Skin Cancer: The Facts. Slide content provided by Loraine Marrett, Senior Epidemiologist, Division of Preventive Oncology, Cancer Care Ontario.

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1 Skin Cancer: The Facts Slide content provided by Loraine Marrett, Senior Epidemiologist, Division of Preventive Oncology, Cancer Care Ontario.

2 Types of skin Cancer Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) most common (3-4 times more common than SCC; of 69,000* NMSCs in Canada in 2007, 52,000-55,000 are likely BCC and remainder SCC)) rarely metastasizes or causes death ~ 2:1 male to female ratio Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) less common than BCC but common can metastasize/cause death but not commonly (220/yr*) ~ 2:1 male to female ratio Melanoma least common (4,600/yr *) most common skin cancer cause of death (900/yr *) 5 yr relative survival 89% * ~ 1:1 male to female ratio * also occurs in eye and, rarely, other tissues * Source: Canadian Cancer Statistics 2007

3 Skin cancer quick facts: Stats 1 Skin cancer (including basal and squamous cell carcinomas collectively referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma) is the most common cancer, by far, in Canada: In 2007, 73,600* Canadians diagnosed with skin cancer (Canadian Cancer Statistics (CCS) 2007) 1 in 7 Canadians will develop some form of skin cancer during their lifetime Skin cancers represent 1/3 of all new cases of cancer each year [see separate slide] (CCS2007) Because survival is excellent for those diagnosed with NMSC and good for melanoma, skin cancer is also the most prevalent form of cancer* Many with skin cancer develop recurrences and/or second primary skin cancers Deaths due to NMSC are rare about 220 in 2007 (CCS2007) - but are more common for melanoma in 2007 (CCS2007) * Comprehensive statistics on NMSC are not available because the majority of cancer registries do not try to capture (because they are so frequent and so often diagnosed and/or treated in facilities requiring special data collection efforts). Incidence stats are based on 3 Canadian registries that have some data BC, MN and NB)

4 Most common cancers, Canada, 2007* Skin Lung Breast 73,600 Canadians will be diagnosed with skin cancer in /3 of all new cancers Prostate 4,600 are melanoma Colorectum Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Estimated number of new cases, Canada, 2007 Source: Canadian Cancer Statistics 2007 > 1 in 7 will develop skin cancer during their lifetimes Skin cancer rare in Asians, blacks, Aboriginals

5 Skin cancer quick facts: Stats 2 Melanoma (CMM) is the second most common cancer in young adults (ages 15-34) BCC is also common in this age group. Incidence rates of melanoma are increasing, including in young adults 2.0% per year in incidence rates for males and 1.1% for females between 1994 and 2003 (CCS2007) In Ontario s young adults, incidence was or stable in the late 1980s/early 1990s; now Melanoma mortality rates increasing until recently; may now have stabilized NMSC incidence also increasing although limited data available* (Hayes et al. 2007, New Brunswick; Demers et al. 2005, Manitoba) * Comprehensive statistics on NMSC are not available because the majority of cancer registries do not try to capture (because they are so frequent and so often diagnosed and/or treated in facilities requiring special data collection efforts). Incidence stats are based on 3 Canadian registries that have some data BC, MB and NB)

6 Melanoma is common in young adults >8,000 new diagnoses of melanoma in year olds in Canada in the 1990s Ranks second after breast cancer Breast (21%) Melanoma (N=8123, 8%) Thyroid (7%) Cervix (6%) NHL (6%) % distribution of incident cancers, ages 20-44, , Canada Source: Cancer Care Ontario: Cancer in Young Adults in Canada (2006)

7

8 Skin cancer quick facts: Causes 1 Over-exposure to UVR major cause in Canada (Armstrong BK, Kricker A, 1993) UVR is a known carcinogen [see separate slide] Over-exposure early in life (childhood and adolescence) particularly increases risk of melanoma (Armstrong BK 1997) and possibly BCC [see separate slide] UVB (short wavelength) appears to be most important for SCC; UVA may be relatively more important for melanoma Most important aspect of sun exposure varies lifetime cumulative exposure is most important for SCC and for some types of melanoma, especially those that develop later in life intermittent exposure* is most important for melanoma, especially for those developing earlier BCC is probably somewhere in between NOTE: total dose is also important for melanoma and BCC * Intermittent exposure is characterized by relatively short, intense exposure episodes, the type that is more likely to result in sunburn. Thus, sunburn is considered to be one indicator of this type of exposure. It is not clear whether sunburn has an independent effect on skin cancer risk.

9 Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is carcinogenic Solar radiation is a human carcinogen causing all forms of skin cancer UVA and UVB are carcinogenic in animals and probably in humans (Source: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1992) Solar radiation is known to be a human carcinogen Broad-spectrum UVR is known to be a human carcinogen UVA and UVB are reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen Exposure to sunlamps or sunbeds is known to be a human carcinogen (Source: National Toxicology Program, Report on Carcinogens, 2005)

10 Evidence that intense sun exposure in youth may be especially harmful Melanoma occurs at relatively young ages Young age at migration to Australia increases risk Most nevi (moles) arise prior to age 20 nevi are related to sun exposure many nevi increases the risk of melanoma Melanoma body site distribution in young adults favours sites not usually exposed (trunk & limbs vs. head & neck) Some epidemiologic studies show stronger associations with early age at exposure - not consistent or convincing

11 Skin cancer quick facts: Causes 2 Tanning equipment is an important source of UVR, both UVA and UVB Doses delivered by tanning equipment are often very high Youth and young adults are the main users of tanning equipment Availability of tanning equipment is increasing Use of TE increases the risk of skin cancer UVR is also a potential workplace hazard (mostly for outdoor workers, who may have very large but not usually intermittent doses, but also welders, and others who work with specialized lights that emit UVR)

12 Melanoma & use of tanning equipment Meta-analysis #1 1 (10 studies to April 2004) Ever vs. never use: RR = 1.25 (95% CI: ) First use as young adult vs. never: 1.69 (95% CI: ) Later studies have results similar to earlier studies (when > UVB) Meta-analysis #2 2 (19 studies to March 2006) Ever vs. never use: RR = 1.15 (95% CI: ) First use before age 35: 1.75 (95% CI: ) Sources: 1. Gallagher et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev IARC Working Group on artificial UV light and skin cancer. Int J Cancer 2006

13 Non-melanoma skin cancer & use of tanning equipment Squamous cell carcinoma Meta-analysis #2 1 (3 studies to March 2006) Ever vs. never use: RR = 2.25 (95% CI: ) 1 study 2 found odds ratio increased by 20% for each decade younger at first use Basal cell carcinoma Meta-analysis #2 1 (4 studies to March 2006) Ever vs. never use: RR = 1.03 ( ) 1 study 2 found odds ratio increased by 10% for each decade younger at first use Sources: 1. IARC Working Group on artificial UV light and skin cancer. Int J Cancer Karagas et al. JNCI 2002.

14 References Canadian Cancer Society/National Cancer Institute of Canada: Canadian Cancer Statistics 2007, Toronto, Canada, 2007 Hayes RC, Leonfellner S, Pilgrim W et al. Incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in New Brunswick, Canada, 1992 ro J Cut Med Surg 2007; 11: Demers AA, Nugent Z, Mihalcioiu C et al. Trends of nonmelanoma skin cancer from 1960 through 2000 in a Canadian population. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53: Cancer Care Ontario. Cancer in Young Adults in Canada. Toronto, Canada, Armstrong BK, Kricker A. How much melanoma is caused by sun exposure? Melanoma Research 1993; 3: Armstrong BK. Melanoma: Childhood or lifelong sun exposure. In Grob JJ, Stern RS, MacKie RM, Weinstock MA (eds). Epidemiology, causes and prevention of skin diseases. Chapter 7: Sun exposure and skin cancers. Oxford, Blackwell Science 1997, p The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Solar and ultraviolet radiation: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol National Toxicology Program, US Department of Health and Human Services Report on Carcinogens. 11 th edition, Gallagher RP, Spinelli J, Lee TK. Tanning beds, sunlamps and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer Epi Biomarkers Prevention 2005; 14: The International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on artificial ultraviolet (UV) light and skin cancer. The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: A systematic review. Int J Cancer; 120: Karagas MR, Stannard VA, Mott LA et al. Use of tanning devises and risk of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers. JNCI 2002; 94:

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