3 Basic Idea of Swaps I have signed up for the Wine of the Month Club and you have signed up for the Beer of the Month Club. As winter approaches, I would like to have beer but you would like to have wine. We could swap. You give me the beer you receive and, in exchange, I give you the wine that I receive. In Finance, a swap is a mutually beneficial exchange of cash flows associated with a financial asset or liability. Firm A gives Firm B the obligation or rights to something it no longer wants to pay or receive in exchange for something it is more willing to pay or receive.
5 More Formally, What are Swaps? An agreement between two parties to exchange (or swap ) cash flows in the future. Initially based on the idea of parallel loans : Two parties take out loans. For example, party A borrows at a fixed interest rate and B at a floating rate. A swap occurs if party B makes the fixed payments for A and party A makes the floating payments for B. Formally: one party agrees to pay the floating interest payment on the notional principal and receive the fixed interest payment on the same notional principal. The other party does the opposite. There is generally no exchange of principal.
6 Size of Swap Market (notional amounts, billions of USD) 600,000 Credit default swaps 500, ,000 Interest rate swaps Currency swaps Forwards and forex swaps 300, , , Source: International Swap and Derivatives Association
7 McDonalds 2012 Annual Report Fair Value Hedges The Company enters into fair value hedges to reduce the exposure to changes in the fair values of certain liabilities. The fair value hedges the Company enters into consist of interest rate swaps which convert a portion of its fixed-rate debt into floating-rate debt. All of the Company s interest rate swaps meet the shortcut method requirements. Accordingly, changes in the fair values of the interest rate swaps are exactly offset by changes in the fair value of the underlying debt. No ineffectiveness has been recorded to net income related to interest rate swaps designated as fair value hedges for the year ended December 31, A total of $1.8 billion of the Company s outstanding fixed-rate debt was effectively converted to floating-rate debt resulting from the use of interest rate swaps. Cashflow Hedges The Company enters into cashflow hedges to reduce the exposure to variability in certain expected future cashflows. The types of cashflow hedges the Company enters into include interest rate swaps, foreign currency forwards, foreign currency options, cross-currency swaps and commodity forwards. The Company periodically uses interest rate swaps to effectively convert a portion of floatingrate debt, including forecasted debt issuances, into fixed-rate debt and the agreements are intended to reduce the impact of interest rate changes on future interest expenses.
8 History of Swaps An early form of swaps was developed to circumvent foreign exchange controls during the 1960s and 1970s. There were heavy taxes on the conversion of some currencies. For example, it was very expensive to convert British Pounds. Problem: How could a firm finance operations outside of the UK without converting currencies? Consider a UK firm wanting to set up a US subsidiary. If the US subsidiary needs financing, what were the alternatives? UK parent could borrow in the UK, convert the s to US dollars and provide these to its subsidiary. But this conversion was heavily taxed! US subsidiary could borrow itself in the US directly, but it may have a poor (or no) credit rating in the US. Also costly! Solution?
9 History of Swaps cont d If a US firm with a UK subsidiary had the same problem, the parent firms could borrow in their own countries and lend to the other firm s subsidiary to avoid conversions. Consider the situation for the American parent: Year Get $ loan from US bank $2m -$0.2m -$0.2m -$0.2m -$0.2m -$2.2m Make $ loan to UK sub -$2m $0.2m $0.2m $0.2m $0.2m $2.2m Sub gets loan from UK firm 1m - 0.1m - 0.1m - 0.1m - 0.1m - 1.1m Net position 1m - 0.1m - 0.1m - 0.1m - 0.1m - 1.1m (Note: the US firm now has a loan in British Pounds, as desired, and its payments are based on the UK firm s AAA rating. Similarly, the UK firm has a loan in $ s based on the US firm s AAA rating)
10 Parallel Loans vs. Currency Swaps United Kingdom United States British Bank British Firm Agreement American Firm American Bank American Subsidiary British Subsidiary
11 Difficulties with Parallel Loans Firms must find a partner where: The firms must be in the appropriate countries and have almost perfectly opposite interests. For example, the relative size of both projects (i.e. the notional principals) and the maturities must be similar. Considerable legal detail must be worked out there are a large number of contracts to cover the different payment obligations and commitments. The effect on the parent firms financial statements must be tolerable as it is borrowing for the subsidiary(s?).
12 Types of Swaps There are many different types of swaps. In theory, one can swap (or exchange) cashflows generated from any type of financial asset for those generated from any other. Is there a catch? Both sides must feel they are benefiting from the trade (i.e., they must be happy ) since they did not have to do the swap. The first swaps were used to circumvent the foreign exchange controls they swapped the payments on loans in different currencies.
13 General Outline of a Swap counter party financial institution firm
14 Types: Foreign Currency Swaps A contractual agreement between two parties to swap payments of different currencies in the future. Each party agrees to exchange a specific amount of one currency for a specific amount of another currency at pre-defined intervals (Note: like a series of forwards). For example, A will pay 4.75 billion to B in exchange for 20 million every 6 months for the next 2 years. The size of the payments is based on a notional principal and agreed upon swap rates (e.g., interest rates or future exchange rates). The expected value of each side s payments are equal. Both sides must be happy with the terms.
15 Foreign Currency Swaps Foreign Exchange Swap It is similar to one or more forward contracts where the parties are transacting with each other to swap future cashflows in one currency for the reverse at some other point in the future. Currency Swap Similar to the original parallel loan agreements. Both parties take out loans in their home country (usually fixed rate), exchange the principal, swap the payments and re-exchange the principal at the end. Increases access to global capital markets.
16 Foreign Currency Swap Receipt of US $ Payment of Yen Payment of Yen Receipt of Yen counter party financial institution firm Payment of US $ Payment of US $ Yen payment US $ payment
17 Evolution of Swaps As foreign exchange restrictions were relaxed in the mid- 1970s, the use of parallel loans (essentially currency swaps) decreased. The swap market really started to develop in the early 1980s because of differences in US dollar interest rates inside and outside of the US. The Fed had a tight monetary policy so short-term interest rates in the US were very high, but they were much lower on Eurodollars which were not subject to Fed restrictions. Swaps were a way to decrease borrowing costs. A US-based firm would borrow floating (ST) in the Eurodollar market and swap for a European bank s fixed (LT) US dollar loan in the US.
18 Eurocurrency Market Review Originally centered in London. Now also in countries such as the Bahamas, Singapore, Hong Kong, US, and Japan. Started in London with borrowing/lending US$ outside the US. Now it involves almost all major currencies outside their home country. Main advantages: less government regulation, less disclosure, more anonymity and less conditions on borrowing. Main disadvantages: less government regulation, less disclosure, more anonymity and less conditions on borrowing. Most common quote: LIBOR rate at which London banks will lend to each other
19 Interest Rate Swaps Each party agrees to make the interest payments on the other s debt. The rates are set so the expected value of each party s future payments are equal (i.e., so both sides are happy when the swap is signed). The size of the payments is based on a notional principal and agreed upon interest rates. Actual payments are typically netted. Each party remains legally liable for its original debt.
20 Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap fixed payments at x% fixed payments at x% counter party financial institution firm floating payments at LIBOR + y% fixed rate debt floating payments at LIBOR + y% floating rate debt
21 Example: Plain Vanilla Swap Without Swap Fixed Rate Financing Floating Rate Financing Seeks Co. A (AAA rated) 6% Prime + 1.5% Floating Co. B (BBB rated) 8% Prime + 2.5% Fixed With Swap Fixed Rate Payments at 7.5% Company A Company B Floating Rate Payments at Prime + 2.5% Fixed Rate Financing Floating Rate Financing at 6% at Prime + 2.5% Each company has borrowed at the best rate that they could and they are swapping payments. Are they happy with this arrangement?
22 Swap Example (Plain Vanilla cont d) To see that both sides are happy consider their payments: Company A: Pays its lender +6% (fixed rate) Pays floating to Company B +(Prime + 2.5%) Receives from Company B -7.5%. Net being paid by A Prime + 1% (vs Prime+1.5%) Company B: Pays its lender +Prime + 2.5% (floating) Pays fixed to Company A +7.5% Receives from Company B - (Prime + 2.5%) Net being paid by B 7.5% (vs. 8.0%) Both are paying less interest than they would have without the swap AND they have the type of interest payments they wanted!
23 Swap Example (Plain Vanilla cont d) Would A have swapped if it had only been promised 7.25% in return for paying Prime + 2.5%? If it had been promised 7.75%? What about B, how would it feel about these new terms? Company A: Pays its lender +6% (fixed rate) Pays floating to Company B +(Prime + 2%.5%) Receives from Company B -7.25%. Net being paid by A Prime % (vs. Prime+1.5%) Company B: Pays its lender +Prime + 2.5% (floating) Pays fixed to Company A +7.25% Receives from Company B - (Prime + 2.5%) Net being paid by B 7.25% (vs. 8.0%) How are these terms determined?
24 Total Return Swap A contractual agreement between two parties to receive or pay cashflows to one another from different financial securities at regular intervals. Each party agrees to exchange the cashflows it receives from one financial asset for those received by the other party from a different financial asset. The size of the payments is based on a notional principal combined with the rate of return on one financial security (e.g. the S&P500) being swapped for the return on another security (e.g. LIBOR).
25 Total Return Swap payments at LIBOR + x% payments at LIBOR + x% counter party financial institution firm payments based on S&P500 payments based on S&P500
26 Swap Payments Payments are structured such that both sides of the deal are happy with the expected values they will pay or receive based on the contract. The value of each part should be at least as good if not better than they could have had without the swap. We can solve for the fixed interest rate loan whose present value is equal to the expected present value of the floating loan. Note: as interest rates change, one party will benefit and the other will lose. The expected values are based on the best available information. May be extracted from the yield curve or the forwards market.
27 Example 1: Plain Vanilla Swaps Have a 3 year $10 million loan at LIBOR plus 1% to be paid every 6 months. Investment bank proposed a swap to pay a fixed 9.75% every six months on a notional principal of $10 million for three years. For the floating rate loan the forecasted interest expenses are: LIBOR Interest Expense Expected Payment Today 8.00% 9.00% $450,000 6 Months 8.50% 9.50% $475, Months 9.00% 10.00% $500, Months 9.25% 10.25% $512, Months 9.40% 10.40% $520, Months 8.50% 9.50% $475,000 For the fixed rate loan the expected costs are: every 6M 9.75% $487,500
28 Example 1 cont d Net Cash flows Discount Rate PV of Cashflows Today -$37, % -$37,500 6 Months -$12, % -$11, Months $12, % $11, Months $25, % $21, Months $32, % $26, Months -$12, % -$9,906 Why net cashflows? Why is the discount rate 9.75%? Is this swap fairly priced? Would you enter into it? Total $777.36
29 Example 2: Pricing a Swap Assume: Notional principal = $100 Maturity = 1 year Floating rate = LIBOR Payments = semi-annual What would be the corresponding fixed rate with the same semiannual payment arrangement for this swap?
30 Example 2 cont d How to estimate the floating payments? Yield Curve Yield to maturity 10% 8% 6 mo 12 mo Time to Maturity For LIBOR with: 8% annualized rate for 6 month LIBOR 10% annualized rate for 12 month LIBOR
31 Example 2 cont d First payment is based on 6 month LIBOR: 100[(0.08/2)] = $4.00 Second payment? To be indifferent between rolling over after 6 months and investing for 1 year from the outset: (1 + R 0 to 12 ) = (1 + ½ R 0 to 6 ) ( 1 + ½ R 6 to 12 ) ( ) = (1 + ½(0.08)) ( 1 + ½ R 6 to 12 ) (1 + ½ R 6 to 12 ) = ( )/( ) R 6 to 12 = 11.5% Second payment is 100 [(0.115/2)] = $5.75
32 Example 2 cont d What fixed rate is equivalent to this? The discounted value of the floating rate loan payments: [100(0.08/2)] / ( /2) + [100(0.115/2)] / ( ) = $4/(1.04) + $5.75/(1.10) = $9.07 If the swap is properly priced, the discounted value of this should be equal to the discounted value of the fixed rate loan : $9.07 = 100(x/2)/(1 + x/2) + 100(x/2)/(1 +x) x = 9.71% Note: this is the semi-annual rate whereas 10% was for an annual payment.
33 Example 3: Evaluating a Swap Want to borrow Pounds. The alternatives are: 1) take out a Pound Term loan, or 2) issue a EuroECU bond and swap the Euros to Pounds. 1) The Pound Term Loan: the principal was 100M with repayment at the end of 5 years. the payments were 3.75M every 6 months for 5 years. What is the actual, all-in interest rate for this loan? 100M = 3.75M/(1+r) M/(1+r) M/(1+r) 10 Using an internal rate of return (IRR) calculation, the semi-annual rate of return for this loan is 3.75%. the corresponding annualized rate is: (1.0375) 2 = or 7.64%.
34 Example 3 cont d 2) For the five year EuroECU Bond: the principal is 160M to be repaid at the end of five years the payments are 12.5M every year for 5 years What is the actual interest rate being paid on this loan? 160M = 12.5/(1+r) /(1+r) /(1+r) 5 The IRR or the cost of the 160 M bond is 7.81 % (already an annualized rate of return since the payments are made annually). Given these costs, it appears that this company would simply want to take the Pound term loan the interest rate (IRR) is lower. Is there anything else to consider?
35 Example 3 cont d To compare apples to apples, we need to compare loans in the same currency. The proposed swap has: A British firm willing to make the 12.5M annual payments and pay 160M in 5 years in exchange for 3.65M every six months and 100M in 5 years. The cost of the swapped pound loan would be: 100M = 3.65M/(1+r) M/(1+r) M/(1+r) 10 The IRR for this is 3.65% semi-annually or 7.43% annually. This is better than the term loan!
36 Example 3 cont d Without Swap, your choices for fixed rate financing are: Pound Term Loan IRR Principal 100M, semi-annual 3.75M, repayment 5 yrs 7.64% Euro Bond Principal 160M, annual 12.5M, repayment 5 yrs 7.81%(in ) With Swap, your interest rate becomes Make annual 12.5M, and 160M in 5 yrs your firm Make semi-annual 3.65M, and 100M in 5 yrs IRR 7.43% (in ) British Company (counterparty) Note: your firm now has a bond in Euros on its Balance Sheet. Why would the counter-party be willing to do this?
37 Swap Pro s and Con s Advantages: Simplicity Cost-effective Flexibility to change our economic exposure Accounting treatment Off-balance sheet Disadvantages Credit risk (counter-party risk) Timing risk Balance sheet effects economic versus accounting exposure
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