THE EFFECTS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN

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1 THE EFFECTS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN OCTOBER, 2014 RUTH D. REICHARD, FAMILY VIOLENCE RESOURCE ATTORNEY, INDIANA SUPREME COURT DIVISION OF STATE COURT ADMINISTRATION What is domestic violence? A pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. This includes any behaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone. U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women 1

2 Power & control Power & Control Wheel Contrast that with a healthy relationship The Equality Wheel 2

3 A pattern of behavior The cycle of violence Domestic violence can happen to anyone Regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all socioeconomic backgrounds and education levels. It happens in both opposite-sex and same-sex relationships. It happens whether people are married, living together, or dating. U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women 3

4 Intimate partner violence is lethal more so for women than for men Cooper & Smith, Homicide Trends in the United States, , Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ Intimate partner violence is widespread The CDC estimates that more than 1 in 3 women (35.6%) and more than 1 in 4 men (28.5%) in the United States have experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetimes (CDC, National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, 2010 Summary Report, Executive Summary, November, 2011) 4

5 This is a huge societal and cultural problem The CDC reports that each year, intimate partner violence results in an estimated 1,200 deaths and 2 million injuries among women and nearly 600,000 injuries among men CDC, Adverse Health Conditions and Health Risk Behaviors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence United States, 2005, MMWR57, no. 5 (Feb. 8, 2008) Most domestic violence is not fatal... Latest statistics on nonfatal DV, : Domestic violence accounted for 21% of all violent crime Most DV was committed by current or former boyfriends or girlfriends Most DV was committed against females (76%) compared to males (24%) Most DV happened at or near the victim s home (77%) Only about half (56%) of incidents by intimate partners and immediate family members were reported to police A weapon was involved in 19% of incidents with intimate partners Truman & Morgan, Nonfatal Domestic Violence, , Bureau of Justice Statistics, April, 2014 (NCJ ) 5

6 It starts early: 2006 Liz Claiborne, Inc. Teen Relationship Abuse Survey 1 in 4 teens (24%) reported feeling pressure to date; 14% said they would do almost anything to keep a boyfriend or a girlfriend 1/3 of 16-to 18-year-olds, and 31% of teens who have been in a serious relationship, reported that sex is expected Almost half 47% of teens who have been in a relationship, and 55% of those who describe theirs as serious, have done something that compromised their own values in order to please their partner It starts early... In this same survey, 61% said they ve had a boyfriend or girlfriend who made them feel bad or embarrassed about themselves 30% reported worrying about their personal physical safety in a relationship 20% in a serious relationship reported being hit, slapped, or pushed by a boyfriend or girlfriend Liz Claiborne, Inc. Teen Relationship Abuse Survey, 2006 ( 6

7 Family violence often involves cruelty to animals Experts estimate that 48% to 71% of battered women have pets who also have been abused or killed Pet abuse is a significant predictor of who will become a batterer About half of the states protection order laws now also allow for protection of companion animals Source: Animal Welfare Institute, Animals & Family Violence, The National Domestic Violence Hotline Established in 1996 as part of the first VAWA Available 24/7/ SAFE (7233) Can help people in 170 different languages and also via TTY for hearing impaired It s free & confidential They also do online chatting, tweeting, & texting at loveisrespect How many calls, texts, & chats did it get in 2013? 7

8 331,078 The Hotline logged 331,078 calls, texts, and chats in 2013: 264,415 calls received (that s a call every 2 minutes) 55,610 online chats received 11,053 texts received They had to turn some people away: 77,484 contacts went unanswered due to a lack of resources The week of September 8, 2014: When the video of Ray Rice punching his partner in the elevator appeared on the Internet... The Hotline experienced an 84% increase in call volume They had to put people on hold 8

9 A snapshot of just one day: September 17, 2013 State and local hotlines around the country answered over 20,000 calls The national hotline answered 550 calls (An average of 14 hotline calls a minute that day) Over 36,000 victims stayed in domestic violence shelters or transitional housing Over 30,000 adults and children received non-shelter services (counseling, legal help, children s support groups, etc.) On that same day, over 9,600 people were turned away from services because of a lack of resources 60% of those unmet requests were for housing emergency shelter & transitional housing NNEDV, 13 Domestic Violence Counts National Summary In Indiana, that same day: 1,107 victims in shelters or transitional housing 601 adults & children received non-shelter services 581 hotline calls answered 1,187 educated in prevention & education trainings 128 turned away because of a lack of resources (102 of the requests were for housing) NNEDV, 13 Domestic Violence Counts National Summary 9

10 How busy are Indiana s courts? owithin the state of Indiana in 2014, there are 651 judicial officers presiding over 385 courts oin 2013, these courts issued 44,194 protection orders oby definition and terms of the statute, all of the protection orders involved allegations of family or domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking othey also issued 57,102 no-contact orders and 367 workplace violence restraining orders, for a grand total of 101,663 stay away orders Resources List 10

11 The Stairs Children and family violence The Stairs PSA Discuss: Hard for adults to listen to, right? Why was that traumatic for the little boy? 11

12 Children and family violence Approximately 15.5 million children are exposed to intimate partner violence every year let that sink in 2/3 of nonfatal intimate partner victimizations of women happen at home Children are present in 43% of these incidents Sources: McDonald et al., Estimating the Number of American Children Living in Partner-Violent Families, J. of Family Psychology 20, no. 1 (2006): ; Intimate Partner Violence in the United States, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (2006). Children s exposure to Intimate Partner Violence A comprehensive, national study was conducted in early 2008 National Survey of Children s Exposure to Violence; surveyed 4,500 kids 12

13 National Survey of Children s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV( NatSCEV) Measured the past-year and lifetime exposure to violence for children ages 17 and younger in seven categories: Conventional crime Child maltreatment Victimization by peers & siblings Sexual victimization Witnessing & indirect victimization (including exposure to community & family violence) School violence & threats Internet victimization Children can be exposed to Intimate Partner Violence in 6 different ways: Seeing violent acts Hearing violent acts The child can be assaulted during the incident Seeing injuries resulting from violence Being told about the violence Experiencing the aftermath (parents depressed, relocation, etc.) 13

14 Findings for previous year: More than 1 in 9 children (11%) were exposed to some form of family violence in the past year 1 in 15 (6.6%) were exposed to physical assaults between parents (or a parent & his/her partner) 5.7% of youth were exposed to psychological or emotional intimate partner violence, including Verbal threats Punching walls Throwing, breaking, or destroying household items In fact, seeing a parent punching a wall, break something, or throw things was reported most often (4.9%) Findings for lifetime exposure: 1 in 4 (26%) were exposed to at least one form of family violence during their lifetime Most youth exposed to family violence including 90% of those exposed to intimate partner violence sawthe violence as opposed to hearing it 14

15 Findings, continued: 68% of the youth who were surveyed had witnessed violence by males Father figures were the most common perpetrators of family violence Assaults by mothers and other caregivers were also common, however How did the children react? 15

16 References Source for the slides about the National Survey of Children s Exposure to Violence: Hamby, Finkelhor, Turner, and Ormrod, Children s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Other Family Violence, OJJDP Bulletin, October, 2011 (NCJ ) For the 6 different ways children can be exposed: Holden, Children Exposed to Domestic Violence and Child Abuse: Terminology and Taxonomy, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 6, no. 3 (Sept. 2003): 152. Call the police? Most did not In this study, just 26.5% of child-witnessed interparentalviolence was known to police Most experts agree that only about 25% (1/4) of domestic violence incidents are ever reported to police Why? A belief that the police can t do anything To compare, more than 40% of other assaults witnessed by children were known to police Hamby, Finkelhor, & Turner, Intervention Following Family Violence: Best Practices and Helpseeking Obstacles in a Nationally Representative Sample of Families With Children, Psychology of Violence advance online publication (April 7, 2014): 16

17 More about the children in this survey The average age of children who were interviewed: 9 years old Many of these incidents were severe and frightening to the children Half of the children who witnessed a physical assault said it was their most frightening experience ever Over ¼ feared for their own safety More than 1 in 3 incidents resulted in physical injury to another family member The child witness was injured 1 in 75 incidents Hamby, Finkelhor, & Turner, Intervention Following Family Violence: Best Practices and HelpseekingObstacles in a Nationally Representative Sample of Families With Children, Psychology of Violence advance online publication (April 7, 2014): How does exposure to domestic violence affect children? 17

18 How does exposure to domestic violence affect children? Effects of exposure vary based on: age developmental level resilience/protective factors Handouts: Tip Sheet & How Does Domestic Violence Affect Children? Co-Occurrence of Domestic Violence & Child Abuse/Neglect 1990 report: in homes where DV occurs, children are physically abused & neglected at a rate 15 times higher than national average Numerous studies: in 60-75% of families where a woman is battered, children are also battered 1975 study: 77% of children living in high-violence homes were abused during their lifetime 1988 study: 45% of mothers referred for mistreating their children were themselves abused 1989 study: 59% of mothers referred for child abuse/neglect were themselves battered There is a significant overlap Osofsky, Prevalence of Children s Exposure to Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment: Implications for Prevention and Intervention, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 6, no. 3 (Sept. 2003):

19 Other Resources Child Welfare Information Gateway, Child Protection in Families Experiencing Domestic Violence Several chapters long Has chapters on the basics of DV and also on the overlap between child maltreatment and domestic violence Excellent resource to explore on your own time Children s exposure to family violence We know the short-term effects We know that protective factors can enhance resilience and mitigate the longterm impact You should also know: the long-term effects vary What if a child doesn t have access to all of the protective factors discussed above? Is there a relationship between childhood maltreatment and health and wellbeing in one s later life? 19

20 The ACE Study (ACES) ACE=Adverse Childhood Experiences Starting in , the CDC (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) & Kaiser Permanente s Health Appraisal Clinic in San Diego, CA began to follow over 17,000 HMO members The patients agreed to provide detailed information about their childhood experiences of abuse, neglect, and family dysfunction They aren t enrolling any more people, but they are still tracking the 17,000 (CDC, Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, The ACE Pyramid 20

21 How did they define ACE? Childhood abuse Physical abuse Emotional abuse Sexual abuse Childhood neglect Emotional neglect Physical neglect Exposure to other traumatic stressors: Mother was treated violently Household substance abuse Household mental illness Parental separation or divorce Incarcerated household member Major Findings Almost 2/3 of participants reported at least one ACE More than 20% reported 3 or more ACE As the number of adverse childhood experiences increases, the risk for the following health problems increases in a strong and graded fashion: Alcoholism/alcohol abuse COPD Depression Fetal death Health-related quality of life Illicit drug use Ischemic heart disease Liver disease Risk for intimate partner violence Multiple sexual partners STDs Smoking Suicide attempts Unintended pregnancies Early initiation of smoking Early initiation of sexual activity Adolescent pregnancy 21

22 More wheels: Abuse of Children wheel no explanation needed Nurturing Children wheel how we all want to parent our children Thesebehaviors are the ones we want the families to model and practice Screening for family violence Professionals in all disciplines need to actively screen for family violence, and for children s exposure to intimate partner violence. Hamby, Finkelhor, Turner, and Ormrod, Children s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Other Family Violence, OJJDP Bulletin, October, 2011 (NCJ ) See handouts *One page, questions to ask Mother *Six pages, questions for each family member 22

23 If DV is present, 2 recommended interventions: 1. Professionals need to assist children and non-offending parents or caregivers with safety planning focused on the children See handout, Personalized Safety Plan 9 pages Go through this with the victim (and with the children, if they are old enough) 2. Professionals need to refer children to evidence-based therapeutic programsthat help them cope with their exposure to violence If your community doesn t have one, find out where they are And find out how to establish one Hamby, Finkelhor, Turner, and Ormrod, Children s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Other Family Violence, OJJDP Bulletin, October, 2011 (NCJ ) Coordination Coordinate services for adults and their children Coordinate services across jurisdictions & platforms for example, if child is in the juvenile court system for delinquency but is also a CHINS (child in need of services) because of violence involving his/her parents Hamby, Finkelhor, Turner, and Ormrod, Children s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Other Family Violence, OJJDP Bulletin, October, 2011 (NCJ ) 23

24 Collaboration Police need to collaborate with teachers, mental health workers, domestic violence victim advocates, child protective services workers, and others Why police? Intimate partner violence & domestic disturbance calls account for 30 to 40% of all police calls for service nationwide Report of the Attorney General s National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence, December, 2012, pp ABA Checklist (handout) Screening/definitions for DV Lethality factors Frequency/severity increasing Use/presence of weapons Threats to kill Strangulation Separation Questions to ask Supporting the victim/nonoffending parent Supporting the offending parent 24

25 Handout: Relevant Rules & Statutes Parenting Time Guidelines They don t apply when there is family violence Mediation Judge cannot order parties into mediation if there s a conviction for a crime against the person (Ind. Code 35-42) No mediation in protection order cases Factors for custody in divorce & paternity cases The judge shall consider whether there s a pattern of domestic/family violence Relevant Rules & Statutes, cont d. Substantiated child abuse: paternity & divorce cases Mandatory disclosure (under seal) to the judge of that information If requested, DCS must provide (under seal) information about the case to the judge within 10 days Rebuttable presumption for supervised visitation for 1 to 2 years if conviction for crime of domestic/family violence (paternity & divorce) Judge can also order successful completion of a BIP (batterers intervention program) as a condition of lifting the supervised visitation order Can also require a bond (PT & divorce cases) if DV or child abuse Protection/No Contact Orders 25

26 Bottom line: What does safe look like? For the children in these families? For the victim/nonoffending parent? For an offending parent? 26

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