Ultra-High Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Ultra-High Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials"

Transcription

1 UltraHigh Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials Srinivas Allena 1 and Craig M. Newtson 2 1 New Mexico State University, Civil Engineering Department, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 3CE, Las Cruces, NM ; PH: (575) ; FAX: (575) ; 2 New Mexico State University, Civil Engineering Department, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 3CE, Las Cruces, NM ; PH: (575) ; FAX: (575) ; Abstract This paper presents the development of ultra high strength concrete (UHSC) using local materials. UHSC mixture proportions were developed using local materials so that UHSC may be made more affordable to a wider variety of applications. Specifically, local sand with a top size of in. (600 μm), and locally available Type I/II cement and silica fume were used in this research. Each of these material selections is seen as an improvement in sustainability for UHSC. Two mixtures (one with and one without fibers) were recommended as the UHSC mixtures. The greatest compressive strengths obtained in this study were 24,010 psi (165.6 MPa) for UHSC with steel fibers and 23,480 psi (161.9 MPa) for UHSC without fibers. The compressive and flexural strengths obtained from the UHSC mixtures developed in this work are comparable to UHSC strengths presented in the literature. Producing this innovative material with local materials reduces the cost of the material, improves sustainability, and produces mechanical performance similar to prepackaged, commercially available products. Introduction In the past several years, improvements have been occurring in concrete technology. Sustainable use of supplementary materials and revolutionary developments in superplasticizing admixtures have facilitated improvements in the mechanical properties and durability of concrete. For example, researchers are using silica fume and high range water reducing admixtures to produce high density concrete. In addition to the use of mineral and chemical admixtures, applying presetting pressure and using postsetting heat treatment can also be used to produce dense microstructure. Other techniques intended to increase concrete density include using numerical packing models (de Lerrard and Sedron 1994). Numerical packing models predict the packing density of a particle mixture. Packing density is the volume of solids in a unit volume (Ferraris and de Larrard 1998). Using these methods, compressive strengths greater than 29,000 psi (200 MPa) have been achieved (Richard and Cheyrezy 1995). In addition to high strength, the concrete should exhibit greater durability characteristics. This means that the concrete should be high strength and high performance. One of the materials developed in recent years is ultra high strength concrete (UHSC) also known as reactive powder concrete (RPC). This material possesses a compressive strength greater than 21,750 psi (150 MPa). The concept of RPC was first 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 1 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

2 developed by Richard and Cheyrezy (1994) and was first produced in the early 1990s by researchers at Bouygues laboratory in France (Dili and Santhanam 2004). This new material is usually produced with cement, fine quartz sand, silica fume, steel fibers and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA). Very low watertocementitious materials ratios are used to produce this kind of concrete. In a more accurate sense, UHSC is not concrete because it contains no coarse aggregate (Collepardi et al. 2007). The steel fibers provide ductility to UHSC. This material differs from conventional concrete not only in terms of strength, but also in terms of durability. UHSC is more durable because the low watertocementitious materials ratio results in very low porosity (Roux et al. 1996). The possibility of achieving high strength, durability, and improved ductility with the use of ultra high strength concrete encourages researchers and engineers to use this modern material in many practical applications like nuclear waste containment structures, high rise structures, long span bridges, and walkways. In the present research, an attempt has been made to develop UHSC mixtures with locally available materials. The materials used in this work included Type I/II portland cement, silica fume, fine sand (passing ASTM No. 30 sieve), 0.5 in. (13 mm) long steel fibers, and HRWRA. Mixtures with and without steel fibers were prepared and tested to study the effects of steel fibers on compressive strength and tensile strength. Factors such as age and curing regimen were also investigated. Background UHSC is composed of cement, fine sand, quartz powder, micro silica, steel fibers and HRWRA. When used in optimum dosages, the HRWRA reduces the water tocementitious materials ratio while improving the workability of concrete. The addition of micro silica enhances the mechanical properties of the paste by filling voids, enhancing rheology, and producing secondary hydrates. The quartz powder is useful for its reactivity during heat treatment (Dili and Santhanam 2004). The constituents of the mixture and proportions (by fraction of cement mass) proposed by various investigators (Richard and Cheyrezy 1995, Shaheen and Shrive 2006, and Matte and Moranville 1999) are presented in Table 1. Roux et al. (1996) demonstrated that the mechanical properties of RPC are obtained by lowering the watertocementitious materials ratio, using HRWRA s, and including silica fume. The lower watertocementitious materials ratio reduces the porosity of the cement paste and improves durability. Richard and Cheyrezy (1995) recommended the following principles to develop UHSC: Removal of coarse aggregate to enhance homogeneity of the concrete. Use of silica fume for pozzolanic reaction. Optimization of the granular mixture for enhancement of compacted density. Application of presetting pressure for better compaction. Postsetting heat treatment to enhance the mechanical properties of the microstructure. Addition of steel fibers to achieve ductility Concrete Sustainability Conference 2 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

3 Sustainability Materials used in UHSC such as quartz dust and steel aggregate are often shipped long distances, internationally in many cases, increasing the cost of the material. Additionally, strict requirements on the chemistry of the cement and silica fume increase the cost of commercially available, prepackaged UHSC products such as Ductal. Expensive materials such as ground quartz and fibers that are not available locally are used in the production of Ductal, resulting in increased cost of the final product. Therefore, the present work focused on developing UHSC mixture proportions using local materials so that UHSC may be made more affordable to a wider variety of applications. Specifically, local sand with a top size of in. (600 μm), and locally available Type I/II cement and silica fume were used in this research. Each of these material selections is seen as an improvement in sustainability for UHSC. Reduced member sizes are also possible with UHSC, which reduces the volume of concrete used to produce a given structural element. Experimental Program Materials. Type I/II portland cement, silica fume, and fine local sand ( in [75600 μm]) from Las Cruces, New Mexico were used. Table 2 shows the grain size distribution for the fine sand. The chemical compositions of the Type I/II portland cement and silica fume are provided in Table 3. Steel fibers that were 0.5 in. (13 mm) long were used to provide ductility. To achieve the desired workability, a commercially available polycarboxylatebased HRWRA (Glenium 3030 NS from BASF Chemicals) was used. Concrete Mixtures. Table 4 shows the mixture proportions, the watertocement ratio and the watertocementitious materials ratio (including silica fume) for a group of 7 mixtures investigated during the development of the UHSC. These mixtures were divided into five categories. Several other mixture proportions were also evaluated. However, only these mixtures are presented for the sake of brevity. The mixtures were categorized as follows: A : The mixture in this category used Type I/II portland cement and HRWRA. The aggregates for this mixture were thoroughly washed and dried prior to use. Steel fibers were used to fill 1.5% of the volume. However, no silica fume was used in this mixture. B : The mixtures in this category also used Type I/II portland cement and HRWRA and the aggregates were thoroughly washed and dried prior to use. Silica fume and steel fibers were both used in these mixtures. C and D: The mixtures in these categories used Type I/II portland cement and HRWRA. The aggregates were thoroughly washed and dried prior to use. Silica fume was used in these mixtures. However, steel fibers were not used in these mixtures. The mixture in category D had lower watertocement and watertocementitious materials ratios than the mixtures in category C Concrete Sustainability Conference 3 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

4 E: The mixture in this category used Type I/II portland cement and HRWRA and the aggregates were thoroughly washed and dried prior to use. Both silica fume and steel fibers were used in this mixture. The mixture in this series had a watertocement ratio and a watertocementitious materials ratio that was lower than those used for the series B mixtures. Mixtures within each category were assigned a name. Mixture names were four digit symbols where the first letter referenced the category for the mixture, the second letter referred to the source of the aggregate, and the last two numbers referred to the percentage increase in water and cementitious materials content over the base mixture. For example, mixture BL20 was a mixture from category B that used aggregates from Las Cruces, New Mexico and had 20% more water, cement, and silica fume than the base mixture (BL00). Specimen Preparation. Sand used in this study was passed through a No. 30 sieve to obtain the desired particle sizes. The aggregates were then thoroughly washed over a No. 200 sieve. After washing, the sand was oven dried at 110 F (44 C) to achieve 0% moisture content. The constituents of each mixture were mixed for 15 to 20 minutes using a laboratory pan mixture. The dry constituents were mixed for 2 minutes and then 75% of the water was added. After thorough mixing, the HRWRA was added and the remaining 25% of the water was added to the mixture. Steel fibers were added at the end. This process of mixing seemed to improve the action of the HRWRA. Compressive strength specimens included 2 in. (50 mm) cubes and 4 by 8 in. (100 by 200 mm) cylinders. To avoid problems with end preparation of cylinder specimens, only 2 in. (50 mm) cubes were used as compressive strength specimens for mixture categories C, D, and E. Modulus of rupture testing was conducted on 3x4x16 in. (75x100x400 mm) prisms. All specimens were consolidated using a high frequency vibrating table. Curing Regimens. Three curing regimens were investigated. For the first regimen, concrete specimens were cured at room temperature, 65 F (20 C), for the first 24 hours. After demolding, the specimens were moist cured at a temperature of 73.4 F (23 C) and a relative humidity of 100% until the day of testing and this curing regimen was designated as MC. In the second curing regimen, concrete specimens were cured at room temperature, 65 F (20 C), for the first 24 hours. After demolding, the specimens were heat cured in a water bath at 122 F (50 C) until the time of testing. This curing regimen was designated as WB. For the third curing regimen, concrete specimens were cured at room temperature, 65 F (20 C), for the first 24 hours. After demolding, the specimens were heat cured in a water bath at 122 F (50 C). Then, the specimens were removed from the water bath and dry cured at 392 F (200 C) for two days prior to testing. This curing regimen was designated as OV Concrete Sustainability Conference 4 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

5 Compression Testing. Compression tests were conducted on 2 in. (50 mm) cubes and 4 by 8 in. (100 by 200 mm) cylinders to evaluate the compressive strength of UHSC. After the specified curing period, cylindrical specimens were tested according to ASTM C 39 and cube specimens were tested according to BS Modulus of Rupture Testing. Prismatic specimens that were 3x4x16 in. (75x100x400 mm) were tested to evaluate modulus of rupture. Modulus of rupture was determined using a third point loading test on prism specimens according to ASTM C 78. Specimens were rotated 90 degrees from the orientation in which they were cast to measure the flexural strength. Consequently, the 4 in. (100 mm) dimension was aligned with the direction of loading. Compressive Strength Results and Discussion Average compressive strengths of specimens produced from each mixture category are presented in Table 5. To investigate the repeatability of the compressive strengths of these mixtures, testing was conducted on three specimens cast from each of four different batches. Compressive strengths were measured at 7, 14, and 28 days. The aggregates were thoroughly washed and dried prior to use to remove any dust. A better coating of cement paste over the sand particles was achieved by removing the dust, resulting in increased compressive strengths. Category A. In the process of developing UHSC, mixture AL00 was produced as the first trial mixture. AL00 was produced with a watertocement ratio of 0.28 and no silica fume was used in this mixture. Compression tests were conducted on 4 by 8 in. (100 by 200 mm) cylinders after 7 days of moist curing. Mixture AL00 produced a compressive strength of 6940 psi (47.86 MPa). This compressive strength was considered low in comparison to the usual compressive strength range for UHSC. The low compressive strength of mixture AL00 was initially attributed to the absence of silica fume. Therefore, the subsequent mixtures (categories B, C, D, and E) in the research were produced using silica fume. Category B. Mixtures in category B were produced by modifying the mixture proportions of AL00. To produce mixture BL00, silica fume was used to replace 24.5% of the cement that was used in AL00. BL00 contained 8.6% less sand and 36.84% less HRWRA than AL00. The steel fiber content was maintained at 1.5%. The watertocementitious materials ratio of BL00 was equal to the watertocement ratio of AL00. Cylindrical specimens produced from mixture BL00 were moist cured until 7 days and then tested for compressive strength. The compressive strength of specimens produced from BL00 was 6880 psi (47.45 MPa) which is marginally lower (0.86%) than the compressive strength from mixture AL00. The compressive strengths of AL00 and BL00 were lower than expected. However, it was felt that increasing the volume of the paste may improve the compressive strength. Consequently, the quantities of cement, silica fume, and water were increased by 20% over the base mixture (BL00) to produce mixture BL20. Since the percent increase was the same for cement, silica fume, and water, the waterto 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 5 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

6 cementitious materials ratio did not change. The percent volume of paste was 71.3% for BL20 which was 11.9% more than the paste volume for BL00 (59.4%). The specimens (4 by 8 in. [100 by 200 mm] cylinders) produced from mixture BL20 were moist cured and tested for compressive strength at 7, 14, and 28 days. The compressive strengths at 7, 14, and 28 days were 7080 psi (48.83 MPa), 8090 psi (55.79 MPa), and 9210 psi (63.52 MPa), respectively. The compressive strengths obtained from the mixture BL20 were still too low for UHSC. In another attempt to increase compressive strength, it was decided to accelerate the hydration reaction by employing post setting heat treatment. To accomplish this, specimens produced from BL20 were cured according to curing regimen WB. The elevated curing temperature (122 F [50 C]) resulted in increases of 19%, 6.7%, and 4.8% in compressive strengths measured at 7, 14, and 28 days, respectively. Category C. For the next step in trying to improve the compressive strength, the watertocementitious materials ratio was reduced to 0.22 (from 0.28 for BL00) to produce mixture CL00.The reduced watertocement ratio was produced by increasing the cement content by 25.31% and decreasing the water content by 7% (compared to BL00). No steel fibers were used in mixture CL00, and the sand content in CL00 was reduced by 5.5% compared to BL00. At this stage, it was decided to use cube specimens for compression testing to avoid problems with the end preparation of cylinder specimens. Compressive strengths for all remaining mixtures were measured using 2 in. (50 mm) cube specimens. The size of the cubes was selected such that the cube dimension was at least four times the size of the largest particle used in the concrete (0.5 in. [13 mm] steel fibers). CL00 specimens were cured according to curing regimen WB and tested at 7, 14, and 28 days. The compressive strengths measured at 7, 14, and 28 days were 14,080 psi (97.10 MPa), 14,250 psi (98.28 MPa), and 16,250 psi ( MPa), respectively. To produce mixture CL20, CL00 was further modified by increasing the paste volume. The percent volume of paste was 62.85% for CL00 and 75.44% for CL20. Cube specimens produced from mixture CL20 were also cured according to curing regimen WB and tested for compressive strength at 7, 14, and 28 days. The compressive strengths at 7, 14, and 28 days were 13,560 psi (93.52 MPa), 14,360 psi (99.03 MPa), and 15,200 psi (63.52 MPa), respectively. The next step in attempting to increase compressive strength was to try to accelerate the pozzolanic reaction of the silica fume. To accelerate the pozzalonic reaction of the silica fume, concrete specimens produced from CL00 were cured according to curing regimen OV. A similar curing regimen was adopted by Reda et al. (1999). Curing of concrete specimens at autoclave temperatures between 392ºF and 572ºF (200ºC and 300ºC) has been shown to accelerate the pozzalonic reaction and help in the formation of dense calcium silicate hydrate compounds (Shaheen and Shrive 2006). In this study, curing at 392ºF (200ºC) was achieved in an oven. There were concerns that dry curing may artificially inflate the compressive strengths. However, no adverse effects were observed in flexural strength testing. This seems to indicate that strength gains caused by oven dry curing at 392ºF (200ºC) were primarily due to the accelerated pozzolanic reaction, not drying. Compressive strengths of the specimens produced from CL00 (OV) were greater than the compressive strengths of specimens 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 6 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

7 produced from CL00 (WB) by 2.13%, 15.8%, and 5.35% at 7, 14, and 28 days, respectively. Category D. The watertocementitious materials ratio of CL00 was reduced to 0.20 to produce mixture DL00. To improve the workability of DL00, the HRWRA dosage was increased from 5 gal/yd 3 (24.70 l/m 3 ) to 6 gal/yd 3 (29.64 l/m 3 ). Specimens produced from mixture DL00 were cured according to curing regimens WB and OV. Compressive strengths achieved with mixture DL00 (OV) were 20,010 psi ( MPa), 22,210 psi ( MPa), and 23,480 psi ( MPa) at 7, 14, and 28 days, respectively. These are increases of 39.2%, 34.6%, and 37.2% from CL00 at 7, 14, and 28 days, respectively. The greater compressive strengths are attributed to the reduced watertocementitious materials ratio. Category E. Mixture EL00 was produced by introducing steel fibers to the mixture proportions from DL00. The volume of sand was reduced by the volume occupied by steel fibers in mixture EL00. Specimens produced from EL00 were cured according to curing regimen OV. The greatest compressive strengths among all the mixture categories used in this investigation were achieved using mixture EL00. The compressive strengths achieved at 7, 14, and 28 days were 21,180 psi ( MPa), 23,420 psi ( MPa), and 24,010 psi ( MPa), respectively. The greater compressive strength of the fiber reinforced UHSC mixture is consistent with results reported by Reda et al. (1999). Mixtures DL00 (OV) and EL00 (OV) were identified as UHSC and will be considered for further research. Strength Gain Versus Time. Compressive strength gain with time was investigated by considering the plain (CL00 and DL00) and fiber reinforced (EL00) concrete mixtures. All of the specimens were cured according to curing regimen OV. The ratios of compressive strength at 7 and 14 days with respect to 28 day strength (assuming compressive strength at 28 days is 100%) of mixtures CL00, DL00, and EL00 are presented graphically in Figure 1. For mixtures CL00 and DL00, compressive strengths at 7 days were 84.0 and 85.6 percent of 28day compressive strength, respectively. This percentage was 88.2 for mixture EL00. Compressive strengths for CL00 and DL00 at 14 days were 96.4 and 94.6 percent of 28day compressive strength, respectively, whereas this percentage was 97.5 for mixture EL00. This strength development is more rapid than the strength development of normal strength concrete and is attributed to the high cementitious content of the UHSC mixtures and postsetting heat treatment that increased the rate of the hydration reaction. Curing Regimens. Curing regimen significantly influenced the compressive strength of UHSC. Specimens cured according to curing regimen OV exhibited the greatest strengths. Compressive strengths of specimens from mixtures DL00 cured according to curing regimen OV and tested at 7 days were 20.0% greater than compressive strengths of specimens cured in a water bath. However, this increase in strength was only 7.22% at 28 days. The greater compressive strength exhibited by oven dried specimens is attributed to acceleration of the hydration reaction when the specimens were kept in water bath 122 F (50 C) and the formation of secondary calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) from the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume when the specimens were kept in an oven at 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 7 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

8 392 F (200 C) for two days prior to testing. These observations are similar to those reported by Shaheen and Shrive (2006). Effects of Steel Fibers. The effects of steel fibers on compressive strength of UHSC were investigated by considering mixtures DL00 (without fibers) and EL00 (with fibers). The specimens from both of these mixtures were cured according to the OV curing regimen. Figure 2 illustrates the influence of steel fibers on compressive strength of UHSC mixtures. The average percentage increase in compressive strength due to the presence of steel fibers was 5.43, 5.45, and 2.25 percent at 7, 14, and 28 days, respectively. Modulus of Rupture Results and Discussion One concern with UHSC specimens cured at elevated temperatures was that drying of the sample might artificially inflate the compressive strength of the sample and decrease the flexural strength. However, it was also believed that steel fibers would improve the ductility of the concrete and could also increase the flexural strength of the concrete. To investigate these potential effects, modulus of rupture was measured on 3x4x16 in. (75x100x400 mm) prismatic specimens. Average flexural strengths from mixture categories A, B, D, and E, measured at 7 days, are presented in Table 6. It can be seen from Table 6 that the greatest flexural strength was obtained with mixture EL00 (2655 psi [18.31 MPa]). This strength is consistent with flexural strengths obtained by other investigators for UHSC produced without dry curing. Again, this indicates that the dry curing at 392 F (200 C) served to accelerate the pozzolanic reaction of the silica fume. A significant effect of steel fibers on the flexural strength of UHSC was also observed (Table 6). The flexural strength of the UHSC with fibers (EL00) was greater than that of the plain mixture (DL00) by 68.3%. The flexural strengths of plain and fiber reinforced UHSC mixtures and the percentage increase in flexural strength due to addition of steel fibers were consistent with the literature (Collepardi et al and Dili and Santhanam 2004). Conclusion This paper summarizes several steps in the development of UHSC using local materials. The conclusions drawn during the course of this work are: 1. UHSC was developed with materials locally available in Las Cruces, New Mexico that produced a compressive strength of 24,010 psi (165.6 MPa) and a flexural strength of 2655 psi (18.3 MPa). 2. The strength properties of UHSC produced with local materials were similar to those provided by prepackaged, commercially available products such as Ductal. 3. Prolonging the mixing period increased the workability of the mixtures. 4. Specimens cured with oven drying attained greater strength than specimens that were moist cured or cured in a 122 F (50 C) water bath. The greater compressive strength exhibited by oven dried specimens was attributed to the acceleration of the hydration reaction when the specimens were kept in a water bath 122 F 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 8 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

9 (50 C) and the formation of secondary calcium silicate hydrate from the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume when the specimens were kept in an oven at 392 F (200 C) for two days prior to the testing. 5. Compressive strength of fiber reinforced UHSC (EL00) was greater than the compressive strength of plain UHSC (DL00) at all ages. The percentage increases in compressive strength due to steel fibers at 7, 14, and 28 days were 5.43, 5.45, and 2.25 percent, respectively. 6. The flexural strength of UHSC containing steel fibers was 68% greater than the flexural strength of UHSC that did not contain fibers. Recommendations for Future Work 1. To improve sustainability, fly ash should be considered for use as a partial replacement for silica fume and cement. 2. Efforts should be made to reduce temperature of 392 F (200 C) that was used in the present work for the OV curing regimen. This would reduce energy costs. 3. Polypropylene fibers should be used in place of steel fibers to reduce the shipping costs. 4. Shrinkage should be characterized throughout the curing process. 5. Mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity and split tensile strength of UHSC should be investigated. 6. Durability issues such as delayed ettringite formation, alkalisilica reaction, freezethaw durability, and corrosion resistance of UHSC should be investigated. References Collepardi, S., Coppola, L., Troli, R., and Collepardi, M. (2007). Mechanical Properties of Modified Reactive Powder Concrete. Dili, A. S., and Santhanam, M. (2004). Investigations on Reactive Powder Concrete: A Developing Ultra High Strength Technology. The Indian Concrete Journal, 78 (4), de Lerrard, F., and Sedran, T. (1994). Optimization of UltraHigh Performance Concrete by the Use of a Packing Model. Cement and Concrete Research, 24 (6), Ferraris, C.F., and de Larrard, F. (1998). Testing and Modeling of Fresh Concrete Rheology. Building and Fire Research Laboratory, No. NISTIR 6094, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 161. Matte, V., and Moranville, M. (1999). Durability of Reactive Powder Composites: Influence of Silica Flume on the Leaching Properties of Very Low Water/Binder Pastes. Cement and Concrete Composites, 21, 19. Reda, M.M., Shrive, N.G., and Gillott, J.E. (1999). Microstructural Investigation of Innovative UHPC. Cement and Concrete Research, 29 (3), Richard, P., and Cheyrezy, M. (1995). Composition of Reactive Powder Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 25 (7), Concrete Sustainability Conference 9 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

10 Richard, P., and Cheyrezy, M. H. (1994). Reactive Powder Concretes with High Ductility and MPa Compressive Strength. in Mehta, P.K. (Ed.), Concrete Technology: Past, Present and Future, Proceedings of the V. Mohan Malhotra Symposium, ACI SP 14424, Detroit: Victoria Wieczorek. Roux, N., Andrade, C., and Sanjuan, M. A. (1996). Experimental Study of Durability of Reactive Powder Concretes. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 8 (1), 16. Shaheen, E., and Shrive, N. J. (2006). Optimization of Mechanical Properties and Durability of Reactive Powder Concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 103 (6), Table 1. Mixture proportions (by fraction of cement) of UHSC from literature Constituent Richard and Cheyrezy (1995) Plain Steel fibers (0.5 in. [13 mm] long) Shaheen and Shrive ( 2006) Plain Carbon Fibers (0.118 in. [3 mm] long) Matte and Moranville (1999) Steel fibers Portland cement Silica fume Quartz Sand Quartz powder Crushed quartz Superplasticizer Steel fibers Carbon fibers Water w/c w/cm Presetting pressure, ksi (MPa) (26) (26) Postsetting heat treatment (20) (90) (20) (90) (100) (100) (90) temperature, F ( C) 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 10 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

11 Table 2. Grain size distribution of fine sand Sieve No Sieve size, in. (mm) (0.60) (0.30) (0.15) Percentage passing Table 3. Chemical compositions of cement and silica fume Compound Cement Silica fume SiO % 96.9% Al 2 O % 0.20% Fe 2 O % 0.20% CaO 63.9% 0.30% K 2 O NA 0.30% Na 2 O 0.55% (Equiv.) 0.20% MgO 1.91% 0.20% SO % 0.10% Table 4. Mixture proportions of UHSC Category Mixture Cement A B C D E AL00 BL00 BL20 CL00 CL20 DL00 EL00 lb/yd 3 (kg/m 3 ) 1585 (940) 1197 (710) 1436 (852) 1500 (890) 1800 (1067) 1500 (890) 1500 (890) Silica fume lb/yd 3 (kg/m 3 ) 388 (230) 466 (276) 375 (222) 450 (267) 375 (222) 375 (222) Fine sand lb/yd 3 (kg/m 3 ) 1558 (924) 1424 (844) 903 (535) 1338 (793) 840 (498) 1411 (837) 1347 (799) Steel fibers lb/yd 3 (kg/m 3 ) 321 (190) 321 (190) 319 (189) 200 (119) Water HRWRA w/c lb/yd 3 (kg/m 3 ) 444 (263) 444 (263) 532 (315) 413 (245) 495 (294) 375 (222) 375 (222) gal/yd 3 (l/m 3 ) 4.75 (23.50) 3.00 (14.80) 3.25 (16.00) 5.00 (24.70) 3.0 (17.29) 6.00 (29.64) 6.00 (29.64) w/ (c+sf) Concrete Sustainability Conference 11 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

12 Table 5. Compressive strength of UHSC mixtures Compressive strength, psi (MPa) Mixture details 7 days 14 days 28 days Category A B C D Mixture AL00 (MC) BL00 (MC) BL20 (MC) BL20 (WB) CL00 (WB) CL20 (WB) W/C ratio W/(C+SF) x 8 in. (100 x 200 mm) Cylinder 6940 (47.86) 6880 ( 47.45) 7080 (48.83) 8430 ( 58.14) CL00 (OV) DL00 (WB) in. (50 mm) Cube 4 x 8 in. (100 x 200 mm) Cylinder 2 in. (50 mm) Cube 4 x 8 in. (100 x 200 mm) Cylinder 2 in. (50 mm) Cube 14,080 (97.10) 13,560 (93.52) 14,380 (97.10) 13,030 (89.86) 8090 (55.79) 8630 (59.52) 14,250 (98.28) 14,360 (99.03) 16,500 (113.79) 13,750 (94.83) 9210 (63.52) (9650) (66.55) 16,250 (112.06) 15,200 (104.82) 17,120 (118.04) 17,750 (122.41) E DL00 (OV) EL00 (OV) ,010 (138.55) ,180 (146.06) 22,210 (153.17) 23,420 (161.52) 23, ,010 (165.60) Table 6. Modulus of rupture (R) of UHSC mixtures at 7 days Category Mixture A B D E AL00 (MC) BL00 (MC) DL00 (OV) EL00 (OV) w/c ratio w/(c+sf) R, psi (MPa) (11.55) (10.00) (10.93) (18.31) 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference 12 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

13 Figure 1. Relative gain of compressive strength. Figure 2. Compressive strengths of plain and fiber reinforced UHSC Concrete Sustainability Conference 13 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

EFFECT OF NANO-SILICA ON CONCRETE CONTAINING METAKAOLIN

EFFECT OF NANO-SILICA ON CONCRETE CONTAINING METAKAOLIN International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 104-112, Article ID: IJCIET_07_01_009 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=1

More information

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF NANO CONCRETE

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF NANO CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 315 320, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_027 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH, RICE HUSK ASH & STONE DUST

A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH, RICE HUSK ASH & STONE DUST International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 163 172, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_016 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Influence of Nano-SiO 2 and Microsilica on Concrete Performance

Influence of Nano-SiO 2 and Microsilica on Concrete Performance Influence of Nano-SiO 2 and Microsilica on Concrete Performance M. Nili *a, A. Ehsani a, and K. Shabani b a Civil Eng., Dept., Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, I.R. Iran b Eng., Research Institute of Jahad-Agriculture

More information

AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON STRENGTH PROPERETIES OF CONCRETE BY THE INFLUENCE OF FLYASH AND NANOSILICA AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT

AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON STRENGTH PROPERETIES OF CONCRETE BY THE INFLUENCE OF FLYASH AND NANOSILICA AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 306 315, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_030 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Shrinkage and Creep Properties of High-Strength Concrete Up To 120 MPa

Shrinkage and Creep Properties of High-Strength Concrete Up To 120 MPa Seventh International Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering, October11-13, 26 Yildiz TechnicalUniversity, Istanbul, Turkey Shrinkage and Creep Properties of High-Strength Concrete Up To 12 MPa H. C.

More information

Example Specification for Concrete using Current Building Code Requirements

Example Specification for Concrete using Current Building Code Requirements Example Specification for Concrete using Current Building Code Requirements DISCLAIMER: This specification is an example that accompanies a seminar titled The P2P Initiative: Performance-based Specs for

More information

Effects of Temperature and Fly Ash on Compressive Strength and Permeability of High-Performance Concrete*

Effects of Temperature and Fly Ash on Compressive Strength and Permeability of High-Performance Concrete* Center for By-Products Utilization Effects of Temperature and Fly Ash on Compressive Strength and Permeability of High-Performance Concrete* By Tarun R. Naik, William A. Olson, Jr., and Shiw S. Singh Report

More information

STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE Benjamin A. Graybeal, PE, PSI, Inc., McLean, VA Joseph L. Hartmann, PE, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA ABSTRACT A new class of concrete

More information

Fire-Damage or Freeze-Thaw of Strengthening Concrete Using Ultra High Performance Concrete

Fire-Damage or Freeze-Thaw of Strengthening Concrete Using Ultra High Performance Concrete Fire-Damage or Freeze-Thaw of Strengthening Concrete Using Ultra High Performance Concrete Ming-Gin Lee 1,a, Yi-Shuo Huang 1,b 1 Department of Construction Engineering, Chaoyang University of Technology,Taichung

More information

Pavement Thickness. esign and RCC-Pave Software. Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement: Design and Construction. October 24, 2006 Atlanta, Georgia

Pavement Thickness. esign and RCC-Pave Software. Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement: Design and Construction. October 24, 2006 Atlanta, Georgia Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement: Design and Construction Pavement Thickness esign and RCC-Pave Software Gregory E. Halsted, P.E. Pavements Engineer Portland Cement Association October 24, 2006 Atlanta,

More information

CGA Standard Practices Series. Article 600 Standard for Pozzolan Enhanced Grouts Used in Annular Seals & Well Destruction

CGA Standard Practices Series. Article 600 Standard for Pozzolan Enhanced Grouts Used in Annular Seals & Well Destruction California Groundwater Association An NGWA Affiliate State PO Box 14369 Santa Rosa CA 95402 707-578-4408 fax: 707-546-4906 email: cga@groundh2o.org website: www.groundh2o.org CGA Standard Practices Series

More information

Strength of Concrete Using Different Types of Additives

Strength of Concrete Using Different Types of Additives Strength of Concrete Using Different Types of Additives Ali Hussain Ali Assistant professor Technical college / Mosul Abstract: In this investigation, conventional concrete mixes (as a reference mixes)

More information

Overview of Topics. Stress-Strain Behavior in Concrete. Elastic Behavior. Non-Linear Inelastic Behavior. Stress Distribution.

Overview of Topics. Stress-Strain Behavior in Concrete. Elastic Behavior. Non-Linear Inelastic Behavior. Stress Distribution. Stress-Strain Behavior in Concrete Overview of Topics EARLY AGE CONCRETE Plastic shrinkage shrinkage strain associated with early moisture loss Thermal shrinkage shrinkage strain associated with cooling

More information

Evaluation of M35 and M40 grades of concrete by ACI, DOE, USBR and BIS methods of mix design

Evaluation of M35 and M40 grades of concrete by ACI, DOE, USBR and BIS methods of mix design Evaluation of M35 and M40 grades of concrete by ACI, DOE, USBR and BIS methods of mix design Sharandeep Singh 1, Dr.Hemant Sood 2 1 M. E. Scholar, CIVIL Engineering, NITTTR, Chandigarh, India 2Professor

More information

INFLUENCE OF STEEL FIBERS AS ADMIX IN NORMAL CONCRETE MIX

INFLUENCE OF STEEL FIBERS AS ADMIX IN NORMAL CONCRETE MIX International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 93-103, Article ID: IJCIET_07_01_008 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=1

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. ABSTRACT vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS iii xvii xix xxvii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 GENERAL 1 1.2 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF

More information

1.054/1.541 Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures (3-0-9) Outline 1 Introduction / Design Criteria for Reinforced Concrete Structures

1.054/1.541 Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures (3-0-9) Outline 1 Introduction / Design Criteria for Reinforced Concrete Structures Prof. Oral Buyukozturk Massachusetts Institute of Technology Outline 1 1.054/1.541 Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures (3-0-9) Outline 1 Introduction / Design Criteria for Reinforced Concrete Structures

More information

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STRENGTH AND FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF SELF HEALING CONCRETE

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STRENGTH AND FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF SELF HEALING CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 398 406, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_041 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Acceptance Criteria for Durability Tests

Acceptance Criteria for Durability Tests Acceptance Criteria for Durability Tests Minimizing the risks of accepting defective concrete or rejecting acceptable concrete By Karthik H. Obla and Colin L. Lobo For the industry to shift toward performance-based

More information

STUDY OF STRENGTH OF CONCRETE WITH PALM OIL FUEL ASH AS CEMENT REPLACEMENT

STUDY OF STRENGTH OF CONCRETE WITH PALM OIL FUEL ASH AS CEMENT REPLACEMENT International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 337 341, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_033 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Effect of Curing Temperature on Mortar Based on Sustainable Concrete Material s and Poly-Carboxylate Superplasticizer

Effect of Curing Temperature on Mortar Based on Sustainable Concrete Material s and Poly-Carboxylate Superplasticizer Jan. 2014, Volume 8, No. 1 (Serial No. 74), pp. 66-72 Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, USA D DAVID PUBLISHING Effect of Curing Temperature on Mortar Based on Sustainable Concrete

More information

SULPHATE ATTACK AND CHLORIDE ION PENETRATION: THEIR ROLE IN CONCRETE DURABILITY

SULPHATE ATTACK AND CHLORIDE ION PENETRATION: THEIR ROLE IN CONCRETE DURABILITY SULPHATE ATTACK AND CHLORIDE ION PENETRATION: THEIR ROLE IN CONCRETE DURABILITY Concrete durability continues to be a subject of controversy among design professionals, specifiers, Government instrumentalities,

More information

Properties of Fresh Concrete

Properties of Fresh Concrete Properties of Fresh Concrete Introduction The potential strength and durability of concrete of a given mix proportion is very dependent on the degree of its compaction. It is vital, therefore, that the

More information

Stabilization of Soil with Self-Cementing Coal Ashes

Stabilization of Soil with Self-Cementing Coal Ashes 2005 World of Coal Ash (WOCA), April 11-15, 2005, Lexington, Kentucky, USA http://www.flyash.info Stabilization of Soil with Self-Cementing Coal Ashes Scott M. Mackiewicz, 1 E. Glen Ferguson, 2 1 & 2 Kleinfelder,

More information

STRENGTH PROPERTIES ON FLY ASH BASED GEO POLYMER CONCRETE WITH ADMIXTURES

STRENGTH PROPERTIES ON FLY ASH BASED GEO POLYMER CONCRETE WITH ADMIXTURES International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 347 353, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_035 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Lightweight High- Performance Concrete Bulb-T Beams With Self- Consolidating Concrete in a Bridge Structure

Lightweight High- Performance Concrete Bulb-T Beams With Self- Consolidating Concrete in a Bridge Structure Lightweight High- Performance Concrete Bulb-T Beams With Self- Consolidating Concrete in a Bridge Structure http://www.virginiadot.org/vtrc/main/online_reports/pdf/14-r15.pdf CELIK OZYILDIRIM, Ph.D., P.E.

More information

EXPERIMENT NO.1. : Vicat s apparatus, plunger

EXPERIMENT NO.1. : Vicat s apparatus, plunger EXPERIMENT NO.1 Name of experiment:to determine the percentage of water for normal consistency for a given sample of cement Apparatus : Vicat s apparatus with plunger of 10mm dia, measuring cylinder, weighing

More information

APPRAISAL ON THE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE PRODUCED WITH VARYING AGGREGATE SIZE

APPRAISAL ON THE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE PRODUCED WITH VARYING AGGREGATE SIZE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 233 240, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_023 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Life-365 Service Life Prediction Model Version 2.0

Life-365 Service Life Prediction Model Version 2.0 Originally printed in Concrete International and posted with permission from the American Concrete Institute (www.concrete.org). Life-365 Service Life Prediction Model Version 2.0 Widely used software

More information

MeltonStone Cast Stone Product Specifications

MeltonStone Cast Stone Product Specifications MeltonStone Cast Stone Product Specifications Section 04-72-00-04 Architectural Cast Stone This specification encompasses basic requirements for Cast Stone, a refined architectural concrete building unit

More information

SECTION 18 - CAST IN PLACE HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (HPC)

SECTION 18 - CAST IN PLACE HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (HPC) SECTION 18 - CAST IN PLACE HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (HPC) 1.0 DESCRIPTION This section details the requirements for materials and methods in the proportioning, mixing, transporting, placing, finishing

More information

research report Laboratory Investigation of Nanomaterials to Improve the Permeability and Strength of Concrete

research report Laboratory Investigation of Nanomaterials to Improve the Permeability and Strength of Concrete Final Report VTRC 10-R18 Virginia Transportation Research Council research report Laboratory Investigation of Nanomaterials to Improve the Permeability and Strength of Concrete http://www.virginiadot.org/vtrc/main/online_reports/pdf/10-r18.pdf

More information

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EFFECT OF SODIUM SILICATE (NA 2 SIO 3 ) ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EFFECT OF SODIUM SILICATE (NA 2 SIO 3 ) ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET Volume 6, Issue 12, Dec 2015, pp. 39-47, Article ID: IJCIET_06_12_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=12

More information

NorthEast Transportation Training and Certification Program (NETTCP) Course Registration Form

NorthEast Transportation Training and Certification Program (NETTCP) Course Registration Form (NETTCP) Course Registration Form Interim Certification (Cost $300 members / $425 non-members) HMA Plant Technician* HMA Paving Inspector* Soils & Aggregate Inspector* Soils & Aggregate Lab Technician*

More information

SPECIAL COMPOUND FOR RHEOPLASTIC AND ANTI-CORROSION SUPERCONCRETE WITH VERY HIGH DURABILITY

SPECIAL COMPOUND FOR RHEOPLASTIC AND ANTI-CORROSION SUPERCONCRETE WITH VERY HIGH DURABILITY BS 40 M6 MuCis mono SPECIAL COMPOUND FOR RHEOPLASTIC AND ANTI-CORROSION SUPERCONCRETE WITH VERY HIGH DURABILITY LE CE LE type: "expansive binder which allows the production of extremely fluid concrete

More information

High Volume Pozzolan Concrete:

High Volume Pozzolan Concrete: feature High Volume Pozzolan Concrete: Three years of Industrial Experience in Texas with CemPozz By Clinton W. Pike (1), Vladimir Ronin (1,2) and Lennart Elfgren (2) Abstract AHigh Volume Pozzolan Concrete

More information

The AASHO Road Test site (which eventually became part of I-80) at Ottawa, Illinois, was typical of northern climates (see Table 1).

The AASHO Road Test site (which eventually became part of I-80) at Ottawa, Illinois, was typical of northern climates (see Table 1). Página 1 de 12 AASHO Road Test The AASHO Road Test, a $27 million (1960 dollars) investment and the largest road experiment of its time, was conceived and sponsored by the American Association of State

More information

Construction Materials Testing. Classes of Test

Construction Materials Testing. Classes of Test Construction Materials Testing Classes of Test February 2014 Copyright National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia 2014 This publication is protected by copyright under the Commonwealth of Australia

More information

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 888 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT USING QC/QA.

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 888 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT USING QC/QA. STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 888 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT USING QC/QA October 21, 2011 888.01 General 888.02 Materials 888.03 Concrete Proportioning 888.04

More information

Cementitious Materials Update The effect of ggbs, fly ash, silica fume. concrete.

Cementitious Materials Update The effect of ggbs, fly ash, silica fume. concrete. Cementitious Materials Update The effect of ggbs, fly ash, silica fume and limestone on the properties of concrete. Richard Barnes Concrete Society Technical Report: Cementitious Materials - The effect

More information

Sustainable Concrete: The Role of Performance-based Specifications

Sustainable Concrete: The Role of Performance-based Specifications Sustainable Concrete: The Role of Performance-based Specifications Lionel Lemay 1, Colin Lobo 2 and Karthik Obla 3 1 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, 1244 Crane Blvd., Libertyville, IL, 60048;

More information

Evaluation of Initial Setting Time of Fresh Concrete

Evaluation of Initial Setting Time of Fresh Concrete Evaluation of Initial Setting Time of Fresh Concrete R R C Piyasena, P A T S Premerathne, B T D Perera, S M A Nanayakkara Abstract According to ASTM 403C, initial setting time of concrete is measured based

More information

ACCELERATING ADMIXTURE RAPIDITE -ITS EFFECT ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

ACCELERATING ADMIXTURE RAPIDITE -ITS EFFECT ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET Volume 6, Issue 12, Dec 215, pp. 58-65, Article ID: IJCIET_6_12_6 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=12

More information

Guide to Specifying Concrete Performance

Guide to Specifying Concrete Performance Guide to Specifying Concrete Performance Phase II Report of Preparation of a Performance-Based Specification For Cast-in-Place Concrete Developed by: Kenneth C. Hover John Bickley R. Doug Hooton Reviewed

More information

SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE MADE FROM RECYCLED AGGREGATES

SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE MADE FROM RECYCLED AGGREGATES International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 241 251, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_024 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

"APPLICATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS IN MASONRY PRODUCTION" Tarun R. Naik Director, Center for By-Products Utilization

APPLICATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS IN MASONRY PRODUCTION Tarun R. Naik Director, Center for By-Products Utilization "APPLICATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS IN MASONRY PRODUCTION" By Tarun R. Naik Director, Center for By-Products Utilization Lihua Wei Research Assistant Center for By-Products Utilization Department

More information

HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE IN A BRIDGE IN RICHLANDS, VIRGINIA. Celik Ozyildirim, Ph.D. Principal Research Scientist

HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE IN A BRIDGE IN RICHLANDS, VIRGINIA. Celik Ozyildirim, Ph.D. Principal Research Scientist HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE IN A BRIDGE IN RICHLANDS, VIRGINIA Celik Ozyildirim, Ph.D. Principal Research Scientist José P. Gomez, Ph.D., P.E. Senior Research Scientist (The opinions, findings, and conclusions

More information

Stone crusher dust as a fine aggregate in Concrete for paving blocks

Stone crusher dust as a fine aggregate in Concrete for paving blocks Stone crusher dust as a fine aggregate in Concrete for paving blocks Radhikesh P. Nanda 1, Amiya K. Das 2, Moharana.N.C 3 1 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Durgapur, Durgapur

More information

High Performance Concrete

High Performance Concrete Chapter 3 High Performance Concrete In this chapter a discussion on different aspects of high performance concrete (HPC) has been made. Findings from various studies have also been included to understand

More information

C. Section 014510 TESTING LABORATORY SERVICE.

C. Section 014510 TESTING LABORATORY SERVICE. SECTION 014500 QUALITY CONTROL PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 RELATED REQUIREMENTS A. Drawings and General Provisions of Contract, including General and Special Conditions and other Division 1 Specification Sections,

More information

cement Masonry Cement Engineered for quality and reliability, Lafarge cements for masonry deliver consistent performance. page 2 Lafarge Cement

cement Masonry Cement Engineered for quality and reliability, Lafarge cements for masonry deliver consistent performance. page 2 Lafarge Cement cement Masonry Cement Engineered for quality and reliability, Lafarge cements for masonry deliver consistent performance. page 2 Lafarge Cement Lafarge in North America The Lafarge Group is the world leader

More information

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 1, No 3,2010. Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing services

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 1, No 3,2010. Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing services ABSTRACT Studies on Concrete containing E plastic waste Lakshmi.R 1 Nagan.S 2 1 Research Scholar is with K.L.N.College of Information Technology, Sivagangai 2 Assistant Professor is with Thiagarajar College

More information

Rapid Chloride Permeability Testing

Rapid Chloride Permeability Testing Rapid Chloride Permeability Testing A test that can be used for a wide range of applications and quality control purposes if the inherent limitations are understood By Prakash Joshi and Cesar Chan C orrosion

More information

Accelerated Test for Measuring Sulfate Resistance of Hydraulic Cements for. Caltrans LLPRS Program

Accelerated Test for Measuring Sulfate Resistance of Hydraulic Cements for. Caltrans LLPRS Program Accelerated Test for Measuring Sulfate Resistance of Hydraulic Cements for Caltrans LLPRS Program Report Prepared for CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION By Paulo J. M. Monteiro Professor Department

More information

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation October 2013 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION. Method of Test for

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation October 2013 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION. Method of Test for Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION Method of Test for TIME OF SETTING OF CONCRETE MIXTURES BY PENETRATION RESISTANCE 1.

More information

Class C Mixtures as Alternates to Portlandcement-based

Class C Mixtures as Alternates to Portlandcement-based 2011 World of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference - May 9-12, 2011 in Denver, CO, USA http://www.flyash.info/ Class C Mixtures as Alternates to Portlandcement-based Foundation Concrete William S. Caires, C.E.T.

More information

NRMCA Quality Certification. Ready Mixed Concrete Quality Management System. Certification Criteria Document

NRMCA Quality Certification. Ready Mixed Concrete Quality Management System. Certification Criteria Document NRMCA Quality Certification Ready Mixed Concrete Quality Management System Certification Criteria Document Version 1 February 2014 NRMCA Quality Certification Ready Mixed Concrete Quality Management System

More information

STUDY ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CHOPPED CARBON FIBER REINFORCED SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE

STUDY ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CHOPPED CARBON FIBER REINFORCED SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 223 232, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_022 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering 26(3):382-396 (2014)

Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering 26(3):382-396 (2014) Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering 26(3):382-396 (2014) PROPERTIES OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE Abdul Rahman Mohd Sam *, Roslli Noor Mohamed, Mohd. Yunus Ishak & Wong Choon Siang

More information

2. PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMENS

2. PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMENS Leaching of Cement Lining in Newly-Laid Water Mains (Part II) Ong Tuan Chin and Dr. Wong Sook Fun School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 5 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore

More information

Clinker grinding test in a laboratory ball mill using clinker burning with pet-coke and coal

Clinker grinding test in a laboratory ball mill using clinker burning with pet-coke and coal International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES) ISSN (Online) 2319-183X, (Print) 2319-1821 Volume 3, Issue 9 (September 214), PP.3-34 Clinker grinding test in a laboratory ball mill using

More information

DURABILITY OF MORTAR LININGS IN DUCTILE IRON PIPES Durability of mortar linings

DURABILITY OF MORTAR LININGS IN DUCTILE IRON PIPES Durability of mortar linings DURABILITY OF MORTAR LININGS IN DUCTILE IRON PIPES Durability of mortar linings I. S. MELAND SINTEF Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cement and Concrete, Trondheim, Norway Durability of Building Materials

More information

Final Report. Yunping Xi

Final Report. Yunping Xi Report No. CDOT-2012-11 Final Report APPLICATION OF ROLLER COMPACTED CONCR RETE IN COLORADO S ROADWAYS Nattapong Damrongwiriyanupapp Yu-Chang Liang Yunping Xi October 2012 COLORADOO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

More information

The Concrete Life Cycle: Maintain to Sustain. Fred Goodwin BASF Construction Chemicals (EB-N) Beachwood OH

The Concrete Life Cycle: Maintain to Sustain. Fred Goodwin BASF Construction Chemicals (EB-N) Beachwood OH The Concrete Life Cycle: Maintain to Sustain Fred Goodwin BASF Construction Chemicals (EB-N) Beachwood OH What is Concrete? Concrete: Instant rock -just add water to make a hard wet sponge. A composite

More information

SECTION 03400 PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURES

SECTION 03400 PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURES SECTION 03400 PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 DESCRIPTION A. Section includes specifications for precast concrete structures, including fabrication and erection. 1.02 REFERENCE STANDARDS A. American Society for

More information

VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS DIVISION MEMORANDUM

VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS DIVISION MEMORANDUM VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS DIVISION MEMORANDUM GENERAL SUBJECT: HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE REPAIR MATERIALS SPECIFIC SUBJECT: Requirements for Materials Divisions Approved List No.

More information

Mathematical Regression Model for the Prediction of Concrete Strength

Mathematical Regression Model for the Prediction of Concrete Strength Mathematical Regression Model for the Prediction of Concrete Strength M. F. M. Zain 1, Suhad M. Abd 1, K. Sopian 2, M. Jamil 1, Che-Ani A.I 1 1 Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, 2 Solar Energy

More information

International journal of Engineering Research-Online A Peer Reviewed International Journal Articles available online http://www.ijoer.

International journal of Engineering Research-Online A Peer Reviewed International Journal Articles available online http://www.ijoer. RESEARCH ARTICLE ISSN: 2321-7758 AN INVESTIGATION ON THE SHRINKAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF GGBFS BASED SLURRY INFILTRATED HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE PRUTHVIRAJ B S 1, SHREEPAD DESAI 2, Dr. PRAKASH K B

More information

Experimental assessment of concrete damage due to exposure to high temperature and efficacy of the repair system

Experimental assessment of concrete damage due to exposure to high temperature and efficacy of the repair system MATEC Web of Conferences 6, 06002 (2013) DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20130606002 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013 Experimental assessment of concrete damage due to exposure to high temperature

More information

ECLIPSE SHRINKAGE REDUCING ADMIXTURE PRODUCT EVALUATION

ECLIPSE SHRINKAGE REDUCING ADMIXTURE PRODUCT EVALUATION Report Number: FEP-01-08 ECLIPSE SHRINKAGE REDUCING ADMIXTURE PRODUCT EVALUATION FINAL REPORT December 2008 1. Report No. FEP-01-08 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipients Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle

More information

SETSCO SERVICES PTE LTD TEST REPORT MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS ON THE CONCRETE CORES FROM RETAINING WALL AT CHANGI AIRPORT TERMINAL 3 REVERTON ENGINEERING(S) PTE LTD 1. INTRODUCTION 2. MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS 3.

More information

Empirical Elasticity Models of Concrete made with local aggregates used in Nigeria.

Empirical Elasticity Models of Concrete made with local aggregates used in Nigeria. RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS Empirical Elasticity Models of Concrete made with local aggregates used in Nigeria. Ezeagu C.A and Obasi K.C Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nnamdi

More information

Utilisation of Glass Reinforced Plastic Waste in Concrete and Cement Composites

Utilisation of Glass Reinforced Plastic Waste in Concrete and Cement Composites Utilisation of Glass Reinforced Plastic Waste in Concrete and Cement Composites Osmani M. 1 and Pappu A. 2 1 Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, UK.; Email:

More information

THE EAGLE RIVER BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE REPLACEMENT

THE EAGLE RIVER BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE REPLACEMENT Proceedings of 8 th International Conference on Short and Medium Span Bridges Niagara Falls, Canada 2010 THE EAGLE RIVER BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE REPLACEMENT Biljana Rajlic Hatch Mott MacDonald, Canada Philip

More information

PCI BIG BEAM COMPETITION

PCI BIG BEAM COMPETITION PCI BIG BEAM COMPETITION Official Rules for the PCI Engineering Design Competition Academic Year 2015-16 PROGRAM The PCI Student Education Committee is inviting entries from students to participate in

More information

PROJECT PROFILE ON CEMENT CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS

PROJECT PROFILE ON CEMENT CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS PROJECT PROFILE ON CEMENT CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS PRODUCT : Cement Concrete Hollow Blocks NIC CODE : 26959 (based on NIC 2004) PRODUCT CODE : 94459 (based on ASICC 2000) PRODUCTION CAPACITY : Quantity :

More information

Chicago Building Bridge to the Future

Chicago Building Bridge to the Future Chicago Building Bridge to the Future by Martin McGovern High-performance concrete is the centerpiece in reconstruction of historic Wacker Drive Wacker Drive, an L-shaped stretch of bi-level roadway that

More information

RHOPLEX MC-1834P Cement Mortar Modifier

RHOPLEX MC-1834P Cement Mortar Modifier RHOPLEX MC-1834P Cement Mortar Modifier Description is a low-odor acrylic polymer emulsion designed for modifying Portland cement compositions. The superior adhesion, ultraviolet light resistance, water

More information

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM (QAP) City Rohnert Park

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM (QAP) City Rohnert Park QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM (QAP) City Rohnert Park The purpose of this program is to provide assurance that the materials incorporated into the construction projects are in conformance with the contract

More information

Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM )

Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM ) 1of 6 Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM ) (Waterproofing Admixture for Concrete) DESCRIPTION Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM) is a hydrophilic crystalline waterproofing admixture in dry powder form. KIM is

More information

Salt Weathering of Masonry Walls The Venice Experience. By M. Collepardi, S. Collepardi and R. Troli

Salt Weathering of Masonry Walls The Venice Experience. By M. Collepardi, S. Collepardi and R. Troli Salt Weathering of Masonry Walls The Venice Experience By M. Collepardi, S. Collepardi and R. Troli Synopsis: All the buildings in Venice insist on foundation immersed in sea water and then are permanently

More information

Recycling and Utilization of Mine Tailings as Construction Material through Geopolymerization

Recycling and Utilization of Mine Tailings as Construction Material through Geopolymerization Recycling and Utilization of Mine Tailings as Construction Material through Geopolymerization Lianyang Zhang, Ph.D., P.E. Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics University of Arizona,

More information

Quality control: Annex-A.

Quality control: Annex-A. Quality control: Quality of the constructed work has been checked by our staff as per frequency and provision mentioned section 900 in MoRT&H and as per provision mentioned in Concession Agreement. The

More information

UTILIZATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES AND BY-PRODUCTS AS A GREEN CONCRETE MATERIAL THROUGH S/S PROCESS: A REVIEW

UTILIZATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES AND BY-PRODUCTS AS A GREEN CONCRETE MATERIAL THROUGH S/S PROCESS: A REVIEW 42 Rev.Adv.Mater.Sci. 17(2008) 42-61 Smita Badur and Rubina Chaudhary UTILIZATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES AND BY-PRODUCTS AS A GREEN CONCRETE MATERIAL THROUGH S/S PROCESS: A REVIEW Smita Badur and Rubina Chaudhary

More information

Irish Concrete Society Platin, Drogheda, Co. Louth. Tel: 041 987 6000 Fax: 041 987 6400 www.concrete.ie

Irish Concrete Society Platin, Drogheda, Co. Louth. Tel: 041 987 6000 Fax: 041 987 6400 www.concrete.ie Irish Concrete Society Platin, Drogheda, Co. Louth. Tel: 041 987 6000 Fax: 041 987 6400 www.concrete.ie Irish Concrete Federation Unit 8, Newlands Business Park, Newlands Cross, Clondalkin, Dublin 24.

More information

Coal ash utilisation over the world and in Europe

Coal ash utilisation over the world and in Europe Workshop on Environmental and Health Aspects of Coal Ash Utilization International workshop 23 rd 24 th November 2005 Tel-Aviv, Israel Coal ash utilisation over the world and in Europe Hans-Joachim Feuerborn

More information

Bonding Agents: The Good, the Bad, and What Works. Bond with Your Concrete

Bonding Agents: The Good, the Bad, and What Works. Bond with Your Concrete Bonding Agents: The Good, the Bad, and What Works Bond with Your Concrete Jose DonJuan Graduate Research Assistant Kyle A. Riding, Ph.D., P.E. Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering Kansas

More information

OLD BUILDINGS RESTORATION TECHNIQUE. Dr-Ing JK Makunza University of Dar es Salaam 18 th May 2011

OLD BUILDINGS RESTORATION TECHNIQUE. Dr-Ing JK Makunza University of Dar es Salaam 18 th May 2011 OLD BUILDINGS RESTORATION TECHNIQUE Dr-Ing JK Makunza University of Dar es Salaam 18 th May 2011 Introduction Zanzibar is an archipelago made up of Zanzibar and Pemba Islands. It is located in the Indian

More information

Fire and Concrete Structures

Fire and Concrete Structures Fire and Concrete Structures Authors: David N. Bilow, P.E., S.E., Director, Engineered Structures, Portland Cement Association 5420 Old Orchard Road, Skokie, IL 60077,Phone 847-972-9064, email: dbilow@cement.org

More information

Structural Testing of GeoPolymer Pipe/Culvert Lining

Structural Testing of GeoPolymer Pipe/Culvert Lining Structural Testing of GeoPolymer Pipe/Culvert Lining Joseph Royer, Ph.D. October 27 th, 2015 What is a GeoPolymer? Not a Plastic Not HDPE/PVC/Epoxy Looks and feels like cement Workability Material Properties

More information

High-Performance Concrete

High-Performance Concrete HOME PAGE CHAPTER 17 High-Performance Concrete High-performance concrete (HPC) exceeds the properties and constructability of normal concrete. Normal and special materials are used to make these specially

More information

CONCREBOL 2015. 2.3 There is no restriction regarding the number of participants in each team.

CONCREBOL 2015. 2.3 There is no restriction regarding the number of participants in each team. 12 nd CONTEST REGULATION 1/11 CONCREBOL 2015 1 OBJECTIVE 1.1 This contest intends to test the competitors ability in developing construction methods and the production of lightweight homogeneous concrete

More information

STUDY REPORT. No. 101 (2001) Effect of Recycled Concrete Aggregate on New Concrete. S. G. Park

STUDY REPORT. No. 101 (2001) Effect of Recycled Concrete Aggregate on New Concrete. S. G. Park Date: July 2001 STUDY REPORT No. 101 (2001) Effect of Recycled Concrete Aggregate on New Concrete S. G. Park The work reported here was jointly funded by Building Research Levy and the Foundation for Research,

More information

XYPEX AUSTRALIA CHLORIDE PENETRATION TESTS ON XYPEX ADMIX C-1000NF MODIFIED COMMERCIAL CONCRETES. By Gary Kao B.Mat.E, MSc, UNSW Research Engineer

XYPEX AUSTRALIA CHLORIDE PENETRATION TESTS ON XYPEX ADMIX C-1000NF MODIFIED COMMERCIAL CONCRETES. By Gary Kao B.Mat.E, MSc, UNSW Research Engineer XYPEX AUSTRALIA CHLORIDE PENETRATION TESTS ON XYPEX ADMIX C-1NF MODIFIED COMMERCIAL CONCRETES AUSINDUSTRY START RESEARCH PROJECT By Gary Kao B.Mat.E, MSc, UNSW Research Engineer 27-3-23 Issued for Information

More information

THEORETICAL BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION PRECAST REACTIVE POWDER RC GIRDER AND ORDINARY RC DECK SLAB

THEORETICAL BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION PRECAST REACTIVE POWDER RC GIRDER AND ORDINARY RC DECK SLAB International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 12, Dec 215, pp. 8-21, Article ID: IJCIET_6_12_2 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=12

More information

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MORTAR WITH ADMIXTURE

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MORTAR WITH ADMIXTURE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 226 233, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_020 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

Standard Specification for Cold Weather Concreting (306.1-90) Reported by ACI Committee 306. Nicholas J. Carino, Chairman* David A.

Standard Specification for Cold Weather Concreting (306.1-90) Reported by ACI Committee 306. Nicholas J. Carino, Chairman* David A. This document has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense and for listing in 306.1-90 the DoD Index of Specifications and Standards. (Reapproved 2002) Standard Specification for

More information

ANALYSIS FOR BEHAVIOR AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CORBELS WITH HYBRID REINFORCEMENT

ANALYSIS FOR BEHAVIOR AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CORBELS WITH HYBRID REINFORCEMENT International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp. 25-35 Article ID: IJCIET_06_10_003 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=10

More information

What is Cement? History Overview of the Cement Manufacturing Process Brief Overview of Kiln Operations Why Burn Wastes?

What is Cement? History Overview of the Cement Manufacturing Process Brief Overview of Kiln Operations Why Burn Wastes? What is Cement? History Overview of the Cement Manufacturing Process Brief Overview of Kiln Operations Why Burn Wastes? A hydraulic cement made by finely pulverizing the clinker produced by calcining to

More information