Living in Ancient Greece Teacher s Guide

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1 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL Living in Ancient Greece Teacher s Guide

2 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL Living in Ancient Greece Produced by Ancient Lights Educational Media Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Avenue, Suite 100 Evanston, IL FAX

3 GC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL All material in this program is the exclusive property of the copyright holder. Copying, transmitting, or reproducing in any form, or by any means, without prior written permission from the coyright holder is prohibited.(title 17, U.S. Code Sections 501 and 506) 2000 Ancient Lights Educational Media

4 GC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL Contents Introduction and Summary Links to Curriculum Standards Instructional Notes/Teacher Preparation Student Preparation Student Objectives Introducing the Video Follow-Up Discussion Description of Blackline Masters Extended Learning Activity Answer Key Script of Video Narration This video is closed captioned The purchase of this video program entitles the user to the right to reproduce or duplicate, in whole or in part, this teacher s guide and the blackline master handouts that accompany it for the purpose of teaching in conjunction with this video, LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE. This right is restricted only for use with this video program. Any reproduction or duplication in whole or in part of this guide and the blackline master handouts for any purpose other than for use with this video program is prohibited.

5 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL CLASSROOM/LIBRARY VIEWING CLEARANCE This program is for instructional use. The cost of each program includes public performance rights as long as no admission charge is made. Public performance rights are defined as viewing of a video in the course of face-to-face teaching activities in a classroom, library, or similar setting devoted to instruction. Closed Circuit Rights are included as a part of the public performance rights as long as closed-circuit transmission is restricted to a single campus. For multiple locations, call your AGC/United Learning representative. Television/Cable/Satellite Rights are available. Call your AGC/United Learning representative for details. Duplication Rights are available if requested in large quantities. Call your AGC/United Learning representative for details. Quantity Discounts are available for large purchases. Call your AGC/United Learning representative for information and pricing. Discounts, and some special services, are not applicable outside the United States. Your suggestions and recommendations are welcome. Feel free at any time to call AGC/United Learning at

6 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE Grades 4-8 Viewing Time: 20 minutes with an optional two-minute Video Quiz INTRODUCTION AND SUMMAR Y This video explores various aspects of life in ancient Greece including medical treatment, religious practice and beliefs, athletics, drama, and government. LINKS TO CURRICULUM STANDARDS The design for this program was guided by the curriculum standards of the states of Texas, California, and Illinois, as well as the National Center for History in Schools (U.C.L.A). In accordance with these guidelines, we have attempted to help students: 1. Describe how religion and myth affected the lives of the ancient Greeks. 2. Explain the meaning of time and chronology specifically as it relates to the civilization of ancient Greece. 3. Explain cause and effect as it pertains to the activities of the ancient Greeks. INSTRUCTIONAL NOTES/TEACHER PREP A R AT I O N Before presenting this lesson to your students, we suggest that you review history textbooks on the subject of ancient Greece. We also advise you to preview the video and review the guide and accompanying blackline masters in order to familiarize yourself with their content. As you review the materials presented in this guide, you may find it necessary to make some changes, additions, or dele- 1

7 GC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL tions to meet the specific needs of your class. We encourage you to do so, for only by tailoring this program to your class will they obtain the maximum instructional benefits afforded by the materials. It is also suggested that the video presentation take place before the entire group under your supervision. The lesson activities grow out of the context of the video; therefore, the presentation should be a common experience for all students. You should also duplicate selected hand-out materials from the blackline masters included with this guide. An optional pre-test is provided on Blackline Master 1. This test will help you determine the level of student comprehension prior to participating in this lesson. An Answer Key begins on page 5 of this Teachers Guide. Set up a "Learning Center" with maps, pictures or other materials relevant to the civilization of ancient Greece. STUDENT PREPARATION Before viewing Living in Ancient Greece: 1. Have students explore the "Learning Center." 2. Distribute Blackline Masters 3 and 4, Vocabulary List. Introduce or review with your students the meaning of any words that may need clarification. 2

8 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL STUDENT OBJECTIVES After viewing this video and participating in the lesson activities, students should be able to Explain the role of the Greek religion in: 1. The Olympic Games 2. Theatrical performances 3. Medical treatment Name some of the main Greek gods and goddesses and describe the realms that they were believed to control. Explain why Greece is known as the "Birthplace of Western Civilization." Describe how Greek ideas were transmitted across western Europe. Name some important ancient Greek contributions to western civilization. INTRODUCING THE VIDEO This program could be introduced by showing the geographical areas where the civilization of ancient Greece took root and by discussing: 1. Greek art and architecture. 2. Greek contributions to literature, theater, science, and mathematics. 3. How the civilization of ancient Greece interacted with the great civilizations of Rome, Egypt, and Persia. 4. The differences between Sparta and Athens as examples of powerful Greek city-states. 3

9 GC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL Present the video. The viewing time is 20 minutes, followed by an optional two-minute, ten-question Video Quiz. FOLLOW-UP DISCUSSION After viewing the video, ask for questions and/or comments. Lead a class discussion asking the students to compare and contrast the religious practices of the ancient Greeks to present-day religious practices. DESCRIPTION OF BLACKLINE MASTERS Blackline Master 1, is a Pre-Test, that, when compared to the Post-Test results, will help you gauge student progress. Blackline Master 2, Video Quiz, will determine how much information students have retained from the program. It is also a tool to encourage attentiveness. Blackline Masters 3 and 4, Vocabulary List and Vocabulary Activity, will help students with unfamiliar words used in the program or pertaining to this lesson. Blackline Master 5, Timeline and Timeline Activity, is intended to improve the student's concepts of time and chronology. Blackline Master 6, Crossword Puzzle, challenges students to use new ideas and vocabulary from this lesson. Blackline Master 7, Facts About Ancient Greece, contains interesting information about this ancient civilization. Blackline Masters 8 and 9, Map Exercise, are intended to improve knowledge of the eastern region of the Mediterranean Sea. 4

10 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL Blackline Master 10, Post-Test, is a tool to measure student comprehension of the material presented in this lesson. EXTENDED LEARNING ACTIVITY Research papers and/or oral reports could be prepared on the following subjects: 1. Slavery in ancient Greece. 2. The role of women in ancient Greece. 3. The Golden Age of Athens. 4. Science and mathematics in ancient Greece. ANSWER KEY Blackline Master 1, Pre-Test 1. False; it was at its high point well over 2000 years ago. 2. False; the ancient Greeks wrote many books. 3. True 4. True 5. False; they believed that their lives were controlled by many different gods and goddesses. Blackine Master 2, Video Quiz 1. False; Poseidon was the god of the sea. 2. False; theaters were temples to the god Dionysus. 3. True; this is what the ancient Greeks believed. 4. True 5. True; this is what the ancient Greeks believed. 6. True 7. True 8. False. Democracy began in Athens 9. True; this is what the ancient Greeks believed. 10. True Blackline Master 4, Vocabulary List Activity 1. chiton, himation, peplos 2. Aristotle, Homer, Plato, Socrates 5

11 GC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL Artemis, Athena, Apollo, Poseidon, Hera, Hephaestus, Zeus, Asclepius, Dionysus Blackline Master 5, Timeline Activity 1. May 28, 585 B.C B.C B.C. Blackline Master 6, Crossword Puzzle Blackline Master 9, Map Exercise 6

12 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL Blackline Master 10, Post-Test 1. Zeus 2. Parthenon, Athena 3. Poseidon 4. oracle 5. theaters 6. medicine 7. four 8. Dionysus 9. wreaths made from olive branches 10. democractic Script of Video Narration Living in Ancient Greece Two thousand, five-hundred years ago, a remarkable civilization was thriving here in Greece. Greece is known as "The Birthplace of Western Civilization" because its people created the world's first democratic government, the first Olympic Games, and made important contributions to architecture, art, literature, science, and mathematics. And their mysterious religion has enriched countless generations with its many wonderful myths and legends. So now let us go back in time and find out what it was like to live during this amazing period of history The Land and City-States of Ancient Greece The civilization of ancient Greece developed here in the northeastern region of the Mediterranean Sea, in an area known for its beauty, where the mountains touch the sea. It is a place where olive trees spring from fields of wild flowers and where shepherds still tend their flocks on the rocky hillsides of hundreds of remote islands. Because of the rugged geography of this ancient land, long ago people from different parts of Greece were isolated from one another and that is why they were rarely united under a single government. 7

13 GC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL Instead, their civilization developed in many independent city-states that were scattered across a large area. Basically, a Greek city-state was nothing more than a tiny country made up of a single city and the lands and villages that surrounded it. Each city-state was unique. Each had its own system of government, its own laws, and its own military. But because the citizens of all the different city-states spoke the Greek language, had similar customs, employed similar styles of building and art, and worshipped the same gods and goddesses, historians have combined them into a single g reat civilization known as the civilization of ancient Greece. Religion in Ancient Greece The lives of the ancient Greeks were strongly influenced by their religion, and by understanding their beliefs, we can learn quite a lot about the world in which they lived. The Greek religion was very well organized, and yet it wasn't based on sacred books of teachings such as the Bible or the Koran; instead, it slowly grew and developed over thousands of years. Religion was taught mainly through folk tales called myths that were passed down from one generation to the next. Greek myths told of the magical powers and adventures of the gods. The Greeks worshipped the nature spirits of rivers, springs, trees, and caves. But most important to them were the gods and goddesses that came from the snow-covered peaks of Mount Olympus. The ancient Greeks thought that the Olympian gods were a family of huge all-powerful beings who could change their shapes by magic. The Greek gods were believed to be immortal, that is, that they could live forever. Each god had a different role some governed various regions of the world, while others controlled the many different things that affected human life. 8

14 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL For example, here we see a statue of the god Poseidon. He ruled the seas and all the creatures in them. Poseidon's brother, Zeus, was the king of the gods and ruled the sky and stormy weather. Zeus was also the father of many of the most important gods and goddesses. His children included Apollo, the god of the sun; Artemis, the goddess of the hunt; and Athena, the goddess of wisdom to name a just a few. The Greek gods were thought to be a lot like human beings because myths told of how they got angry and jealous, and even fought with one another. The way the ancient Greeks could obtain a god's advice was by asking questions of a strange woman called an oracle. Oracles used a special room hidden underneath temples like this one. By performing special ceremonies, oracles spoke in the god's voice and could see into the future. The ancient Greeks believed it was very important to keep the gods happy so they wouldn't cause trouble in the world, and that was why temples were always the finest buildings in any Greek town. Greek temples weren't like churches, mosques or synagogues because ordinary people weren't allowed inside to worship; instead a temple was built to be a home for a god's spirit. Athens: The Birthplace of Democracy Several temples stood on the rocky hill of the acropolis, or "high city," that overlooked the streets of Athens. And of these temples, this one, called the Parthenon, was completed around the year 432 B.C. The temple was constructed of pure white marble for the goddess Athena, the protector of their city-state. Inside the Parthenon, a famous sculptor had constructed an enormous statue of the goddess from wood, gold and ivory. 9

15 GC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL In Athens, the main festival of the summer, the Panathenaia, honored Athena's birthday. The festival began with a joyous procession in which gifts and sacrifical animals were brought to her temple. As people paraded through the streets, they sang hymns, and played musical instruments. After reaching the temple, a splendid ceremony was held in which Athena's birthday gift from the Athenians, a newly woven gown, was placed on her statue. Outside the temple, the animals were sacrificed and some of their meat was burned on a sacred fire. After the ceremonies ended, the people of Athens enjoyed a typical Greek feast of meat, olives, grapes, cheese, figs, bread, and wine. Athens was probably the best of all the Greek city-states. It was famous not only because of its many fine buidings but also because it was where the world's first democracy was established. In fact, democracy is a Greek word that means "government by the people." Although the Athenian democracy allowed enslavement of people captured in wars, and did not allow women to vote, it still proved to be very successful. Under it, Athens thrived, and with the help of some of the greatest statesmen, artists, and scholars in history, the city grew in wealth, beauty, and power. The Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia Religious festivals, such as the one honoring Athena, were very important to the ancient Greeks. Most religious festivals included contests in which athletes competed with one another in front of huge crowds. The largest and most famous of these contests, the Olympic Games, are still held today. The first Olympic Games took place here in ancient Olympia in the year 776 B.C. 10

16 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL Olympia was a santuary, or sacred town, built for Zeus and originally the Olympic games were held in his honor. To this day, the Olympic torch is still lit in Olympia and then is carried by runners to wherever the games are being held. Long ago, Zeus's magnificent temple stood proudly in the center of Olympia, near it were a row of buildings called treasuries, where valuable religious offerings were stored. Also nearby was a smaller temple the Temple of Hera, Zeus's goddess wife, whom the ancient Greeks called "the mother of the gods. Just outside the walls of the temple enclosure stood the stadium and the athletic buildings, where the contestants trained. Like Athena's temple in Athens, Zeus's temple at Olympia held a gold and ivory statue of the god that stood over 44 feet, or nearly 14 meters, high. Zeus's temple was ringed with altars like this one, and on some of them sacrificial fires burned 24 hours a day. Sprinkled among the altars were the statues of the winners of past Olympic games. And all around them grew the wild olive trees that were sacred to Zeus. Today the temple of the king of the gods lies in ruins, and his statue has long since disappeared. But the stones of its huge pillars still lie where they crashed to the earth over 1500 years ago following a powerful earthquake. The Olympic Games The Olympic Games were held every four years at midsummer. They lasted for a whole month, and during this time, warfare among the city-states stopped as a sign of respect for Zeus. Tens of thousands of men came from all parts of Greece, either to watch or to participate in the games. Women, however, were not allowed to attend. 11

17 GC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL During the first day of the Olympic Games, religious ceremonies were held. There was a grand procession, and offerings and sacrifices were made to Zeus. The next day, here in the stadium, the events began. There were foot races, wrestling contests, and boxing matches to name just a few. Besides these events, horse races and chariot races were held in the Olympic racecourse next to the stadium. For prizes, instead of the bronze, silver and gold medals of today, the winners of the ancient Olympic Games were crowned with wreaths made from the branchs of Zeus' sacred olive trees. In Greece, this simple ceremony was considered the greatest honor a man could ever receive. The Theater in Ancient Greece Athletic competitions were an important part of life in Ancient Greece, but watching plays was probably an even more popular activity. Plays were held in open-air theaters like this one, which were found in nearly all Greek towns. In the center of each theater stood a small round altar to the god Dionysus because theaters were actually his temples. In fact, the best seats were always reserved for his priests. Dionysus was the god of wine and pleasure and in ancient Greece, wild religious festivals were often held in his honor. Attending plays was thought to please Dionysus mainly because it was an enjoyable thing to do. The ancient Greeks loved to watch day-long plays that were performed in the circular area at the foot of the grandstands called they called the orchestra. The Greeks were very famous for their plays which were based on legends and myths. Greek plays were very different from those of today because the actors in ancient times were always men who wore masks like this one that had strange, exaggerated expressions. 12

18 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL Healing in Ancient Greece: The Sanctuary of Asclepius It is quite interesting that just a short walk from the huge theater seen here, there once stood the greatest center for healing in all of ancient Greece. Long ago, sick people came from far and wide hoping to be cured here at the santuary of Asclepius. Asclepius was the god of medicine and the son of Apollo, the sun god. Myths told of how the god had learned healing from a very wise being belonging to a race of creatures called centaurs that were half-man and half-horse. The temple of Asclepius was guarded by thousands of snakes, the god's sacred animal. It was outside this temple that those seeking to be cured sacrificed animals and burned offerings to the god of medicine. After making their offerings, the sick people followed a path through the woods to a hospital building where they spent the night sleeping on the skin of the animal they had just sacrificed. While they slept, if they were lucky, the god of medicine appeared to them in their dreams. In the morning, the patients would tell a temple priest what they had seen in their dreams and the priest would prescribe a treatment to cure them. In ancient Greece, some of the most common treatments for sick people were having them take special baths, do physical exercises or even having them perform mental excercises, such as studying certain books or writing poetry. Conclusion The medical treatments used by the ancient Greeks must have actually done some good because their civilization prospered for a quite a long time until the Romans started to conquer them around 220 B.C. But the Romans truly admired the Greeks and ended up absorbing many Greek ways into their own civilization. 13

19 GC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL And so it was the Romans who spread Greek ideas, styles of art, and religious beliefs to the countries of western Europe. And that is why ancient Greece has come to be known as the "Birthplace of Western Civilization." When European explorers began to cross the great oceans, they brought Greek ideas with them to the New World. It very easy to see the influence ancient Greece has had on us just by looking at the styles of many the buildings found in almost any town in America. Two of the best examples of the Greek style of architecture are found in Washington D.C in the fine buildings of the United States Supreme Court and the U.S. Capitol. And it is interesting to think that, inside of these famous buildings that were built to resemble Greek temples, the Democratic principles of government that began thousands of years ago in ancient Greece are still being followed today. VIDEO QUIZ 1. TRUE OR FALSE? Zeus was the god of the sea. 2. TRUE OR FALSE? Greek theaters were temples to the god Poseidon. 3. TRUE OR FALSE? The Olympian gods were from Mount Olympus. 4. TRUE OR FALSE? Dionysus was the god of wine and pleasure. 5. TRUE OR FALSE? Only men acted in ancient Greek plays. 6. TRUE OR FALSE? Oracles were women who spoke for the gods. 7. TRUE OR FALSE? Athena's temple was called the Parthenon. 14

20 AGC/United Learning 1560 Sherman Ave., Suite 100 Evanston, IL TRUE OR FALSE? The world's first democracy began in Corinth. 9. TRUE OR FALSE? Centaurs were half-man and halfhorse. 10. TRUE OR FALSE? The word acropolis means "high city." 15

21 1 LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE Pre-Test Name Directions: Answer the following questions True or False: 1. The civilization of ancient Greece was at its peak nearly 1000 years ago. 2. The ancient Greeks had no written language but still produced a very successful civilization. 3. For most of its history, ancient Greece was not a politically unified country. 4. Olives and sheep were important sources of food in ancient Greece. 5. The ancient Greeks believed that one all-powerful god created human beings, ruled over their lives, and decided when they would die Ancient Lights Educational Media Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution

22 2 LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE Name Video Quiz 1. TRUE OR FALSE? Zeus was the god of the sea. 2. TRUE OR FALSE? Greek theaters were temples to the god Poseidon. 3. TRUE OR FALSE? The Olympian gods were from Mount Olympus. 4. TRUE OR FALSE? Dionysus was the god of wine and pleasure. 5. TRUE OR FALSE? Only men acted in ancient Greek plays. 6. TRUE OR FALSE? Oracles were women who spoke for the gods. 7. TRUE OR FALSE? Athena's temple was called the Parthenon. 8. TRUE OR FALSE? The world's first democracy began in Corinth. 9. TRUE OR FALSE? Centaurs were half-man and half-horse. 10. TRUE OR FALSE? The word acropolis means "high city Ancient Lights Educational Media Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution

23 3 acropoli s: A Greek word meaning "high city." In Athens, the acropolis rises over the city. The Parthenon, the famous temple of Athena, is located in the acropolis. agora : A marketplace or city square. LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE altar : A flat-topped block used for making offerings to a god or goddess. Vocabulary List Name Golden Age B.C. : The time when Athens was in its glory and was the cultural and financial center of the Greek world. Greek influence : The many ways that Greek civilization has affected styles of art, artchitecture, religion, and thought in other cultures. Alexander the Great : One of the most famous ancient Greek conquerors who lived from B.C. Alexander was the son of King Phillip of Macedonia. He conquered Egypt, Syria, Persia, and even part of India. architect : A person who designs buildings. archeologist : A person who studies the lives and cultures of ancient peoples. Archeologists excavate ancient cities and examine the things that were left behind by long forgotten people in order to understand how they lived. aristocrat : A Greek word meaning "the best people." In ancient Greece, the aristocrats were rich land owners. Aristotle : A famous Greek philosopher and writer. Artemis : The ancient Greek goddess of the hunt. Asclepius : The ancient Greek god of medicine. Athena : The ancient Greek goddess of wisdom. Apollo : The ancient Greek god of the sun. centaur : A mythical creature that was half-man and half-horse. chiton : Dresses worn by the women of ancient Greece. city-states : The civilization of ancient Greece developed in many small, independent countries known as city-states. Each city-state had its own army, its own laws, and own form of government. Vatican city in Italy is a modern example of a city-state. civilization : The total culture of a people. Civilized people are usually more advanced in science, art, and social organization than uncivilized people. democracy : A word meaning "government by the people." This form of government was first created in the Greek city-state of Athens over 2400 years ago. Dionysus : The ancient Greek god of wine and pleasure. Hephaestus : The ancient Greek god of fire and metalworking. Hera : The ancient Greek goddess considered to be the "mother of the gods. She was the jealous wife of Zeus, the king of the gods, and was the protector of families. himation : A cloak worn by both men and women in ancient Greece. Homer : The Greek poet and writer of the 8th century B.C. who is believed to have written the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey," two of the most famous books of all time. hoplite : A well-armed Greek foot soldier. immortal : Not mortal; able to live forever. The ancient Greek gods were believed to be immortal. libation : Liquid, such as wine or oil, poured on the ground as an offering to the gods. Mount Olympus : A mountain in Greece where most of the gods and goddesses were believed to have lived. myths : Folk tales often telling about the great powers and adventures of the gods and goddesses. Even though myths may not be true, they can tell us a lot about what ancient people believed. offering : A sacred gift to a god. Olympian gods : The great gods who lived on Mount Olympus. Olympic Games : Atheletic competitions held every four years in honor of Zeus at his sanctuary at Olympia. oracle : A place where prophecies are made; or a person who makes prophecies and who gives advice about the future. orchestra : The place in a greek theater where actors performed. Panathenaia : A birthday festival for the goddess Athena. Parthenon : The famous temple of Athena in Athens Ancient Lights Educational Media Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution

24 4 LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE Name (continued on Blackline Master 4) Pericles : A great statesman of ancient Athens who led and helped develop its democracy. peplo s: A long cloak worn by Greek women. The statue of Athena in the Parthenon wore a peplos. A new peplos was woven for the goddess each year and presented to her on the birthday festival, the Panathenaia. philosopher : A greek word meaning lover of knowledge. Philosophers studied and wrote about the meaning of life and about science. Plato : A famous Greek philosopher and writer. Vocabulary List (continued) and Vocabulary Activity Vocabulary Activity : From the Vocabulary List, find the following: 1. The names of three types of clothing worn by the ancient Greeks polythemism : The worship of many gods and goddesses. Poseidon : The ancient Greek god of the sea. Ptolemy : The name of 14 different Greek rulers of Egypt from 323 to 30 B.C. Ptolemy I was a general in the army of Alexander the Great. remote : Far away; a distant place. Roman Empir e: A great and powerful empire that ruled nearly all of Europe and parts of Africa and Asia for many centuries. The capital of this empire was in Rome, which is today the capital of Italy. The Roman Empire was most powerful from about 300 B.C. to around 400 A.D. After conquering Greece, the Romans came to rule Egypt as well in 30 B.C. sacrifice : An offering to a god. In ancient Greece, living animals were killed as sacrifices and some of their flesh was burned as an offering. sanctuar y: A holy place. Socrates : A famous Greek philosopher and writer. Western Civilization : The civilization that developed in the countries that once made up the western half of the Roman Empire. Through the Romans, who adopted many aspects of Greek civilization, Greek ideas spread across these lands. That is why ancient Greece is called "The Birthplace of Western Civilization." Zeus : King of the Greek gods and father of many of the most important gods and goddesses; also god of the sky and weather. 2. The names of four famous Greek writers and/or philosopers The names of nine different gods and godesses of ancient Greece Chariot Productions Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution

25 B.C. Arrival of the first Greek-speaking people on the mainland of Greece. LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE Timeline Name 457 B.C. Beginning of the "Golden Age" of Athens. Democracy develops under the guidance of Pericles B.C. Rise of the Mycenean culture in Greece B.C. Trojan War B.C. Mycenaen culture disappears. 900 B.C. Sparta is founded. 800 B.C. Greeks use Phonecian writing to create their own written language. 776 B.C. The first Olympic games are held at Olympia in honor of the god Zeus. 750 B.C. The writer Homer is believed to have been alive. Greeks found colonies in distant regions. 663 B.C. The great Egyptian city of Thebes is sacked by the Assyrians. 600 B.C. Phonecian sailors are travelling by ship around Africa. 586 B.C. Jerusalem is destroyed by King Nebuchanezzar of Babylonia. 585 B.C. May the 28th of 585 B.C. is believed to be the first accurately known date in human history because the Greek astronomer Thales of Miletus predicts and records a solar eclipse. 534 B.C. The first Greek plays called "tragedies" are performed. 500 B.C. Certain people in Greece are teaching that the earth is ball-shaped, not a flat disc. The first steel is being made in India. Greece begins a fifty-year war with Persia. 490 B.C. Greece defeats Persian invaders at the battle of Marathon. 483 B.C. The Buddha, founder of Buddhism, dies in India. 447 B.C. The Parthenon is being built. 390 B.C. A Greek astronomer suggests that the planets Venus and Mercury may orbit the sun. 332 B.C. The Macedonian Greek, Alexander the Great, conquers Egypt, bringing Greek culture to that land. The Egyptians believe he is a god and make him a pharaoh. Alexandria, a great city of science and culture, is founded in Egypt in honor of Alexander the Great. 324 B.C. Greece declares Alexander the Great to be a god. 323 B.C. Alexander the Great dies. The Macedonian rulers called the Ptolemies begin to govern Egypt. 260 B.C. The great wall of China is begun. 170 B.C. The first paved roads are being built in Rome. 148 B.C. Macedonia becomes a Roman province. 146 B.C. Rome destroys the Greek city-state of Corinth. 91 B.C. The great wall of China is completed. 31 B.C. Rome defeats the last Greek ruler at the Battle of Actium. Timeline Learning Activity Using the timeline, find: 1. The first accurately known date of an event in history. 2. The year the first Olympic games were held 3. The year the first tragedies were performed in Greek theaters Ancient Lights Educational Media Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution

26 6 Name LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE 1 2 Crossword Puzzle You may use the vocabulary list for help in solving this puzzle. ACROSS 1. The highest part of a Greek citiy was its. 2. The festival of Zeus was celebrated every four years at the town of and was famous all across Greece for its athletic contests. 3. The Parthenon was a temple to the goddess. 4. In ancient Greece, animals were killed as to the gods. 5. Mount was believed to be the home of many of ancient Greece's greatest gods and goddesses. 6. The civilization of ancient Greece developed near the shores of the Sea. DOWN 1. was the ancient Greek god of the sun. 2. The world's first democracy developed in the citystate of. 3. was the ancient Greek god of the sea. 4. The Greeks thought their gods were ; that is, that they would never die. 5. Forces from the Italian city of conquered Greece and adopted many Greek ways, which they then spread across western Europe. 6. The wife of Zeus and protector of families was called Ancient Lights Educational Media Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution

27 7 LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE Interesting Facts About Ancient Greece Name 1. Women did not play active roles in Greek society. They had nothing to do with politics or law. In houses, men and women often used separate rooms. Women would eat, carry out their household duties and see their friends in their own quarters called the gynaeceum. Men ate and saw their friends in their own room called the andron. 2. In the fourth and fifth centuries B.C., slaves formed a large part of the population of ancient Greece. Slaves were captured in wars or kidnapped from enemy towns. The children of slaves were born into slavery. Slavery in ancient Greece was not based on race. Most slaves worked in mines, farms or as servants in homes. A slave known as a paidogogus attended classes with a boy student to make sure he behaved. 3. The agora, or marketplace, was the favorite place for ancient Greek men to gather during the day to discuss business and politics. 4. Besides making animal sacrifices, gifts were regularly offered to the gods. Such things as shields, helmets, jewelery, vases, and musical instruments were offered. The offerings were kept in special buildings called treasuries. 5. The Greeks prayed very often. They prayed to the gods by stretching their arms to the sky. They prayed to the dead by pounding their fists on the ground. A paean was a song or shout of prayer made by a group of people Ancient Lights Educational Media Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution

28 8 Name LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE MAP EXCERISE Directions : Locate the following places on the map found on Blackline Master 9: Albania (modern country) Athens (modern city, ancient city-state) Sparta (ancient city-state) Corinth (ancient city-state) Delphi (ancient sacred town) Black Sea Olympia (ancient sacred town) Rome (modern city, capital of the Roman Empire) Macedonia (modern country) Bulgaria (modern country) Turkey (modern country) Syria (modern country) Cyprus (island ruled by Greece and Turkey) Crete (the largest Greek island) Istanbul (modern city) Sicily (Italian island and site of Greek colonies) 2000 Ancient Lights Educational Media Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution

29 2000 Ancient Lights Educational Media Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution

30 10 LIVING IN ANCIENT GREECE Name Post-Test Directions: Fill in the blanks with the correct answers. 1. The Olympic games were originally held to honor the god. 2. The biggest and most beautiful temple in Athens, called the, was built to be the home for the goddess of wisdom named. 3. In ancient Greece, sailors made offerings to the god who ruled the sea, so they would have safe journeys. 4. If a man in ancient Greece wished to know what was going to happen in the future, he might ask an, a person who acted as the voice of a god. 5. An altar to the god Dionysus could be found in ancient Greek. 6. Asclepius was the god of. 7. The Olympic games were held every years. 8. A wine drinker might offer a libation, a splash of wine to, the god of wine and pleasure. 9. Winners of the Olympic games received as prizes. 10. Pericles was famous for having helped Athens develop the world's first government Ancient Lights Educational Media Published and Distributed by AGC/United Learning All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution

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