The Economics of Desalination for Various Uses. Carlos Campos

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1 The Economics of Desalination for Various Uses Carlos Campos

2 Index 1. Introduction 2. Available desalination technologies 1. Desalination by MSF 2. Desalination by RO 3. Comparison of large scale desalination technologies 3. Desalted water and regenerated water uses 1. Desalted water sources and uses 2. Water regeneration technologies and uses 4. Desalination market 1. World desalination market 2. Situation in Spain 5. Costs of desalted water 1. Desalination cost evolution 2. Main factors affecting desalination costs 3. Breakdown of desalination costs 6. Environmental impacts of desalination 7. Conclusions

3 Introduction Desalination technologies + Regeneration and reuse Fulfillment of water requirements in the future

4 Available desalination technologies (I) Separation mechanism Energy Process Name Multi Stage Flash (MSF) Water separation Thermal + Electrical Evaporation Crystallization Multi Effect Distillation (MED) Thermal Vapor Compression (TVC) Solar Desalination (SD) Freezing Formation of hydrates Evaporation and filtration Membrane Distillation (MD) Electrical Evaporation Ionic filtration Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) Reverse Osmosis (RO) Salt removal Electrical Chemical Ionic migration Others Electrodialysis (ED) Ionic Exchange (IX) Extraction

5 Available desalination technologies (II)

6 Comparison of large-scale desalination technologies MSF RO Physico-chemical principle Energy consumption (including auxiliaries) Plant top temperature level Energy requirements Product quality (mg/l TDS) Single unit size (m 3 /day) Limiting factors Total capital costs Specific water cost Fully automatic & unattended operation Tolerance to changes in seawater composition Replacement parts requirement Maintenance requirements Scaling potential Chemical consumption On-site requirements Ratio between product to total seawater flow (conversion) Experience available Potential for further requirements Most needed R&D areas Flash evaporation Electrical: kw h/m 3 Thermal: kw h/m 3 ~ 120ºC Medium Pumps, valves, vacuum unit High High Possible Medium-High Low-Medium (large special pumps) Medium Low-Medium High Medium High Low (at technological limit) Cheaper materials, cheaper and more efficient, heat transfer materials Solution-diffusion Electrical: kw h/m 3 Thermal: None Seawater temperature. Limit ~ 35ºC Low Single stage: Triple stage: 1-10 Multiple of modular systems Pumps Low Low at 250 mg/l TDS product; High at 10 mg/l TDS product Possible Very low-low High (large pumps, membrane replacement) High High High Low Medium High Pre-treatment, stability of membranes

7 Desalted water sources and uses Source: GWI DesalData/IDA

8 Water regeneration technologies Reduction of conductivity required Flow m 3 /d Flow < m 3 /d Buffer Storage Infil / Percol Buffer Storage Coag / Flocc Decantation Filtration Buffer Storage Coag / Flocc Decantation Filtration MF / UF NF / EDR / RO UV / Cl 2 UV / Cl 2 UV / Cl 2 Final Storage Final Storage Final Storage

9 World desalination market Major desalted water producing countries 13% 8% 4% 5% 4% 17% 3% 13% 2% 2% Little or no water scarcity Physical water scarcity Approaching water scarcity Economic water scarcity Not estimated % world capacity Source: International Water Management Institute (2006) & GWI DesalData/IDA (2009)

10 World desalination market Desalination membrane manufacturers in the world Dupont Dow-Filmtec (USA) General Electric-Osmonics (USA) Koch (USA) Toyobo (Japan) Nitto Denko (Hydranautics) (Japan) Toray Woongjin Chemical (Korea) Vontron (China)

11 Situation of desalination in Spain Urgent actions to be undertaken in the Spanish Mediterranean coast in the framework of the A.G.U.A. Program: Nº of actions Contribution (Hm 3 /yr) Investment Southern Mediterranean Basin M Segura Basin M Júcar Basin M Ebro Basin &Catalonia Internal Basins M TOTAL M 21 desalination facilities are planned for 6 provinces on the Spanish Mediterranean coast

12 Situation of reuse in Spain Final uses of reclaimed water 7% 6% 1% 4% 82% Agriculture Urban uses Leisure In Spain, 22% of the reclaimed wastewater produced is reused 85% of the produced reclaimed water is consumed in the Mediterranean Coast and the Canary Islands Industry Ecological restoration

13 Situation of desalination and reuse in the Canary Islands Guía-Gáldar RO-3.000m 3 /d Bañaderos EDR 500 m 3 /d Cardones EDR m 3 /d Barranco Seco EDR / RO / m 3 /d Jinámar EDR m 3 /d Hoya del Pozo EDR / RO / m 3 /d Sureste RO m 3 /d Tablero EDR m 3 /d

14 Desalination cost evolution (I) MSF RO Unit cost ($/m 3 ) Unit cost ($/m 3 ) Year Year Source: Reddy and Ghaffour (2007) Desalination 205: Desalination is still a costly water supply option compared to natural water resources (e.g. ground or surface water), but it may be soon a competitive alternative even in non-water stressed regions.

15 Desalination cost evolution (II) Reduction of unit water cost mainly due to: Technological developments Optimisation of the process design (equipments and configurations) Improvement in the thermodynamic efficiency use of newer materials new construction and transportation techniques higher surface area per unit volume higher salt rejection factors extended life-span of membranes optimisation of pre-treatment options use of energy recover devices Increasing size of plants Lower interest rate and energy costs Changes in managing enterprise performance Intense competition between equipment suppliers worldwide MSF RO

16 Desalination cost evolution (III) Evolution of the energy consumption of desalted seawater in Spain Source: AEDyR (2009), Ponencias del curso Desalación Energy required per m 3 of desalted water has been reduced by almost 90% The irruption of RO in the market notably helped in reducing energy needs

17 Desalination cost evolution (IV) Evolution of the electrical consumption for seawater 1 st pass RO Beginning of RO story 100 m 3 Inlet sea water RO 45 m 3 Permeate Energy Recovery w/ reverse pumps High efficiency pump and motors, Pelton turbines 55 m 3 Brine kw.hr/m Low energy RO element with salt rejection improved Efficiency energy recovery device ?

18 Main factors affecting desalination cost (I) Site-specific cost-determining factors: Feed water characteristics Product water quality Plant capacity Plant reliability Concentrate disposal Space requirements Operation and maintenance Geographic location Energy availability Most critical factor! It dictates not only the final cost but often also the desalination method Most MSF plants operate in oil-producing countries (Persian Gulf) RO more common worldwide (Mediterranean Basin, Asia-Pacific region, USA )

19 Main factors affecting desalination cost (II) Water desalination costs with regards to the type of feed water and plant capacity: Source: Georgopoulou et al., (2001) Desalination136: The more salts to be removed, the more expensive the desalting process

20 Main factors affecting desalination cost (III) Water desalination costs with regards to the type of feed water and plant capacity: Type of feed water Brackish Seawater Plant capacity (m 3 /day) Cost ( /m 3 ) < 1, ,000 60, < 1, ,000 5, ,000 60, > 60, Source: Karagiannis and Soldatos, (2008) Desalination 223: The more salts to be removed, the more expensive the desalting process

21 Main factors affecting desalination cost (IV) Water desalination cost with regards to the type of energy: Type of feed water Brackish Seawater Type of energy used Conventional Photovoltaic Geothermal Conventional Wind Photovoltaic Solar collectors Cost ( /m 3 ) Source: Karagiannis and Soldatos, (2008) Desalination 223: Existing MSF and RO plants are powered mainly by conventional sources of energy Coupling of renewable energy sources (RES) and desalination systems is holding great promise Current higher cost of RES is counterbalanced by their environmental benefits

22 Main factors affecting desalination cost (V) Water desalination cost with regards to the type of desalination method: Des. method MSF RO Type of feed water Seawater Brackish Seawater Plant capacity (m 3 /day) Cost ( /m 3 ) 23, , < , ,000-46, < , ,000 4, ,000 60, , , Source: Karagiannis and Soldatos, (2008) Desalination 223: MSF is more cost intensive but have usually larger production capacities. It is rarely used for brackish water RO is cheaper and more flexible technology. It is applied for both brackish and seawater

23 Breakdown of desalination cost 35,0% (0,39 /m 3 ) MSF 40,0% (0,45 /m 3 ) 32,5% (0,21 /m 3 ) RO 42,6% (0,28 /m 3 ) 2,7% (0,03 /m 3 ) 0,2% (0,002 /m 3 ) 3,5% (0,04 /m 3 ) 3,5% (0,04 /m 3 ) 15,2% (0,17 /m 3 ) 4,7% (0,03 /m 3 ) 0,3% (0,002 /m 3 ) 4,2% (0,03 /m 3 ) 6,5% (0,04 /m 3 ) 9,3% (0,06 /m 3 ) Energy-fuel Energy-electricity Labour Chemicals Membrane replacement Chemical cleanning Maintenance & others Amortization Source: AEDyR (2009), Ponencias del curso Desalación Amortization and energy consumption represent the most significant portion of the total cost Energy consumption amounts up to 55.2% for MSF and to 42.6% for RO

24 Breakdown of energy consumption Sludge treatment (0.2-1%) Potabilisation (0.5-1%) Auxiliary, services (0.5-2%) Second pass RO (0-20%) First pass RO (50-80%) Seawater pump and screen (2-6%) Pre-treatement (filtration) (0.5-2%) Filtered water and cartrige pumping station (5-10%) RO 1 st and 2 nd pass Seawater Pretreatment Treated water

25 Breakdown of desalination cost BCN seawater desalination plant

26 Breakdown of desalination cost BCN seawater desalination plant Production: 60 Hm 3 /yr / m 3 /d Technology: RO Conversion rate: 45% Energy consumption: 4 kwh/m 3 (total) 3 kwh/m 3 (RO) Breakdown of costs (BCN desalination plant) 4,7% 4,8% 18,1% 8,5% Chemicals Maintenance & others Energy-electricity Membrane replacement Labour 64,0%

27 BCN brackish water desalination plant RO Treated water UF

28 Breakdown of desalination cost BCN brackish water desalination plant Production: Hm 3 /yr / m 3 /d Technology: RO Conversion rate: 95% Energy consumption: kwh/m 3 (total) kwh/m 3 (RO) Breakdown of desalination costs

29 Environmental impacts of desalination (I) Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by fossil fuelled plants Power plant Coal fired Oil fired Gas turbine (CC) CO MSF (Mt/year) RO (Mt/year) SO X NO X Particles CO 2 SO X NO X Particles Source: Nisan and Benzarti (2008), Desalination 229: Integration of non-pollution renewable energy sources within desalination plants needed

30 Environmental impacts of desalination (II) Brine and chemicals discharge The brine discharge can impact the environment due to: the high salt content and high density: potential impact on the benthic sea life possible oxygen depletion when SBS is used as chlorine control Pre-treatment residual turbidity/tss can have an impact on photosynthesis activity by lowering the transmisivity of the water body at the reject point Temperature can also be a potential effect of desalination, but mainly related to distillation (RO brine expected temperature increase is 1 to 2 C)

31 Environmental impacts of desalination (III) Brine discharge evaluation Regulation and dilution objectives: USEPA: 10% TDS limit Florida Department of Environmental Protection has considered an increase of up to 10% of chlorides as acceptable Australian projects request less than 1 to 2% TDS increase at the discharge zone limit. Design of the brine discharge system: Transport direction and the impact range of a discharge plume is controlled by site-specific oceanographic conditions, such as: currents tides water depth bottom and shoreline topography The environmental and operational conditions can be investigated by hydrodynamic computer models

32 Environmental impacts of desalination (IV) Brine discharge evaluation PERTH brine quality monitoring before discharge: Oxygen ph Turbidity Redox

33 Conclusions Desalination represents a potential alternative technology for the efficient production of water from many sources. RO and MSF are the most installed technologies, their installation largely depending on energy availability. Costs associated with desalination depend on many site specific factors (feed water characteristics, product water quality, plant capacity) with energy availability being the most critical. Desalination costs have over the last decades steadily decreased thanks to continuous technological developments. However, desalination is still an expensive option compared to natural water resources and further research is needed to consolidate it as a competitive alternative.

34 Conclusions Amortization and energy consumption represent the most significant portion of the total desalination cost. Environmental impacts of desalination comprise: The emission of greenhouse gases by fossil fuelled plants The production of huge amounts of concentrated brine, which cause adverse ecological effects on the surrounding ecosystems. Research on the use of renewable energy sources and on the treatment of brines is needed.

35 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!!

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