# SOLVE COMPLEX SIMULATIONS TO ENHANCE PRODUCT PERFORMANCE

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1 W H I T E P A P E R SOLVE COMPLEX SIMULATIONS TO ENHANCE PRODUCT PERFORMANCE Overview Engineering successful, innovative products in today s competitive environment requires simulation power. The ability to analyze the multifaceted physical performance characteristics of a design before making a prototype can substantially increase productivity. Companies need robust simulation tools to efficiently overcome time, budget, and quality demands. SolidWorks Simulation delivers powerful simulation capabilities that can solve complex analysis problems, helping you design better, more innovative products faster and more cost-effectively.

3 Nonlinear analysis problems Nonlinear structural analysis problems generally fall within three categories: nonlinear materials, nonlinear geometries, and nonlinear interactions between parts. Of course, you may face a simulation challenge that involves all three. You may be using a hyper-elastic material such as an elastomer in a shape that constitutes both structural nonlinearities, where the response varies disproportionately to the applied forces, and geometric nonlinearities, where displacements alter a structure s stiffness. The practical applications of nonlinear materials analysis vary widely. In a nonlinear analysis of a component, failure may be defined by the extent that a material yields rather than if the materials yields, as in linear analysis. You may also want to examine different failure modes, such as buckling, snap-through, oil-canning effects, or large displacements. Many modern materials, such as plastics, synthetics, and composites, have unique properties that require nonlinear materials analysis to capture their complex load response behavior. An increasing number of products, such as medical stents or plastic clips, are designed to deform in shape and stretch without failing, behavior that can only be understood through a combination of nonlinear material and nonlinear geometry analyses. The possibility of a hand held device being dropped must be accounted for in the design simulations. When you re dealing with nonlinear materials in a flexible structure, you ll need to combine large displacement and nonlinear material analysis. An important consideration for these simulations is that as the part changes shape it can experience a phenomenon known as stress stiffening. Stress stiffening can either increase or decrease the components stiffness depending upon the applied loads and the component geometry. At times as is the case with membrane effects a relatively small change in shape results in a substantial change in stiffness. To accurately simulate complex structural behavior including nonlinear materials, nonlinear geometries, large deformation, and stress stiffening you need the powerful capabilities of SolidWorks simulation. Solve Complex Simulations to Enhance Product Performance 3

6 We are making a more accurate, higher-quality product by using simulation to optimize the design, instead of building prototype after prototype, Kriek stresses. Simulation has allowed us to cut the weight of certain components in half because we can simulate how geometry changes can produce a 25 kilogram component with the same strength and stiffness as a 60 kilogram part. Nonlinear dynamic analysis helps us predict the behavior of assemblies containing nonlinear materials, Kriek adds. We can even forecast radar accuracy due to windinduced deflection, uneven solar heating on the radar structure, and ship motion. The ability to do all of these different types of analyses is a truly encompassing advantage. Advanced nonlinear, dynamics, and flow analyses help Reutech Radar Systems engineers understand the effects of wind such as wind-induced deflection on their radar structures. Computational fluid dynamics Although structural simulation represents the lion s share of analysis requirements, there is a continually growing need to understand how the behavior and dynamics of fluids either liquids or gases affect design performance. While the early applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software primarily focused on the aerodynamics of vehicles, such as aircraft and automobiles, as an alternative to wind-tunnel testing, the technology is now increasingly used to evaluate other flowrelated issues, such as cooling, heating, ventilation, and flow-based manufacturing and piping processes. With SolidWorks Flow Simulation, you can simulate the physical traits of the flow of just about any fluid including Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids allowing you to calculate velocities, pressures, flow-rates, and temperatures for liquids and gases that influence your design or process. Some fluids have material properties that are characterized by constant viscosity, and are known as Newtonian fluids. But many types of fluids such as polymers, blood, ketchup, paint, shampoo and molten plastic exhibit a nonlinear, or time-dependent, relationship and cannot be described with a single viscosity constant. These fluids are called non-newtonian fluids. Flow simulation can drive design changes to reduce turbulence and pressure drops, increasing the efficiency of internal flows. SolidWorks Flow Simulation analyzes the flow of both fluids and gases, including gases that travel at high speeds and fluids that flow at high pressures. By understanding how design modifications impact fluid flow, and how changes in flow affect design behavior, you can optimize flow and avoid potential performance issues. Solve Complex Simulations to Enhance Product Performance 6

7 Improve fluid effieiency When most of us think of fluid efficiency, or aerodynamics, we typically envision the sleek shapes of race cars, airplanes, and speedboats. Indeed, reducing the effects of drag on a moving vehicle to increase speed or in the case of an airplane, to strategically position drag to create lift are common applications for conducting fluid flow analysis. In fact, you can simulate anything that you might learn as a result of expensive wind-tunnel testing with SolidWorks Flow Simulation. Yet, fluid mechanics involves much more than the aerodynamic interaction of an object s movement through a fluid. It also comes into play when you consider the internal flow of air through an object, such as airflow through an air conditioning pipe. So whether you are concerned with creating a shape that can travel through the air or defining a geometry that improves internal fluid flows, you can use SolidWorks Flow Simulation to make your design more efficient. With SolidWorks Flow Simulation, you can evaluate whether you are dealing with a laminar or turbulent flow, and pinpoint where vortices occur and modify your design to eliminate flow phenomena like these, which can cause flow inefficiencies. You can visualize the characteristics of complex flows using flow trajectories, section plots, and surface plot tools. SolidWorks Flow Simulation provides powerful visualization tools such as the flow trajectory results shown here which you can use to study the characteristics of complex fluid flows. Thermal Management One of the growing applications for fluid flow simulation is evaluating how flow influences the temperature of the components of a design. As many heating and cooling systems rely on fluids to transfer or dissipate heat, a flow simulation tool can help you evaluate and assess the performance of these systems. SolidWorks Flow Simulation can predict heat transfer in liquids (e.g., boilers and radiators) and gases, such as in forced-air heating and cooling systems. You can also simulate the effects of solar radiation on the temperature of your design. Using SolidWorks Flow Simulation, you can identify the optimal inlet and outlet conditions to satisfy specific design goals, including force, pressure drop, velocity, and temperature. You can observe how a fluid moves through a system, including the impact of fans, impellers, and ducts on the flow characteristics, and even simulating situations involving multiple fluids. Solve Complex Simulations to Enhance Product Performance 7

8 The rapid growth in the development of products and appliances that leverage electronics creates an ideal scenario for using fluid flow simulation to study the effectiveness of cooling systems. With SolidWorks Flow Simulation you can evaluate how forced-air flow (fans) affects heat-producing electronic components. With this powerful tool you can apply real world heat loads and include heat sink emulators to quickly examine how you can modify the flow or the design to cool electronics more effectively. Instead of spending the time and expense required to prototype and test heating and cooling systems, you can use SolidWorks Flow Simulation to learn exactly how your system will function, and how design modifications can improve performance. Using this approach, you ll be able to avoid field failures and operational issues, while controlling development costs at the same time. Understanding complex thermal cycles and their effects on the fluid flow and the structure, can ensure correct product performance and reliability throughout its operational life. Understanding flow-based processes, manufacturing In addition to influencing the performance of traditional products, fluid flow can also affect the development of systems designed to transport fluids some of which may be hazardous under pressure, as well as manufacturing processes that involve materials in a molten or liquefied state. With SolidWorks Flow Simulation, you can gain a thorough understanding of how your flow-based systems and manufacturing processes operate, enabling you to modify designs to optimize performance. For example, any time that a liquid or a gas is transported and pumped under pressure, there are a variety of components and assemblies that are impacted by flow, ranging from pumps, valves, and regulators to piping runs. With some of these systems, temperature may be an important variable. For others, especially those that carry caustic or dangerous substances, maintaining the integrity of the system and preventing leaks and discharges is the overarching requirement. No matter what type of fluid is involved or how it is processed, SolidWorks Flow Simulation can help you study the physical characteristics of the system as well as how each part performs. You can also account for sophisticated effects like porosity, cavitation, and humidity, and track the behavior of particles suspended within a flow. With this information, you can address potential problem areas and refine components that have been over-designed. Solve Complex Simulations to Enhance Product Performance 8

9 Similarly, when your manufacturing process involves handling a fluid material, you can study how flow affects performance. You can observe how manufacturing equipment design changes enable you to modulate temperature, pressure, velocity, and volume. With SolidWorks Flow Simulation, you have a virtual fluid dynamics testing laboratory at your fingertips, enabling you to simulate and improve flow performance in an efficient, cost-effective manner. With integrated (SolidWorks software) FEA (finite element analysis) capabilities, we know our parts will not fail. This enables us to avoid the material costs associated with making parts bigger or heavier to minimize the risk of failure. David Fulmer Vice President of Engineering SawStop, LLC Any manufacturing process that involves handling of a fluid material can be simulated and improved with SolidWorks Flow Simulation. With this powerful tool, you can study how manufacturing equipment design changes enable you to modulate and optimize temperature, pressure, velocity, and volume. Fluid flow/thermal analysis improves manufacturing The manufacturer of many well-known brands of dinnerware, cookware, cutlery, and household tools, World Kitchen LLC used SolidWorks Flow Simulation to streamline production of its Pyrex bakeware products. During the company s thermoforming manufacturing process, molten glass flows at a temperature of 1150 ºC through a series of bends before it falls into a mold, where a press forms the glass into various bakeware shapes. If the forming equipment is too cool, the glass will have a wrinkled appearance. If the forming equipment is too hot, the glass will fuse itself to the metal, making it impossible to remove from the mold, explains Senior Mold Designer Mark Cooley. This is why it is so important to have accurate water flow and cooling. Finding this thermal balance produces high-quality glass and prevents the glass from melting the metal molding components that we use in manufacturing. By conducting complex fluid flow/thermal simulations with SolidWorks Flow Simulation, World Kitchen was able to modify the equipment to achieve thermal balance faster, saving 40 percent of its design time and \$230,000 in development costs. SolidWorks flow Simulation allows us to identify cold and hot spots ahead of time, Cooley stresses. With SolidWorks Flow Simulation, we can create high-heat components and quality products without thermal issues, down time, or additional costs. Solve Complex Simulations to Enhance Product Performance 9

10 World Kitchen used SolidWorks Flow Simulation software to simulate the complex thermal/fluid flow physics related to its molten glass, thermoforming manufacturing operations. These simulations enabled the company to achieve the optimal thermal balance in its manufacturin processes more quickly, saving time and money as a result. Simulating the real world requires multiphysics analysis While a large portion of simulation problems examine a particular type of physical phenomena such as nonlinear structural, dynamics, fluid dynamics, and thermal analyses there are many situations that require a combined multi-physics approach. Examples of multi-physics simulations include thermal stress or thermo-mechanical (thermal/structural), fluid structural interaction (flow/structural), fluid flow with heat transfer (flow/thermal), and fluid structural interaction with heat transfer (flow/thermal/structural). The combination of SolidWorks Simulation and SolidWorks Flow Simulation provides you with a powerful, integrated suite for analyzing many possible combinations of physical phenomena, so you can gain a definitive understanding of how various physical phenomena affect the way your design will function and perform. The impact of temperature on structures Most products are not deployed in environments that maintain a single uniform temperature, and many products are subjected to heating and cooling cycles that can affect a structure s mechanical integrity and response. SolidWorks Simulation can help you analyze the impact of heat on structural performance. For example, in some cases, the distribution of heat within a structure can influence how a design will deform, and conversely, structural deformation can affect the ways that heat moves throughout a structure. Sometimes, the nature of this interaction is primarily in one direction the structural response alters thermal behavior or thermal responses affect structural performance. At other times, the interaction is both ways, when each type of physical response impacts the other. This is an interactive process that often requires a nonlinear thermal/structural analysis to simulate correctly. Solve Complex Simulations to Enhance Product Performance 10

11 SolidWorks Simulation tools allow us not only to study the effects of stress, flow, and temperature on our designs, but also to ensure an appropriate factor of safety. António Caroço Director of Information Systems and Best Practices Martifer Group Multi-physics analysis with SolidWorks Simulation enables you to study the combined impact of different types of physical phenomena, such as the interaction between structural and thermal effects. In addition to situations where the interplay of two types of physical phenomena is of interest, there are circumstances where the interaction among physical phenomena is three-fold. You can use the combination of SolidWorks Simulation and SolidWorks Flow Simulation to solve engineering challenges for which a multiphysics analysis that couples thermal, flow, and structural responses is necessary. For instance, you are designing a system in which fluid flow alters temperature, the changes in heat transfer cause structural deformation, and the deformation changes the boundary governing the flow, which changes the nature of the flow, which affects temperature, and the circle of interrelated physical responses continues. This is a classic thermal/flow/structural multi-physics analysis problem. While not all engineering challenges require a three-pronged thermal/flow/structural multi-physics simulation solution, there are a large number that do. By using SolidWorks Simulation solutions to meet your nonlinear structural, dynamics, fluid flow, and thermal analysis needs, you ll have a powerful tool in your inventory when and if you need a multi-physics analysis solution. Many types of products require cooling or heating systems for managing temperature levels. With SolidWorks Flow Simulation, you can reduce prototyping cycles and costs by optimizing the performance of heating/cooling systems in software. Solve Complex Simulations to Enhance Product Performance 11

12 Thermal/flow/structural analysis optimizes process heater design Gaumer Process is a world leader in the development of electric process heaters, systems, and controls, which are used in the oil, gas, food-processing, wastewater treatment, and petrochemical industries. The company implemented SolidWorks Simulation Premium and SolidWorks Flow Simulation to simulate the multi-physics involved in electric process heater design. Gaumer used SolidWorks Simulation solutions to examine the structural, thermal, and flow characteristics surrounding its flange designs, enabling it to reduce flange thicknesses by 50 percent and resulting in substantial savings. The new flange designs perform just as well and require less material and energy to produce. By simulating the thermal, structural, and fluid flow behavior in and around a flange, we saw that we had been wasting material, explains Craig Tiras, P.E., vice president of engineering and design. Since then, we have been able to optimize designs and reduce material costs overall by 75 percent. Gaumer has used the results of additional multi-physics analyses to save \$100,000 in prototyping costs, and engineer systems to withstand seismic loads and 150 mph winds. We can simulate the external wind loading in CFD, as well as solar radiation in extremely hot and cold locales, and transport those results into the structural analysis package to get a more real-life result, Tiras stresses. Instead of using brute force and bloody ignorance to overcompensate, we can design our supports and braces using thinner materials in a way that more accurately meets the needs of the actual operating environment. With SolidWorks Simulation Premium and SolidWorks Flow Simulation, Gaumer Process engineers studied the structural, thermal, and flow phenomena surrounding its electric process heater flange designs. These simulations enabled Gaumer to reduce flange thickness by 50 percent, resulting in substantial savings. Solve Complex Simulations to Enhance Product Performance 12

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