1 Alignment, Depth of Knowledge, & Change Norman L. Webb Wisconsin Center for Education Research Florida Educational Research Association 50 th Annual Meeting Miami, Florida November 17, 2005
2 Alignment has been an issue for as many as forty years, dating back to behavioral objectives and mastery-learning.
3 Factors Evaluating Alignment Standards-based Education Systemic Reform Criterion-Referenced Assessment No Child Left Behind (Title I)
4 U.S. Department of Education Guidelines Dimensions important for judging the alignment between standards and assessments Comprehensiveness Content and Performance Match Emphasis Depth Consistency with achievement standards Clarity for users
5 Assessment Validity Content Standards and Assessment Alignment Breadth and Depth Construct Consequential Structure of Knowledge Fairness and Equitable
6 Alignment The degree to which expectations and assessments are in agreement and serve in conjunction with one another to guide the system toward students learning what is expected.
8 Five General Criteria 1. Content Focus 2. Articulation Across Grades and Ages 3. Equity and Fairness 4. Pedagogical Implications 5. System Applicability
9 Specific Criteria Content Focus A. Categorical Concurrence B. Depth-of-Knowledge Consistency C. Range-of-Knowledge Correspondence D. Structure-of-Knowledge Comparability E. Balance of Representation F. Dispositional Consonance
10 Tyler s Behavioral Aspect of the Objectives (course dependent) 1. Understanding of important facts and principles 2. Familiarity with dependable sources of information 3. Ability to interpret data 4. Ability to apply principles 5. Ability to study and report results of study 6. Broad and mature interests 7. Social attitudes
11 Bloom Taxonomy Knowledge Recall of specifics and generalizations; of methods and processes; and of pattern, structure, or setting. Comprehension Knows what is being communicated and can use the material or idea without necessarily relating it. Applications Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Use of abstractions in particular and concrete situations. Make clear the relative hierarchy of ideas in a body of material or to make explicit the relations among the ideas or both. Assemble parts into a whole. Judgments about the value of material and methods used for particular purposes.
12 Marzano s Dimension of Thinking (Wisconsin DPI) (1989) Gathering Information Observe, recall, question Organizing Information Represent, compare, classify, order Analyzing Information Attributes and components, patterns and relationships, main points, accuracy and adequacy Generating Information Infer, predict, elaborate Integrating Information Summarize, restructure Evaluating Information Establish criteria, verify
13 Depth of Knowledge (1997) Level 1 Recall Recall of a fact, information, or procedure. Level 2 Skill/Concept Use information or conceptual knowledge, two or more steps, etc. Level 3 Strategic Thinking Requires reasoning, developing plan or a sequence of steps, some complexity, more than one possible answer. Level 4 Extended Thinking Requires an investigation, time to think and process multiple conditions of the problem.
14 Three Methods: Common Framework Expert Consensus Common Criteria
15 Content-by-Process Framework Topics Categories of Cognitive Demand Measurement & Calculation in Science Coverage Memorize Facts/etc. Understand Concepts Perform Procedures The International System Mass & Weight Length Volume Time Temperature
16 Survey of Enacted Curriculum Mathematics Cognitive Levels Memorize Recall basic mathematics facts; etc. Perform procedures Do computational procedures or algorithms; etc. Demonstrate understanding Communicate mathematical ideas; use representations to model mathematical ideas; etc. Conjecture, generalize, prove Determine the truth of a mathematical pattern or proposition; write formal or informal proof; etc. Solve non-routine problems, make connections Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems; etc.
17 Grade 8 Standards from Three States State A: The student will use proportions to solve scale-model problems with fractions and decimals. State B: Students compute with rational numbers expressed in a variety of forms; they solve problems involving ratios, proportions, and percentages. Use ratio and proportion to solve problems. State C: Apply proportional thinking in a variety of problem situations that include, but are not limited to: 1) ratios and proportions, and 2) percents, including those greater than 100 and less than one.
18 Survey of Enacted Curriculum English Language Arts Cognitive Levels Recall Provide facts, terms, definitions, conventions; describe; etc. Demonstrate/Explain Follow instructions; give examples; etc. Analyze/investigate Categorize, schematize; distinguish fact from opinion; make inferences, draw conclusions; etc. Evaluate Determine relevance, coherence, logical, internal consistency; test conclusions; etc. Generate/create Integrate, dramatize; predict probable consequences; etc.
19 Enacted, Intended, and Assessed Curriculum Intended What standards require Enacted What teachers teach Assessed What state tests
20 Achieve Matrix Grade 3 Mathematics Data Analysis and Probability Obj. # Text of Objective A B Content Centrality Organize, describe and make predictions from existing data 10.A. 1a Organize and display data using pictures, tallies, tables, charts, or bar graphs. 81 Type of Performance Centrality Source of Challenge 10A. 1b Answer questions and make predictions based on given data
21 Achieve Alignment Criteria Item-Standard Match Content Centrality Instrument-Standard Match Level of Challenge Performance Centrality Balance Source of Challenge Range
23 Which of these means about the same as the word gauge? a. balance b. measure c. select d. warn
24 A car odometer registered 41,256.9 miles when a highway sign warned of a detour 1,200 feet ahead. What will the odometer read when the car reaches the detour? (5,280 feet = 1 mile) (a) 42,456.9 (b) 41,279.9 (c) 41,261.3 (d) 41,259.2 (e) 41,257.1 Did you use the calculator on this question? Yes No
25 121 1) ) ) ) N
26 This question refers to pieces N, P, and Q. In Mr. Bell s classes, the students voted for their favorite shape for a symbol. Here are the results. Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Shape N Shape P Shape Q Using the information in the chart, Mr. Bell must select one of the shapes to be the symbol. Which one should he select and why? The shape Mr. Bell should select: Explain:
27 EXAMPLE OF STANDARDS AND DEPTH-OF- KNOWLEDGE LEVELSCONTENT AREA: GEOMETRY Mathematics Standard Depth-of- Knowledge Level State D VI. Geometric and Spatial Sense Grade 8 VI.2 Explore transformations of geometric figures. 3 State B II. Geometry Grade 8 II.4 Graph on a coordinate plane similar figures, reflections, and 2 translations. State A IV. Geometry and Spatial Sense Grade 6 IV.D. Investigate and predict the results of transformations of shapes, figures, and models including slides, flips, and turns. IV.D.1 Identify and describe the results of translations (slides), reflections (flips), rotations (turns), or glide reflections. 2
28 Issues in Assigning Depth-of-Knowledge Levels Variation by grade level Complexity vs. difficulty Item type (MS, CR, OE) Central performance in objective Consensus process in training Aggregation of DOK coding Reliabilities
29 Distribution of Depth-of-Knowledge Levels from Different States Language Arts Standard Number of Objs. Under Standard DOK Levels of Objs. # of Objs by DOK Levels % of Objs by DOK Levels Michigan High School West Virginia Grade Alabama Grade
30 Distribution of Depth-of-Knowledge Levels from Different States Mathematics Total Number of Objectives DOK Level # of Objs by Level % within std by Level Michigan High School West Virginia Grade Alabama Grade
31 Mathematics DOK Levels for Objectives by Grade Percent of DOK Levels 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Grade DOK Level 4 DOK Level 3 DOK Level 2 DOK Level 1
32 Reading Language Arts DOK Levels for Objectives by Grade 100% Percent of DOK Levels 80% 60% 40% 20% DOK Level 4 DOK Level 3 DOK Level 2 DOK Level 1 0% Grade
33 Implications of Depth-of-Knowledge Levels for Assessment Development Distribution (50% at or above) Varies by purpose for the assessment Vertical alignment Mandates (multiple measures definition)
34 Vertical Alignment Questions What level of concurrence is there between objectives for the two grades? To what extent do comparable objectives increase in depth from one grade to the next? To what extent does the range of content increase from one grade to the next? How does the balance of representation change from one grade to the next?
35 Type of Vertical Relationships Broader: The higher-grade standard reflects a broader application of the target skill or knowledge (generalizing from specific to additional applications). Deeper: The higher-grade standard reflects deeper mastery of the target skill or knowledge (e.g., application rather than recognition). Prerequisite: The lower-grade standard reflects a different, but prerequisite skill for mastery of the higher grade standard. New: The higher-grade standard is a new skill or knowledge unrelated to skills or knowledge covered at prior grades. Identical: The higher-grade standard appeared to be identical to one of the lower-grade standards.
36 Tindal s levels of complexity to rate standards for alternate assessments 1 No clear behavioral dimension is present. 2 Rote behavior chains are identified with very low-levels of complexity. 3 Discrimination behavior is present with choice points for engaging in complex responses. 4 Response classes are described with complex behavioral routines in multiple contexts.
38 Web Sites Alignment Tool Survey of the Enacted Curriculum
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