1 Semi-structured interviews 3 rd December 2014 Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen BU Graduate School
2 Aim of this session: introduce various ways of conducting interviews with qualitative methods; outline strength & weaknesses semistructured interview.
5 Qualitative methods Addressing the why questions. We use qualitative methods to explore: Purpose Context Meaning
6 Qualitative methods Purpose: Offer insight into how behaviours, systems & relationships change & are maintained. Understanding how organisations function.
7 Qualitative methods Context: Interpret people s behaviours, opinions and make interactions in their normal context (social environment) Make the link between what people say they do and what they do.
8 Qualitative methods Meaning Phenomena have meaning in a context and their meaning differs in different contexts Help to capture the ways in which people interpret events, experiences and relationships.
9 A qualitative research interview seeks to cover both a factual and a meaning level, though it is usually more difficult to interview on a meaning level. Kvale (1996)
10 The qualitative research interview seeks to describe and the meanings of central themes in the life world of the subjects. The main task in interviewing is to understand the meaning of what the interviewees say. Kvale (1996)
11 formulating relevant questions designing motivating questions establishing an communicative atmosphere Interview Cycle Planning phase Doing phase delivering the question listening to the interviewee observing the interviewee s nonverbal behaviour evaluating the response probing the response recording the information Identifying information gaps Preparing for the next interview Reflecting phase Analysis phase Transcribing the interview Making interview records Analyzing one s own interviewer behaviour
12 How to get your data? Interview data can be collected using: Telephone Face-to-face Internet
13 Telephone interviews I Are easy to organise. Allow for some personal contact between interviewer and interviewee. Telephones may allow people to relax and feel able to disclose sensitive information.
14 Telephone interviews II Remember (to reduce bias): Some people may not have telephones. People often dislike intrusion of a call at home or on their mobile. Telephone interviews need to be relatively short or people feel imposed upon. Many telephone numbers not publicly listed.
15 Telephone interviews III Telephone interviews are sometimes seen as secondary to face-to-face interviewing. The lack of visual cues may result in loss of contextual and nonverbal data and may hinder rapport building, probing, and interpretation of responses.
16 Types of face-toface interviews IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS Structured Semi-structured Unstructured
17 Interview types Structured interview: predetermined questions with fixed wording/pre-set order. Open-response questions is often only difference from a questionnaire survey. Semi-structured interview: predetermined questions, but order can be modified based upon the interviewer's perception of what seems most appropriate. Question wording can be changed and explanations given; inappropriate questions for a particular interviewee can be omitted, or additional ones included. Unstructured interviews: Interviewer has a general area of interest, lets the conversation develop within this area. It can be very informal. 17
18 Structured Interviews Quantitative Approach (more clipboard research) Interviewer has set of predetermined questions or probes to the interviewees. Aims to Measure, seek facts, attitudes, knowledge, behaviours Finding accurate information without influences from the researcher.
19 Structured Interviews Little relationship between interviewer and interviewee: Minimize interaction No distractions No flexibility strict control over interview
20 Semi-structured interviews I Everyone gets the same key questions asked, but there is flexibility in how they are asked. What follow-up or probing questions to use, etc. Particularly useful for exploring the views of a person towards something.
21 Semi-structured interviews II Strengths Well suited for exploring attitudes, values, beliefs, and motives. Could be good in sensitive areas. Non-verbal indicators assist in evaluating truthfulness/validity and urgency. Facilitates getting every question answered Ensures the respondent is working on his/her own Can potentially increase response rate
22 Weaknesses Equivalence of meaning difficulties may arise Preferred social response Non-response/particular groups being unrepresented Invasion of privacy Semi-structured interviews III Unique characteristics of interviewee Prejudices, stereotypes, appearances and/or perceptions of researcher may alter response
23 Semi-structured interviews IV Training for semi-structured interviews Developing competency & understanding of the study. Developing an awareness of potential errors or biases.
24 Unstructured interviews Also referred to as: Non-directive interviewing Non-standardized interviewing Open-ended interviewing In-depth interviewing
25 Unstructured Interviews Find out what is Important to interviewees What meaning the phenomenon under study has to them Their point of view Their understanding and experiences Types of in-depth interviews Life history / oral history Learn about events/activities that cannot be observed directly Get picture of range of settings, situations, or people.
26 Understanding of thoughts and experiences that led interviewees to having certain opinions and feelings; Emic perspective: how local people think, what makes sense to people in their particular situations.
27 Semi-structured interviews: conversations with a purpose Establish and maintain rapport with interviewee; Allow for long, seemingly rambling answers; Allow for pauses, reflections without rushing in with another question; Refrain from giving advice or making judgments on what the participant has shared; Don t inserting yourself too much into interview, drawing attention away from interviewee.
28 Iterative process Conducting interviews is iterative process in which data collection, on-going dataanalysis, reflections and generating new questions are part of a continuous comparative effort. Every interview is informed by the previous one, i.e. by the information and patterns discovered within earlier interviews.
29 Design interview schedule I Start with overall research question What do you know about the question? What are your assumptions about the questions and possible answers? What is the purpose of interview? What issues (or sub-questions) do you want to explore?
30 Design interview schedule II Opening question Order and types of questions 1. Factual questions 2. Emotional 3. Perspectives 4. Follow-up questions 5. etc. Closing question
31 31 Controlling Your Biases List ways in which your characteristics might bias you in your efforts at research interviewing. Then write how you might counteract these biases. And then write how these efforts to counteract your biases might themselves lead to other biases.
32 Types of questions 1. Providing context to interviewee 2. Wording of the question 3. Is the question meant to be: broad or narrow factual or opinion/perspective open or closed direct or in-direct neutral or loaded
33 Closed questions Useful for checking factual information. Otherwise avoid in semistructured interviews.
34 Why questions not without their problems Implication: there is a reason for everything & this is knowable to interviewee; Analytical competence of ; interviewee; Motive is often a complex of factors; Many answers have complex of dimensions; Interviewee might get feeling you do not believe her (Patton 1990)
35 Listening is a skill! Know your research objectives/questions Get to know your interviewee Pay attention right from the start, even prior to the commencement of interview; Control your urge of self presentation Listen actively Listen emphatically Be patient
36 Listening is a skill! Don t be afraid of silence!
37 Why probe? To let interviewee know which additional information is needed. To motivate interviewee to give more additional information.
38 Probing: Tell me more Untrained interviewer has tendency to think ahead, to think of next question in the guide, hurrying to move on. Trained interviewer listens attentively to each answer, to evaluate if answer is adequate. If not, interviewer thinks, a few seconds, about the possible cause and asks a good question to get more precise/ complete information.
39 Clarification Examples of probing questions I When interviewee uses vague or unclear language, or you just need more detail, ask for clarification. What exactly did you mean by 'XXX'? What, specifically, will you do next week? Could you tell me more about this?
40 Purpose Examples of probing questions II When interviewee says things but you don t see why they said it. Ask for justification of statement or dig for underlying causes. That s interesting, why did you say that? What were you thinking about when you said XX?
41 Relevance Examples of probing questions III If interviewee seems to be go off-topic, you can check whether what they are saying is relevant or salient to your interview topic. Is that relevant to XX (=your key question)? How is what you are saying related to what I asked?
42 Completeness and accuracy Probe for more detail and check against information you have. People make genuine errors (sometimes deliberate). Is that all? Is there anything you have missed out? How do you know that is true? Examples of probing questions IV How does that compare with what you said before?
43 Repetition Ask question again, maybe rephrase it (perhaps they did not fully understand it first time). Where did you go?... What places did you visit? Or use 'echo question', perhaps with emphasis on the area where you want more detail. He asked you to hit him?? Examples of probing questions V
44 Examples Examples of probing questions VI When they talk about something vaguely, ask for specific examples. Perhaps to test both truthfulness and/or insight. Sorry, I don't understand. Could you help by giving an example? Could you give an example of when you did XXX? Tell me about a time when you went to XXX?
45 Extension When you do not have enough information about something, ask them to tell you more. Could you tell me more about that, please? And what happened after that? Then...? Examples of probing questions VII
46 Examples of probing questions VIII Evaluation To discover both how judgmental an interviewee is, use value question : How bad would you say it is? How do you know it is priceless? What are the pros and cons of this situation?
47 Examples of probing questions IX Emotional When interviewee talks in the third person/ unemotionally, you can ask: And how did you feel about that? But be careful: you might be opening an emotional can of worms!
48 Probing: Common mistakes Failure to recognise when to probe; Probing too much or too early (interrupting interviewee s train of thought); Using too much topic control; Using leading question Non-verbally loading the probe; Verbally loading the probe.
49 Non-verbal communication Non-verbal communication from interviewee AND interviewer. Consider: Spatial arrangements of interview Pacing of speech, length of pauses, how you speak to people Movement of body and posture Paralinguistic communication: tone, pitch, quality of voice.
50 Recording & Transcribing Recording only with permission Audio, video or making extensive notes Tape recorded interviews need to be transcribed. Transcribing takes four to five hours per hour recording!!
51 Interviewer is key The qualitative interviewer should : be trained/experienced in doing interviews give detailed account of data collection; describe process by which the findings are derived from the data; reflect upon the way in which data have been shaped by the research process itself.
52 52 Maintaining Control of the Interview Know what it is you want to find out Ask the right questions to get the information you need Give appropriate verbal and non-verbal feedback Good feedback vs. bad feedback Avoid bias whenever possible
53 Final thoughts Try to get interviewees to talk openly. Your behaviour influences their willingness to do this. Thus: Listen more than you speak. Most interviewers talk too much. Put questions in a straightforward, clear and nonthreatening way If people are confused or defensive, you will not get the information you seek. Eliminate cues. Many interviewees will seek to please the interviewer by giving 'correct' responses. Enjoy it (or pretend) Don't show that you re bored or scared. Vary your voice, posture & facial expression.
54 References Forrest Keenan K, Teijlingen van ER (2004) The quality of qualitative research in family planning and reproductive health care, J Fam Plan Reprod Health Care 30: Forrest Keenan K et al. (2005) Analysis of qualitative research data in family planning & reproductive health care, J Fam Plan Reprod Health Care 31: Gillman, B. (2000) The research interview London: Continuum Kvale S. (1996) Interviews An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage. Patton M. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods, Sage. Pitchforth, E. et al. (2005) Writing up & presenting qualitative research in family planning & reprod. health care, J Fam Plan Reprod Health Care 31: Silverman, D. (2005) Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook. SAGE Teijlingen van ER, Forrest K (2004) The range of qualitative research methods in fam. planning & reprod. health care, J Fam Plan Reprod Health Care 30: Trochim, WMK (2002). Types of Surveys, Research Methods Knowledge Base.
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