# Modeling of Transmission Lines

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Modeling of Transmission Lines

2 Electric Power Transmission The electric energy produced at generating stations is transported over high-voltage transmission lines to utilization points. The trend toward higher voltages is motivated by the increased line capacity while reducing line losses per unit of power transmitted. The reduction in losses is significant and is an important aspect of energy conservation. Better use of land is a benefit of the larger capacity.

3 Concept of transmission

4 TRANSMISSION LINE PARAMETERS An electric transmission line is modeled using series resistance, series inductance, shunt capacitance, and shunt conductance. The line resistance and inductive reactance are important. For some studies it is possible to omit the shunt capacitance and conductance and thus simplify the equivalent circuit considerably.

5 Factors affecting line parameters The main factors are 1. Voltage level. 2. line length. 3. type of conductor used. 4. Number of conductors. 5. the spacing of the conductors as they are mounted on the supporting structure.

6 Types of Conductors There are many types of cables and they include: Aluminum Conductors; Homogeneous designs; Composite designs ; Expanded ASCR (Al Steel Core) Steel Conductors Galvanized steel conductors with various thicknesses of zinc coatings are used.

7 ACSR

8 Line Resistance The resistance of the conductor is the most important cause of power loss in a power line. Direct-current resistance is given by : ρ = resistivity of conductor, l = length, A = cross-sectional area There are several factors that affect the value of the DC line resistance.

9 Factors affecting line resistance 1. Conductor stranding. 2. Skin Effect : When ac flows in a conductor, the current is not distributed uniformly over the conductor crosssectional area. This is called skin effect and is a result of the non-uniform flux distribution in the conductor. This increases the resistance of the conductor.

10 Temperature effect The resistivity of any metal varies linearly over an operating temperature, and therefore the resistance of any conductor suffers the same variations. As temperature rises, the resistance increases linearly, according to the following equation:

11 LINE INDUCTANCE The inductive reactance is by far the most dominating impedance element. The inductance depends on the size of the conductors, the spacing between the conductors, transposition, the arrangement of conductors and the material of each conductors. Several arrangements are used in modern transmission systems.

12 Conductors Arrangement

13 HV Tower

14 Calculation of Line Inductance

15 Bundled Conductors

16 Inductance of a Balanced Three-Phase

17 Transposition of Line Conductors There is a need for equalizing the mutual inductances. One means for doing this is to construct transpositions or rotations of overhead line wires. A transposition is a physical rotation of the conductors, arranged so that each conductor is moved to occupy the next physical position in a regular sequence such as a-b-c, b-c-a, c-a-b, etc.

18 LINE CAPACITANCE The line capacitance is a leakage (or charging) path for the ac line currents. The capacitance of a transmission line is the result of the potential differences between the conductors themselves as well as potential differences between the conductors and ground. Charges on conductors arise, and the capacitance is the charge per unit potential difference. The charges on the conductors are time varying. The time variation of the charges results in what is called linecharging currents.

19 Capacitance of Single-Phase Line

20 TRANSMISSION LINE MODELS A transmission line is defined as a short-length line if its length is less than 80 km (50 mi). In this case, the capacitive effect is negligible and only the resistance and inductive reactance are considered. Assuming balanced conditions, the line can be represented by the equivalent circuit of a single phase with resistance

21 Short Transmission line

22 Medium T.L. If the line is between 80 km (50 mi) and 240 km (150 mi) long, the line is considered a medium length. The line single-phase equivalent circuit can be represented in a nominal π or T configurations. The shunt capacitance of the line is divided into two equal parts, each placed at the sending and receiving ends of the line. Both short- and medium-length transmission lines use approximated lumped-parameter models.

23 Medium T.L. The Pi model of medium transmission lines

24 Medium T.L. Z= R + jx Y = j wc T model of medium transmission lines

25 Long T.L. If the line is more than 240 km long, the model must consider parameters uniformly distributed along the line. The appropriate series impedance and shunt capacitance are found by solving the corresponding differential equations, where voltages and currents are described as a function of distance and time with the assumptions: 1. The line is operating under sinusoidal, balanced, steady-state conditions. 2. The line is transposed.

26 Long T.L.

27 T.L. Parameters

### ELG4125: Power Transmission Lines The most common methods for transfer of electric power are: Overhead AC; Underground AC; Overhead DC; Underground

ELG4125: Power Transmission Lines The most common methods for transfer of electric power are: Overhead AC; Underground AC; Overhead DC; Underground DC Distribution Lines Distribution Lines and Transformers

### ELEC-E8407 Electromechanics. Laboratory exercise 1: Transformer

ELEC-E8407 Electromechanics Laboratory exercise 1: Transformer ELEC-E8407 Electromechanics 2 In the exercise, the properties of a core-type transformer are tested by carrying out the following measurements

### Applying Faraday s law to both the primary and the secondary (noting the possibility of sources applied to either winding), yields

TRANSFORMERS Transformers are key elements in power systems. In order to effectively transmit power over long distances without prohibitive line losses, the voltage from the generator (a maximum of output

### PowerWorld Transmission Line Parameter Calculator

PowerWorld Transmission Line Parameter Calculator Introduction The PowerWorld Transmission Line Parameter Calculator is a tool designed to compute characteristic line parameters given the type of the conductor

### Power System Analysis Prof. A. K. Sinha Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Lecture 2

Power System Analysis Prof. A. K. Sinha Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture 2 (Refer Slide Time: 01:01) Welcome to lesson 2 on Power System Analysis.

### Functions, variations and application areas of magnetic components

Westring 18 3314 Büren Germany T +49 951 60 01 0 F +49 951 60 01 3 www.schaffner.com energy efficiency and reliability 1.1 Transformers The transformer is one of the traditional components of electrical

### Chapter 24. Three-Phase Voltage Generation

Chapter 24 Three-Phase Systems Three-Phase Voltage Generation Three-phase generators Three sets of windings and produce three ac voltages Windings are placed 120 apart Voltages are three identical sinusoidal

### Direction of current flow through conductor. Fig. 1 Magnetic field generated by current flow

ingle Conductor Cable Copper heathed Cable heath Currents ingle conductor cables present certain application considerations that do not arise in multiconductor cable installations. These considerations

### Chapter 9: Ideal Transformer. 10/9/2003 Electromechanical Dynamics 1

Chapter 9: Ideal Transformer 10/9/003 Electromechanical Dynamics 1 Introduction Transformers are one of the most useful electrical devices provides a change in voltage and current levels provides galvanic

### Comparison of Power Título Transmission Line Models with Finite Elements

CEPEL Comparison of Power Título Transmission do trabalho Line Models with Finite Elements Carlos K. C. Arruda, Anny A. Silveira, Fernando C. Dart Autor/apresentador Área Departamento de Linhas e Estações

### Chapter 5 TRANSFORMERS

Chapter 5 TRANSFORMERS Objective Understand the transformer nameplate Describe the basic construction features of a transformer. Explain the relationship between voltage, current, impedance, and power

### Extra Questions - 1. 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A

Extra Questions - 1 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A 2. A current of 500mA flows in a resistance of 12Ω. What power is dissipated

### 2. A conductor of length 2m moves at 4m/s at 30 to a uniform magnetic field of 0.1T. Which one of the following gives the e.m.f. generated?

Extra Questions - 2 1. A straight length of wire moves through a uniform magnetic field. The e.m.f. produced across the ends of the wire will be maximum if it moves: a) along the lines of magnetic flux

### APPLICATION NOTE Innovative shunt design techniques optimise power measurement accuracy

APPLICATION NOTE - 012 Innovative shunt design techniques optimise power measurement accuracy Introduction Rapid developments in power conversion technologies combined with a need for better product efficiency

### 2. TRANSFORMERS. The main learning objectives for this chapter are listed below. Use equivalent circuits to determine voltages and currents.

. TRANSFORMERS Transformers are commonly used in applications which require the conversion of AC voltage from one voltage level to another. There are two broad categories of transformers: electronic transformers,

### Estimating Line-Flow Limits

Estimating Line-Flow Limits University of Wisconsin-Madison May 1, 2013 Specifying reasonable line-flow limits requires two quantities: the surge impedance loading for the line and an estimate of the line

### Objectives for the standardized exam

III. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM A. Electrostatics 1. Charge and Coulomb s Law a) Students should understand the concept of electric charge, so they can: (1) Describe the types of charge and the attraction

### Ground Fault Protection

GE Energy Industrial Solutions Ground Fault Protection Digital Specification Program Latin America Ground Fault. I. Introduction In the electrical systems always exists the possibility of having shutdowns

### SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATION AND PREVENTION IN HIGH VOLTAGE POWER NETS

Bachelor's Thesis Electrical Engineering June 2014 SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATION AND PREVENTION IN HIGH VOLTAGE POWER NETS MD FARUQUL ALAM SALMAN SAIF HAMID ALI School of Engineering Blekinge Tekniska

Radial Distribution Test Feeders Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee Report Abstract: Many computer programs are available for the analysis of radial distribution feeders. In 1992 a paper was published

### Static Analysis of Power Systems. Lennart Söder and Mehrdad Ghandhari

Static Analysis of Power Systems Lennart Söder and Mehrdad Ghandhari Electric Power Systems Royal Institute of Technology August 200 ii Contents Introduction 2 Power system design 3 2. The development

### HIGH VOLTAGE INTERFERENCE CALCULATION

HIGH VOLTAGE INTERFERENCE CALCULATION PIPELINE ROUTING HIGH VOLTAGE INTERFERENCE INDUCED PIPE TO SOIL VOLTAGE HIGH VOLTAGE INTERFERENCE INDUCED PIPE TO SOIL VOLTAGE SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS IN ANALYSIS OF

### ELECTRICAL TRAINING 7 DAYS D.C. 1.0 Electron Theory, Voltaic Cells. And Electromagnetism. Materials 3.0 Resistances In Series And Parallel.

Num TITLE TABLE OF CONTENT OBJECTIVES DURATION UNIT E-01 FUNDAMENTALS OF 1.0 Electron Theory, Voltaic Cells Describe The Atomic D.C. And Electromagnetism. Structure And Its Influence 2.0 D.C. Circuits

### Statistical Analysis & Comparison of HTLS Conductor with Conventional ACSR Conductor

International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques (ICEEOT) - 2016 Statistical Analysis & Comparison of HTLS Conductor with Conventional ACSR Conductor Aniket V. Kenge Nashik,

### EDS 02-0027 11KV TRIPLEX CABLE

THIS IS AN UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT, THE READER MUST CONFIRM ITS VALIDITY BEFORE USE Document Number: EDS 02-0027 ENGINEERING DESIGN STANDARD EDS 02-0027 11KV TRIPLEX CABLE Network(s): EPN, LPN, SPN Summary:

### TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION A transformer consists of two windings coupled through a magnetic medium. The two windings work at different voltage level. The two windings of the transformer are called High

### Voltage Loss Formula s

www.litz-wire.com HM Wire International Inc. Phone: 330-244-8501 Fax: 330-244-8561 Voltage Loss Formula s www.hmwire.com Voltage loss in a wire is synonymous to pressure loss in a pipe. Electric current

### IEEE C IEEE Standard General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformers

July, 2012 This goal for this month s paper is to provide a basic understanding of tests performed on each liquid filled transformer. The following standards detail the general construction requirements

### 15-Non-Ideal Single Phase Transformers. ECEGR 450 Electromechanical Energy Conversion

15NonIdeal Single Phase Transformers ECEGR 450 Electromechanical Energy Conversion Magnetizing Reactance Core Resistance Leakage Reactance Winding Resistance Overview Dr. Louie 2 Questions What are the

### MOTIONLESS ELECTRIC GENERATOR DESIGN BASED ON PERMANENT MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER

12/28/2009 MOTIONLESS ELECTRIC GENERATOR DESIGN BASED ON PERMANENT MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER FEDERALLY SPONSOR RESEARCH Not Applicable BACKGROUND - Field [0001] This application relates to motionless

### Induction Motor Theory

PDHonline Course E176 (3 PDH) Induction Motor Theory Instructor: Jerry R. Bednarczyk, P.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088 www.pdhonline.org

### Single and Three Phase Transformer Testing Using Static Motor Circuit Analysis Techniques

Single and Three Phase Transformer Testing Using Static Motor Circuit Analysis Techniques Howard W. Penrose, Ph.D On behalf of ALL-TEST Pro, LLC Old Saybrook, CT Introduction Field and shop testing of

### Alternating Current and Direct Current

K Hinds 2012 1 Alternating Current and Direct Current Direct Current This is a Current or Voltage which has a constant polarity. That is, either a positive or negative value. K Hinds 2012 2 Alternating

### Application Note. So You Need to Measure Some Inductors?

So You Need to Measure Some nductors? Take a look at the 1910 nductance Analyzer. Although specifically designed for production testing of inductors and coils, in addition to measuring inductance (L),

### April 8. Physics 272. Spring Prof. Philip von Doetinchem

Physics 272 April 8 Spring 2014 http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~philipvd/pvd_14_spring_272_uhm.html Prof. Philip von Doetinchem philipvd@hawaii.edu Phys272 - Spring 14 - von Doetinchem - 218 L-C in parallel

### 2016 CIGRE-IEC Colloquium 21, rue d Artois, F PARIS May 9-11, 2016 http : //www.cigre.org

2016 CIGRE-IEC Colloquium 21, rue d Artois, F-75008 PARIS May 9-11, 2016 http : //www.cigre.org Montréal, QC, Canada SUMMARY Risk in Design, Construction and Testing of Grounding System B. Jamali* METSCO

### Short Circuit Analysis Case study & Circuit Breaker Design. SUMIT K RATHOR M.E-EPS 3 rd Sem 09EE14 BVM VVNAGAR

Short Circuit Analysis Case study & Circuit Breaker Design. SUMIT K RATHOR M.E-EPS 3 rd Sem 09EE14 BVM VVNAGAR Introduction The case study provides the fault current for the 220kV substation at various

Bare Overhead Conductors AAC, ACSR, ACSR II A global cable expert Bare Overhead Conductors Nexans is a diversified wire and cable manufacturer. Nexans has been designing, manufacturing and delivering cables

### Open circuit and short circuit tests on single phase transformer

1 Aim Experiment No: 2 Open circuit and short circuit tests on single phase transformer To understand the basic working principle of a transformer. To obtain the equivalent circuit parameters from OC and

### EMTP Simulations of Induced Voltages to an Underground Gas Pipeline and Its Contermeasures

EMTP Simulations of Induced Voltages to an Underground Gas Pipeline and Its Contermeasures Akihiro Ametani Naotsugu Uchida Hiroshi Isogai Doshisha University Doshisha University Doshisha University Kyoto,

### STUDY OF IDEAL TRANSFORMER AND PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER

STUDY OF IDEAL TRANSFORMER AND PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER RUBY DHANKAR, SAPNA KAMRA,VISHAL JANGRA Abstract- This paper proposes the study of real and ideal transformer. It also explains load, no-load conditions

### 6 ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS

6 ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS For power, low voltage and medium voltage cables, cross section nominal areas are calculated in taking into account several parameters as: permissible current carrying capacities

### ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSMISSION LINES

Page 1 of 6 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSMISSION LINES Transmission lines are generally characterized by the following properties: balance-to-ground characteristic impedance attenuation per unit

### Toroids. Toroids. Design Considerations

Ferrite toroids provide an often convenient and very effective shape for many wide band, pulse and power transformers and inductors. The continuous magnetic path yields the highest effective permeability

### TECHNICAL DATA. A REFERENCE FOR The Electrical Power Industry ANDERSON POWER SYSTEMS, INC.

TECHNICAL DATA A REFERENCE FOR The Electrical Power Industry POWER SYSTEMS, INC. ANDERSON TABLE NUMBER INDEX PAGE NUMBER ANGLES 65 Aluminum Angle Conductors, Physical Properties... 59 66 Aluminum Angle

### Three phase circuits

Three phase circuits THREE PHASE CIRCUITS THREE-PHASE ADVANTAGES 1. The horsepower rating of three-phase motors and the kva rating of three-phase transformers are 150% greater than single-phase motors

### Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) Course Instructor : Peter Armstrong

Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) Course Instructor : Peter Armstrong SWER Electricity distribution method using only one conductor with the return path through earth Successfully used in NZ, Australia,

### 13 ELECTRIC MOTORS. 13.1 Basic Relations

13 ELECTRIC MOTORS Modern underwater vehicles and surface vessels are making increased use of electrical actuators, for all range of tasks including weaponry, control surfaces, and main propulsion. This

### Electric Engineering II EE 326 Lecture 4 & 5

Electric Engineering II EE 326 Lecture 4 & 5 Transformers ١ Transformers Electrical transformers have many applications: Step up voltages (for electrical energy transmission with

### 3 Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents in Three-Phase Systems

3 ABB_11_E_03 13.08.2007 8:19 Uhr Seite 69 3 Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents in Three-Phase Systems 3.1 Terms and definitions 3.1.1 Terms as per IEC 60909 Short circuit: the accidental or deliberate

### Transformers. Special transformers Reactors products

Transformers Special transformers Reactors products Reactors Custom designed, custom built ABB Oy Transformers has extensive experience and numerous references from different reactor applications, having

### Comparisons of Soil Resistivity Meters Used with Pre-Measured Cable Sets. AKM Sydul Haque, Ph.D., P.E., ELK Engineering Associates, Inc.

Comparisons of Soil Resistivity Meters Used with Pre-Measured Cable Sets By AKM Sydul Haque, Ph.D., P.E., ELK Engineering Associates, Inc. and Earl L. Kirkpatrick, P.E., ELK Engineering Associates, Inc.

### Keywords: Distribution Transformer, Step Core, Core Type, Round And Rectangular, Tank And Temperature Rise.

www.semargroup.org, www.ijsetr.com ISSN 2319-8885 Vol.03,Issue.15 July-2014, Pages:3176-3181 Design Comparison of Round and Rectangular Wire Winding Transformer SOE NAING 1, MYO THET TUN 2 1 Dept of Electrical

### Chapter 12: Three Phase Circuits

Chapter 12: Three Phase Circuits 12.1 What Is a Three Phase Circuit? 12.2 Balance Three Phase Voltages 12.3 Balance Three Phase Y to Y Connection 12.4 Other Balance Three Phase Connections 12.5 Power in

### Lecture 5: Transformers(continued)

Lecture 5: Transformers(continued) Equivalent circuit of a transformer Figure (1) shows an equivalent circuit of a transformer. R 1 and R 2 represent the resistances of the primary and secondary windings

### Symmetrical short circuit on Synchronous Machine

Introduction Short circuit study is one of the basic power system analysis problems. It is also known as fault analysis. When a fault occurs in a power system, bus voltages reduces and large current flows

### Electrical Principles Section 5

5 Electrical Principles Section 5 www.hubbellpowersystems.com E-mail: hpsliterature@hps.hubbell.com Phone: 573-682-5521 Fax: 573-682-8714 210 North Allen Centralia, MO 65240, USA Copyright 2015 Hubbell

### ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Vol. I - Direct Current and Alternating Current Systems - N. Rajkumar DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS

DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS N. Rajkumar, Research Fellow, Energy Systems Group, City University Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK Keywords: Electrical energy, direct current, alternating

### Basics of Electricity

Basics of Electricity Power Flow on AC Transmission Lines PJM State & Member Training Dept. Objectives Describe the basic make-up and theory of an AC transmission line Given the formula for real power

### The Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields

The Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields 2009 FACT SHEET 1 3 4 5 What are Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF)? How are electricity and EMF related? Many people will have seen the attraction or repulsion

### Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10

Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10 HW10: Ch.30 Q5, 8, 15,17, 19 P 1, 3, 9, 18, 34, 36, 42, 51, 66 Chapter 30 Question 5 If you are given a fixed length of wire, how would you shape it to obtain the

### IMPEDANCE and NETWORKS. Kirchoff s laws. Charge inside metals. Skin effect. Impedance, Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance

IMPEDANCE and NETWORKS Kirchoff s laws Charge inside metals Skin effect Impedance, Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance Mutual Inductance, Transformers Stray impedance 1 ENGN4545/ENGN6545: Radiofrequency

### Earthing (grounding) system

Earthing (grounding) system according to IEC, BS-EN and IEEE standards Legal regulations being applied when designing earthing (grounding) systems 1. Good earthing (grounding) system according to IEC/BS

### MV kv Single Conductors

MV 5 35 kv Single Conductors Description Copper or aluminum stranded, thermo set insulated. Contruction Conductor Copper or aluminum stranded, thermo set insulated. Conductor Shield Cross linked polyethylene

### IVE(TY) Department of Engineering Electrical Machines 1

Hour 8 slide 1 Introduction Transformer Transformer is a machine that has no moving parts but is able to transform alternating voltages and currents from high to low (step-up transformer ) and vice versa

### AS BUILT DOCUMENTATION CHECKLIST FOR GENERATOR INTERCONNECTIONS

AS BUILT DOCUMENTATION CHECKLIST FOR GENERATOR INTERCONNECTIONS Requirement: Per Article 5 of the Large Generator Interconnection Agreement and Article 2 of the Small Generator Interconnection Agreement

### INTRODUCTION TO TRANSMISSION LINES DR. FARID FARAHMAND FALL 2012

INTRODUCTION TO TRANSMISSION LINES DR. FARID FARAHMAND FALL 2012 http://www.empowermentresources.com/stop_cointelpro/electromagnetic_warfare.htm RF Design In RF circuits RF energy has to be transported

### Practice Problems - Chapter 33 Alternating Current Circuits

Multiple Choice Practice Problems - Chapter 33 Alternating Current Circuits 4. A high-voltage powerline operates at 500 000 V-rms and carries an rms current of 500 A. If the resistance of the cable is

Model Title CC-Link Ver.1.10 Compatible CC-Link Flexible Cable Conformance Test Specifications Management number : BAP-C0401-009 CC-Link Partner Association (1/12) Revisions Revision item Revision Description

### A METHOD OF CALIBRATING HELMHOLTZ COILS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF PERMANENT MAGNETS

A METHOD OF CALIBRATING HELMHOLTZ COILS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF PERMANENT MAGNETS Joseph J. Stupak Jr, Oersted Technology Tualatin, Oregon (reprinted from IMCSD 24th Annual Proceedings 1995) ABSTRACT The

### Occupational Profile: Electrical & Electronics Engineering Technician

Occupational Profile: Electrical & Electronics Engineering Technician A competent Electrical & Electronics Engineering Technician should be able to demonstrate the following skills and competences: 1.

### EMI and t Layout Fundamentals for Switched-Mode Circuits

v sg (t) (t) DT s V pp = n - 1 2 V pp V g n V T s t EE core insulation primary return secondary return Supplementary notes on EMI and t Layout Fundamentals for Switched-Mode Circuits secondary primary

### Estimation of electrical losses in Network Rail Electrification Systems

Estimation of electrical losses in Network Rail Electrification Systems Page 1 of 16 Contents 1. BACKGROUND...3 2. PURPOSE...3 3. SCOPE...3 4. DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS...4 5. NETWORK RAIL INFRASTRUCTURE

### Voltage Drop and Branching Circuit Design Calculations

Voltage Drop and Branching Circuit Design Calculations Week 5-6-7 Voltage considerations Nominal Voltage The nominal voltage is the voltage by which the system is designated for example 230/400V, 400/690V,

### 3-Phase AC Calculations Revisited

AN110 Dataforth Corporation Page 1 of 6 DID YOU KNOW? Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) came to the United States in 1884 from Yugosiavia. He arrived during the battle of the currents between Thomas Edison, who

### Impedance Matching and Matching Networks. Valentin Todorow, December, 2009

Impedance Matching and Matching Networks Valentin Todorow, December, 2009 RF for Plasma Processing - Definition of RF What is RF? The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines

### Coupling Effect in Substation Ground Measurements

SERBIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Vol. 9, No. 3, October 2012, 315-324 UDK: 621.316.13.011.2 DOI: 10.2298/SJEE1203315F Coupling Effect in Substation Ground Measurements Alex Farber 1, Boris Katz

### SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES The geometry of a synchronous machine is quite similar to that of the induction machine. The stator core and windings of a three-phase synchronous machine are practically identical

### Chapter 21 Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday s Law

Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 21 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli Chapter 21 Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday s Law 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United

### SHE Transmission. 2015_10_30 Transmission Losses Strategy Rev 2.0 October 2015

SHE Transmission 2015_10_30 Transmission Losses Strategy Rev 2.0 October 2015 Summary This paper presents SHE Transmission s views and approach on the impact of transmission losses on the transmission

### Coupled Inductors. Introducing Coupled Inductors

Coupled Inductors From power distribution across large distances to radio transmissions, coupled inductors are used extensively in electrical applications. Their properties allow for increasing or decreasing

### An explanation of the phenomenon for non-corrosion and non-electrical specialists. Written by Richard Lindley and Ken Lax and presented by Ken Lax of

An explanation of the phenomenon for non-corrosion and non-electrical specialists. Written by Richard Lindley and Ken Lax and presented by Ken Lax of Asset Integrity Services Ltd FIRSTLY WE ARE GOING TO

### Minimizing Energy Consumption in Inductive Sensing Applications

Minimizing Energy Consumption in Inductive Sensing Applications by Anders Guldahl, Application Engineer Introduction Sensing is all about the ability to detect or measure changes in physical properties.

### Chapt ha e pt r e r 12 RL Circuits

Chapter 12 RL Circuits Sinusoidal Response of RL Circuits The inductor voltage leads the source voltage Inductance causes a phase shift between voltage and current that depends on the relative values of

### INTRODUCTION... 2 EXAMPLE OF AN OVERHEAD LINES... 3 GENERAL INFORMATION... 5 BARE ANNEALED COPPER CONDUCTORS... 7 AAC ALL ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS...

INDEX INTRODUCTION... 2 EXAMPLE OF AN OVERHEAD LINES... 3 GENERAL INFORMATION... 5 BARE ANNEALED COPPER CONDUCTORS... 7 AAC ALL ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS... 8 ACSR ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS STEEL REINFORCED... 9 AAAC

### (3 )Three Phase Alternating Voltage and Current

EEE 2015 EECTRCS (3) Monophase 1 Three phase Three phase electric power is a common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. t is a type of polyphase system

### Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road, New Delhi , Ph. : ,

1 EMI & AC 1. Derive an expression for the impendance of a coil in AC ciruit. A current of 1.1 A flows through a coil when connected to a 110 V DC. When 110 V AC of 50 Hz is applied to the same coil, only

### NATIONAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY Prepared by: M. Nassereddine Abstract: The existing of the High oltage (H) infrastructure creates a special set of safety circumstances. Earthing system is one

### Fault location on power cables. Fault location on power cables

Fault location on power cables Fault location on power cables Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Construction of power cables 3. Cable faults 01. Introduction Fault location on communication and power cables

### Issues and Solutions for Dealing With a Highly Capacitive Transmission Cable

Issues and Solutions for Dealing With a Highly Capacitive Transmission Cable F.N. Morgan and K.C. Cameron, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Fort Collins, CO ABSTRACT For glass coaters, the transmission

### EEL303: Power Engineering I - Tutorial 4

1. Determine the voltage at the generating station and the efficiency of the following system (Figure 1): Both transformers have ratio of 2kV/11kV. The resistance on LV side of both Figure 1: transformers

### Ch. 20 Electric Circuits

Ch. 0 Electric Circuits 0. Electromotive Force Every electronic device depends on circuits. Electrical energy is transferred from a power source, such as a battery, to a device, say a light bulb. Conducting

### THE PER-UNIT SYSTEM. (2) The per-unit values for various components lie within a narrow range regardless of the equipment rating.

THE PER-UNIT SYSTEM An interconnected power system typically consists of many different voltage levels given a system containing several transformers and/or rotating machines. The per-unit system simplifies

### Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Transformer (8341), Variable resistance (8311), Variable inductance (8321), Variable capacitance (8331)

Lab 5: Single-phase transformer operations. Objective: to examine the design of single-phase transformers; to study the voltage and current ratios of transformers; to study the voltage regulation of the

### Leakage Reactance & Short Circuit Impedance Tests

Leakage Reactance & Short Circuit Impedance Tests Leakage Reactance Measurement What is it? The measurement of the transformer impedance with the secondary winding short circuited by applying a voltage

### Transformer Modeling for Lower-Frequency Phenomena. R. A. Walling

Transformer Modeling for Lower-Frequency Phenomena R. A. Walling Lower - Frequency Phenomena Phenomena well below first winding resonance frequency < several khz Includes: most line switching transients

### Transmission Line EMF Interference with Buried Pipeline: Essential & Cautions

Transmission Line EMF Interference with Buried Pipeline: Essential & Cautions M. H. Shwehdi and U. M. Johar Electrical Engineering Department at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi

### MV CABLE TYPE C 33-226

MV CABLE TYPE C 33-226 Standards : CENELEC HD 620 C 33-226 Rated voltage Rated voltage : 12/20 (24) kv Design 1 Stranded aluminium, class 2 conductor 2 Extruded conducting screen on conductor 3 XLPE insulation