 64 inches 16 inches 64 inches 6 ounces x ounces x ounces 46 ounces 4 ounces 16 inches 1

67 40 feet Sample Problems 15. A school s wrestling mat is a square with 40 ft sides. A circle 8 ft in diameter is painted on the mat. No wrestling is allowed outside the circle. Find the area of the mat not used during wrestling. Use /7. What should you do first? SC 8 feet 40 feet SC Exact or approximate answer? Formula for area of entire wrestling mat? A s A 40 feet 1600 feet Formula for area inside of the circle? d A A feet 7 7 Formula for area outside of the circle? Area Area Area outside square circle Area 1600 ft 616 ft 984 ft outside

68 r 7 Sample Problems C 0 A 5 9. Find the circumference and the area of a circle when the diameter is (a) 4 (b) 14k. 7

69 Sample Problems 17. Which is a better buy, a 10 in pizza costing $5 or a 15 in pizza costing $9? 1. The tires of a racing bike are approximately 70 cm in diameter. (a) How far does a racer travel in 5 min if the wheels are turning at a speed of 3 revolutions per second? (b) How many revolutions does the wheel make in a km race? Use /7.

70 Sample Problems 3. A target consists of four concentric circles with radii 1,, 3, and 4. (a) Find the area of the bull s eye and of each ring of the target. (b) Find the area of the nth ring if the target contains n rings and a bull s eye. 5. Find the area of each shaded region.

71 Sample Problems 7. Find the area of the blue region Draw a square and its inscribed and circumscribed circles. Find the ratio of the areas of these two circles.

72 Section 11-6 Arc Lengths and Areas of Sectors Homework Pages : 1- Excluding 0

73 Objectives A. Identify the sector of a circle. B. Calculate the sector area of a circle based on arc length and radius. C. Calculate the radius of a circle based on the arc length and sector area. D. Calculate the arc length of a circle based on the sector area and radius. E. Apply the sector area formulas to real world problems.

74 sector of a circle: region of circle defined by two radii and the arc connecting the outer endpoints. arc length equals the product of the circumference and the measurement of the arc divided by 360 sector area equals the product of the area and the measurement of the arc divided by 360 NOTE! The MEASURE of the arc is the distance around the circle. The measure of the arc equals the measure of the central angle and is expressed in degrees. The LENGTH of the arc is the LINEAR distance of the arc. The length is expressed in linear measures, such as feet or centimeters.

75 Arc Length & Sector Area r A x If x = 90, is it obvious that you would walk ¼ of the perimeter of the circle if you started at point A and ended at point B? B If x = 90, is it obvious that you would be taking ¼ of the pizza if you sliced out the red region? If m A B = x, th e n th e le n g th o f A B = r If m A B = x, th e n th e a re a o f s e c to r A O B = r x 360 x 360

76 4. m AOB 40 radius 3 Sample Problems Sector AOB is described by giving m AOB and the radius of circle O. Make a sketch and find the length of AB and the area of sector AOB. What should you do first? 40 O 3 B What is the equation/formula for the length of an arc? If m A B = x, th e n th e le n g th o f A B = r 40 Length AB 3 4 units. 360 What is the equation/formula for the area of a sector? 40 Area of sector AO B A units x 360 If m AB = x, th e n th e a re a o f s e c to r A O B = r x 360

77 Does it make sense? Look at the previous problem. Does it make sense? If there are 360 degrees in a circle, then does it make sense that the length of a 40 degree arc would be /3 of the circumference of the circle? Length AB x 40 r Circumference of a circle with radius 3 C r (3)

78 Does it make sense? Look at the previous problem. Does it make sense? If there are 360 degrees in a circle, then does it make sense that the sector area of a sector defined by a 40 degree arc would be /3 of the area of the circle? 3 x 40 Area of sector AO B r 3 6 units Area of circle with radius 3 A r 3 9 units 6 u 3 9 u

79 4 A 15. triangle Sample Problems find the area of the shaded region 8 Now what? Find the area of the triangle units 90 Equation/formula for area of a triangle? Atriangle 1 bh Acircle A sector Aregion Any ideas? Any familiar figures? Equation/formula for area of a circle? d Acircle 8 x r units Equation/formula for area of a sector? A sector units 360 Equation/formula for area the shaded region? A A A A region circle sector triangle u

80 Sample Problems 11. The area of a sector AOB is 10 units and m AOB = 100. Find the radius of circle O. What should you do first? A O B Equation/formula for area of a sector? A sector x r units r units r units 18 r 36 units r r 6 units

81 Sample Problems Sector AOB is described by giving m AOB and the radius of circle O. Make a sketch and find the length of AB and the area of sector AOB m AOB radius

82 Sample Problems O

83 Sample Problems 19. A rectangle with length 16 cm and width 1 cm is inscribed in a circle. Find the area of the region inside the circle but outside the rectangle. 3. A cow is tied by a 5 m rope to the corner of a barn. A fence keeps the cow out of the garden. Find the grazing area. Garden 15m Barn 10m 10m 0m 5m 5. Two circles have radii 6 cm and their centers are 6 cm apart. Find the area of the region common to both circles.

84 Section 11-7 Ratios of Areas Homework Pages : 1-0

85 Objectives A. Compare the areas of triangles that share similar components. B. Utilize the scale factor of similar polygons to determine the ratios of the perimeters of the similar polygons. C. Utilize the scale factor of similar polygons to determine the ratios of the areas of the similar polygons. D. Calculate perimeters and areas of similar polygons based on their scale factor.

86 What is a scale factor? Do You Remember? The scale factor refers to similar polygons. For similar polygons, the scale factor is the ratio of the lengths of two CORRESPONDING sides. A D If ABC~ DEF, BC 5, and EF 10 Then scale factor 5:10 1: B C E F

87 Comparing the Areas of Triangles - Triangles With the Same Height h b 1 b If two triangles have equal heights, then the ratio of their areas equals the ratio of their bases. A A 1 1 h b 1 b1 1h b b

88 Comparing the Areas of Triangles - Triangles With the Same Base h 1 If two triangles have equal bases, then the ratio of their areas equals the ratio of their heights. b h A A 1 1 b h 1 h1 1b h h

89 Comparing the Areas of Triangles - Similar Triangles h b scale factor 1 3 3b If two triangles are similar, then the ratio of their areas is equal to the square of their scale factor. 1 A b h A 1 3b 3h h

90 ax ax Theorem 11-7 If the scale factor of two similar figures is a : b, then (1) the ratio of their perimeters is a : b () the ratio of their areas is a : b scale factor ax bx a b perimeter red perimeter blue ax ax bx bx ax ax bx bx 4ax 4bx a b bx bx area red area blue axax a x a bxbx b x b

91 Want to get these problems correct? For any of these problems: 1. Make sure you are comparing similar figures.. Always setup the following table: Scale Factor: Ratio of lengths (radii, sides, perimeters, etc): a:b a:b Ratio of areas: a :b

92 Sample Problems similar figures scale factor 1. 1:4 a:b What should you do first? a =? b =? Since the scale factor is 1:4, then a = 1, b =4. Are perimeters areas or lengths? ratio of perimeters 1:4 a:b Ratio of the perimeters? Ratio of the areas? ratio of areas 1:16 a :b The ratio of the perimeters is equivalent to the scale factor. The ratio of the areas is equal to the squares of the elements of the scale factor.

93 Sample Problems similar figures scale factor ratio of perimeters ratio of areas 8. :1 :1 :1 a:b a:b a :b What should you do first? a =? b =? The ratio of the areas is :1. then a b or a 1 or b1 Scale factor? Ratio of perimeters?

94 A 8 6 E 5 D B C Sample Problems 13. Name two similar triangles and find the ratio of their areas. Then find DE. 6 DE 85 DE What else do you know? Do you know anything about the line segments inside of the circle? Theorem 9-11: When two chords intersect inside a circle, the product of the segments of one chord equals the product of the segments of the other chord units 6 3 Similar triangles? ABE ~ DCE Why? SAS Triangle Similarity If angles of s are congruent, and the sides including those angles are in proportion, then the s are similar. Scale Factor: Ratio of lengths (radii, sides, perimeters, etc): a:b a:b Ratio of areas: a :b 6:5 6:5 36:5 a =? b =? a = 6 b = 5 Scale factor? Ratio of areas?

95 Sample Problems 15. A quadrilateral with sides 8 cm, 9 cm, 6 cm, and 5 cm has an area of 45 cm. Find the area of a similar quadrilateral whose longest side is 15 cm. What should you do first? Scale factor 9:15 or 3:5 a =? b =? a = 3, b = 5 Ratio of areas? Ratio of areas a : b 3 :5 LOGIC Since the longest side of the first quadrilateral is 9 cm, and the quadrilaterals are similar, then the longest side of the second quadrilateral must CORRESPOND to the side of length 9 cm. Scale Factor: Ratio of lengths (radii, sides, perimeters, etc): a:b a:b Ratio of areas: a :b 15 3:5 9:5 Scale factor? x x 15 cm

96 Sample Problems similar figures scale factor ratio of perimeters ratio of areas r:s 3:13 9:64

97 Sample Problems 9. On a map of California, 1 cm corresponds to 50 km. Find the ratio of the map s area to the actual area of California. 11. L, M and N are the midpoints of the sides of ABC. Find the ratio of the perimeters and the ratio of the areas of LMN & ABC.

98 Sample Problems 17. Find the ratios of the areas of (a) I & II, (b) I & III I 8 II II 9 7 III 6 8 III I 9 9

99 Sample Problems 1. In the diagram, ABCD is a parallelogram. Name four pairs of similar triangles and give the ratio of the areas for each pair. E 3. ABCD is a parallelogram. area of DEF area of ABF area of DEF area of CEB area of DEF area of trap DEBA A F G 4 D 6 F D E 4 8 A 1 B B 9 C C

100 5. Find the ratio of the areas (a) I & III (b) I & II (c) I & IV (d) II & IV (e) I & the trapezoid 8 I II IV III 18 Sample Problems 7. Find the ratio of the areas of region I and II. II 3 I 5

101 Section 11-8 Geometric Probability Homework Pages : 1-16 Excluding 10, 1

102 Objectives A. Understand the classical meaning of probability. B. Understand and apply the concept of linear probability. C. Understand and apply the concept of regional (area) probability.

103 Classical Probability Classical probability depends on: Knowing all possible outcomes to an experiment. Each possible outcome having the same chance of occurring. Knowing the number of outcomes that describe the success of an event. If I flip a coin: The possible outcomes are heads or tails. If the coin in fair, then it is equally likely that a head will appear as a tail. A successful event might be flipping the coin and having it come up tails.

104 Classical Probability The probability of an event occurring is: Number of 'successful' outcomes Number of ' possible'outcomes In the coin experiment, a successful outcome would be the appearance of a tail when the coin is flipped. The possible outcomes would be a head or a tail. Probabilit y (Tails) # of successes Total# outcomes 1 The probability of drawing a heart from a standard deck of cards: Probabilit y (Heart) # of successes Total# outcomes

105 geometric probability: linear probability: the chances of a randomly chosen point being on a given segment. Found by dividing the length of the target segment by the length of the total segment. regional probability: the chances of a randomly chosen point being within the boundary of a given region. Found by dividing the area of the target region by the total area of the object.

106 Linear Geometric Probability Probability that point P is on AC = AC AB A C B

107 Regional Geometric Probability Pr obability that a point P is in region R = area of area of R S S R

108 Sample Problems 3. A friend promises to call you at home sometime between 3 PM and 4 PM. At :45 PM you must leave your house unexpectedly for half an hour. What is the probability that you miss the first call? :45 3:00 3:15 4:00 Gone Miss 15 minutes Call 60 minutes Probabilit y (Miss) 15 minutes 60 minutes 1 4

109 Sample Problems 7. A dart is thrown at a board 1 m long and 5 m wide. Attached to the board are 30 balloons, each with radius 10 cm. Assuming each balloon lies entirely on the board, find the probability that a dart that hits the board will also hit a balloon. 500 cm A balloon A balloons r cm units cm cm PR (balloon hit) board ,000 A bh cm 3000 cm 600, 000 cm 00

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111 Sample Problems 11. A piece of wire 6 in long is cut into two pieces at a random point. What is the probability that both pieces of wire will be at least 1 in long? 13. Darts are thrown at a 1 m square which contains an irregular red region. Of 100 darts thrown, 80 hit the square. Of these, 10 hit the red region. Estimate the area of the region. 15. Find the radius (r) of a coin used in the carnival game described in problem #9 if the the probability of winning is 0.5 and the formula for calculating this probability is probabilit y of winning 30 r 30

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