Glaucoma. OET: Reading Part A. Reading Sub-test. Complete the following summary using the information in the four texts provided.

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1 Glaucoma Reading Sub-test TIME LIMIT: 15 MINUTES Complete the following summary using the information in the four texts provided. You do not need to read each text from beginning to end to complete the task. You should scan the texts to find the information you need. Gaps may require 1, 2 or 3 words. You should write your answers next to the appropriate number in the right-hand column. Please use correct spelling in your responses. 1

2 Text 1 Description Title: Glaucoma (Robertson, 2009) Glaucoma is the name given to a group of eye diseases in which the optic nerve at the back of the eye is slowly destroyed. In most people this damage is due to an increased pressure inside the eye - a result of blockage of the circulation of aqueous, or its drainage. In other patients the damage may be caused by poor blood supply to the vital optic nerve fibers, a weakness in the structure of the nerve, and/or a problem in the health of the nerve fibres themselves. Over 146,000 Australians have been diagnosed with glaucoma. While it is more common as people age, it can occur at any age. Glaucoma is also far less common in the indigenous population. Symptoms Chronic (primary open-angle) glaucoma is the commonest type. It has no symptoms until eye sight is lost at a later stage. Prognosis Damage progresses very slowly and destroys vision gradually, starting with the side vision. One eye covers for the other, and the person remains unaware of any problem until a majority of nerve fibres have been damaged, and a large part of vision has been destroyed. This damage is irreversible. Treatment Although there is no cure for glaucoma it can usually be controlled and further loss of sight either prevented or at least slowed down. Treatments include: Eyedrops - these are the most common form of treatment and must be used regularly. Laser (laser trabeculoplasty) - this is performed when eye drops do not stop deterioration in the field of vision. Surgery (trabeculectomy) - this is performed usually after eye drops and laser have failed to control the eye pressure. A new channel for the fluid to leave the eye is created. Treatment can save remaining vision but it does not improve eye sight. 2

3 Text 2 Table 1: Study of eye pressure and corneal thickness as predictors of Glaucoma. McCorrmack & McCorrmack Intraocular pressure (IOP) Central corneal thickness (CCT) and Glaucoma correlations. Intraocular Central corneal Intraocular pressure + Predictor of development pressure thickness Central corneal of glaucoma (r²) thickness thickness of 555 microns or.36* less thickness of more than * microns pressure of less than 21 mmhg.38* pressure of more than 22 mmhg -.07* Thickness less than 555 and pressure less.49* than 21 mmhg *power >.05 3

4 Text 3 Other forms of Glaucoma. Low-tension or normal tension glaucoma. Occasionally optic nerve damage can occur in people with so-called normal eye pressure. Acute (angle-closure) glaucoma. Acute glaucoma is when the pressure inside the eye rapidly increases due to the iris blocking the drain. An attack of acute glaucoma is often severe. People suffer pain, nausea, blurred vision and redness of the eye. Congenital glaucoma. This is a rare form of glaucoma caused by an abnormal drainage system. It can exist at birth or develop later. Secondary glaucomas. These glaucomas can develop as a result of other disorders of the eye such as injuries, cataracts, eye inflammation. The use of steroids (cortisone) has a tendency to raise eye pressure and therefore pressures should be checked frequently when steroids are used. 4

5 Text 4 Overview of Glaucoma Facts Glaucoma Facts Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness world wide. One in 10 Australians over 80 will develop glaucoma. First degree relatives of glaucoma patients have an 8-fold increased risk of developing the disease. At present, 50% of people with glaucoma in Australia are undiagnosed. Australian health care cost of glaucoma in 2005 was $342 million. The total annual cost of glaucoma in 2005 was $1.9 billion. The total cost is expected to increase to $4.3 billion by The dynamic model of the economic impact of glaucoma enables cost-effectiveness comparison of various interventions to inform policy development. 5

6 Summary Task Summary According to the article by Robertson, the primary cause of glaucoma is 1)... inside Answer 1 2 the eye, followed by 2).... to the vital optic nerve fibers. More than 3) Australians are currently living with Glaucoma, however the 4) population is less likely to suffer. Primary open-angle glaucoma has no real 5) until the onset of blindness. Deterioration of eyesight starts with 6) and the sufferer may not be conscious of glaucoma progression until a 7) of optic nerves have been destroyed. The most common form of treatment is/are 8). although when this treatment and the use of lasers fails to stop deterioration 9)., also know as 10)..can be preformed

7 11 A Study looking at non-genetic predictors of glaucoma found 11).. and 12). were significantly correlated with glaucoma. Noticeably, the results show pressures more than 13).. and thicknesses greater than 14) were negatively correlated with the onset of glaucoma. Combined, the two factors had a predictive value of 15) Turning to types other than non-chronic glaucoma, 16). can occur with normal eye pressure. Regarded as a birth defect 17).... may be present at birth or develop later. In older age, when the drain is blocked by the iris, the eye s internal 18).... rapidly increases and this is referred to as 19)... Similarly the use of steroids, such as 20)..., can affect the internal balance of the eye

8 21 Glaucoma is a major cause of 21).. globally, with immediate family members of glaucoma sufferers having an 22).. risk of future diagnosis. Yet in the Australian community 23). of potential sufferers are undiagnosed. The associated health care cost was 24).. in 2005 and the total social and economic costs were calculated to be 25) in the same year. Total score (Markers use only) 8

9 Concussions Summary Task Key Total 25 questions 1) increased pressure 2) damage 3) 146,000 4) indigenous 5) symptoms 6) the side vision 7) majority 8) Eyedrops 9) Surgery 10) trabeculectomy 11) Intraocular pressure / Central corneal thickness (either correct) 12) Intraocular pressure / Central corneal thickness (either correct) 13) 22 mmhg 14) 588 microns 15).49 16) Low-tension glaucoma / Normal tension glaucoma 17) glaucoma / Congenital glaucoma 18) pressure 19) Acute glaucoma 20) cortisone 21) blindness 22) 8 fold / 8 times / eight fold 23) 50% / half 24) $342 million 25) $1.9 billion 9

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