# Testing Random- Number Generators

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1 Testing Random- Number Generators Raj Jain Washington University Saint Louis, MO Audio/Video recordings of this lecture are available at:

2 Overview 1. Chi-square test 2. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test 3. Serial-correlation Test 4. Two-level tests 5. K-dimensional uniformity or k-distributivity 6. Serial Test 7. Spectral Test 27-2

3 Testing Random-Number Generators Goal: To ensure that the random number generator produces a random stream.! Plot histograms! Plot quantile-quantile plot! Use other tests! Passing a test is necessary but not sufficient! Pass Good Fail Bad! New tests Old generators fail the test! Tests can be adapted for other distributions 27-3

4 Chi-Square Test! Most commonly used test! Can be used for any distribution! Prepare a histogram of the observed data! Compare observed frequencies with theoretical k = Number of cells o i = Observed frequency for ith cell e i = Expected frequency! D=0 Exact fit! D has a chi-square distribution with k-1 degrees of freedom. Compare D with χ 2 [1-α; k-1] Pass with confidence α if D is less 27-4

5 ! 1000 random numbers with x 0 = 1! Example 27.1! Observed difference = ! Observed is Less Accept IID U(0, 1) 27-5

6 Chi-Square for Other Distributions! Errors in cells with a small e i affect the chi-square statistic more! Best when e i 's are equal. Use an equi-probable histogram with variable cell sizes! Combine adjoining cells so that the new cell probabilities are approximately equal.! The number of degrees of freedom should be reduced to k-r-1 (in place of k-1), where r is the number of parameters estimated from the sample.! Designed for discrete distributions and for large sample sizes only Lower significance for finite sample sizes and continuous distributions! If less than 5 observations, combine neighboring cells 27-6

7 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test! Developed by A. N. Kolmogorov and N. V. Smirnov! Designed for continuous distributions! Difference between the observed CDF (cumulative distribution function) F o (x) and the expected cdf F e (x) should be small. 27-7

8 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test! K + = maximum observed deviation below the expected cdf! K - = minimum observed deviation below the expected cdf! K + < K [1-α;n] and K - < K [1-α;n] Pass at α level of significance.! Don't use max/min of Fe(x i )-F o (x i )! Use F e (x i+1 )-F o (x i ) for K -! For U(0, 1): F e (x)=x! F o (x) = j/n, where x > x 1, x 2,..., x j

9 Example Random numbers using a seed of x 0 =15:! The numbers are: 14, 11, 2, 6, 18, 23, 7, 21, 1, 3, 9, 27, 19, 26, 16, 17, 20, 29, 25, 13, 8, 24, 10, 30, 28, 22, 4, 12, 5,

10 Example 27.2 (Cont) The normalized numbers obtained by dividing the sequence by 31 are: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

11 Example 27.2 (Cont)! K [0.9;n] value for n = 30 and a = 0.1 is ! Observed<Table Pass 27-11

12 Chi-square vs. K-S K S Test 27-12

13 Serial-Correlation Test! Nonzero covariance Dependence. The inverse is not true! R k = Autocovariance at lag k = Cov[x n, x n+k ]! For large n, R k is normally distributed with a mean of zero and a variance of 1/[144(n-k)]! 100(1-α)% confidence interval for the autocovariance is: For k 1 Check if CI includes zero! For k = 0, R 0 = variance of the sequence Expected to be 1/12 for IID U(0,1) 27-13

14 Example 27.3: Serial Correlation Test 10,000 random numbers with x 0 =1: 27-14

15 Example 27.3 (Cont)! All confidence intervals include zero All covariances are statistically insignificant at 90% confidence

16 Two-Level Tests! If the sample size is too small, the test results may apply locally, but not globally to the complete cycle.! Similarly, global test may not apply locally! Use two-level tests Use Chi-square test on n samples of size k each and then use a Chi-square test on the set of n Chi-square statistics so obtained Chi-square on Chi-square test.! Similarly, K-S on K-S! Can also use this to find a ``nonrandom'' segment of an otherwise random sequence

17 ! k-dimensional Uniformity k-distributivity! Chi-square uniformity in one dimension Given two real numbers a 1 and b 1 between 0 and 1 such that b 1 > a 1! This is known as 1-distributivity property of u n.! The 2-distributivity is a generalization of this property in two dimensions: For all choices of a 1, b 1, a 2, b 2 in [0, 1], b 1 >a 1 and b 2 >a

18 ! k-distributed if: k-distributivity (Cont)! For all choices of a i, b i in [0, 1], with b i >a i, i=1, 2,..., k.! k-distributed sequence is always (k-1)-distributed. The inverse is not true.! Two tests: 1. Serial test 2. Spectral test 3. Visual test for 2-dimensions: Plot successive overlapping pairs of numbers 27-18

19 ! Tausworthe sequence generated by: Example 27.4! The sequence is k- distributed for k up to d /l e, that is, k=1.! In two dimensions: Successive overlapping pairs (x n, x n+1 ) 27-19

20 Example 27.5! Consider the polynomial:! Better 2-distributivity than Example

21 Serial Test! Goal: To test for uniformity in two dimensions or higher.! In two dimensions, divide the space between 0 and 1 into K 2 cells of equal area x n +1 x n 27-21

22 Serial Test (Cont)! Given {x 1, x 2,, x n }, use n/2 non-overlapping pairs (x 1, x 2 ), (x 3, x 4 ), and count the points in each of the K 2 cells.! Expected= n/(2k 2 ) points in each cell.! Use chi-square test to find the deviation of the actual counts from the expected counts.! The degrees of freedom in this case are K 2-1.! For k-dimensions: use k-tuples of non-overlapping values.! k-tuples must be non-overlapping.! Overlapping number of points in the cells are not independent chi-square test cannot be used! In visual check one can use overlapping or non-overlapping.! In the spectral test overlapping tuples are used.! Given n numbers, there are n-1 overlapping pairs, n/2 nonoverlapping pairs

23 Spectral Test! Goal: To determine how densely the k-tuples {x 1, x 2,, x k }can fill up the k-dimensional hyperspace.! The k-tuples from an LCG fall on a finite number of parallel hyper-planes.! Successive pairs would lie on a finite number of lines! In three dimensions, successive triplets lie on a finite number of planes

24 Example 27.6: Spectral Test Plot of overlapping pairs! All points lie on three straight lines.! Or: 27-24

25 Example 27.6 (Cont)! In three dimensions, the points (x n, x n-1, x n-2 ) for the above generator would lie on five planes given by: Obtained by adding the following to equation Note that k+k 1 will be an integer between 0 and

26 Spectral Test (More)! Marsaglia (1968): Successive k-tuples obtained from an LCG fall on, at most, (k!m) 1/k parallel hyper-planes, where m is the modulus used in the LCG.! Example: m = 2 32, fewer than 2,953 hyper-planes will contain all 3-tuples, fewer than 566 hyper-planes will contain all 4- tuples, and fewer than 41 hyper-planes will contain all 10- tuples. Thus, this is a weakness of LCGs.! Spectral Test: Determine the max distance between adjacent hyper-planes.! Larger distance worse generator! In some cases, it can be done by complete enumeration 27-26

27 Example 27.7! Compare the following two generators:! Using a seed of x 0 =15, first generator:! Using the same seed in the second generator: 27-27

28 Example 27.7 (Cont)! Every number between 1 and 30 occurs once and only once Both sequences will pass the chi-square test for uniformity 27-28

29 ! First Generator: Example 27.7 (Cont) 27-29

30 Example 27.7 (Cont)! Three straight lines of positive slope or ten lines of negative slope! Since the distance between the lines of positive slope is more, consider only the lines with positive slope.! Distance between two parallel lines y=ax+c 1 and y=ax+c 2 is given by! The distance between the above lines is or

31 ! Second Generator: Example 27.7 (Cont) 27-31

32 Example 27.7 (Cont)! All points fall on seven straight lines of positive slope or six straight lines of negative slope.! Considering lines with negative slopes:! The distance between lines is: or 5.76.! The second generator has a smaller maximum distance and, hence, the second generator has a better 2-distributivity.! The set with a larger distance may not always be the set with fewer lines

33 Example 27.7 (Cont)! Either overlapping or non-overlapping k-tuples can be used. " With overlapping k-tuples, we have k times as many points, which makes the graph visually more complete.the number of hyper-planes and the distance between them are the same with either choice.! With serial test, only non-overlapping k-tuples should be used.! For generators with a large m and for higher dimensions, finding the maximum distance becomes quite complex. See Knuth (1981) 27-33

34 Summary 1. Chi-square test is a one-dimensional test Designed for discrete distributions and large sample sizes 2. K-S test is designed for continuous variables 3. Serial correlation test for independence 4. Two level tests find local non-uniformity 5. k-dimensional uniformity = k-distributivity tested by spectral test or serial test 27-34

35 Homework 27! Submit detailed answer to Exercise Print 10,000 th number also

36 Exercise 27.1 Generate 10,000 numbers using a seed of x 0 =1 in the following generator: Classify the numbers into ten equal size cells and test for uniformity using the chi-square test at 90% confidence

37 Exercise 27.2 Generate 15 numbers using a seed of x 0 =1 in the following generator: Perform a K-S test and check whether the sequence passes the test at a 95% confidence level

38 Exercise 27.3 Generate 10,000 numbers using a seed of x 0 =1 in the following LCG: Perform the serial correlation test of randomness at 90% confidence and report the result

39 Exercise 27.4 Using the spectral test, compare the following two generators Which generator has a better 2-distributivity? 27-39

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